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Temperament and character dimensions assessed in general population, in individuals with psychoactive substance dependence and in young male conscripts

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 April 2020

S. Vitoratou*
Department of Biostatistics, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London De Crespigny Park, Denmark Hill, SE5 8AF London, United Kingdom
I. Ntzoufras
Department of Statistics, Athens University of Economics and Business, Patision 76, 10434Athens, Greece
C. Theleritis
University Mental Health Research Institute, Soranou Efesiou 2, Papagou 15601Athens, Greece Department of Psychiatry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Medical School, Eginition Hospital, 11528Athens, Greece
N. Smyrnis
University Mental Health Research Institute, Soranou Efesiou 2, Papagou 15601Athens, Greece Department of Psychiatry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Medical School, Eginition Hospital, 11528Athens, Greece
N.C. Stefanis
University Mental Health Research Institute, Soranou Efesiou 2, Papagou 15601Athens, Greece Department of Psychiatry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Medical School, Eginition Hospital, 11528Athens, Greece
*Corresponding author. Tel.: +44 207 848 0309; fax: +44 207 848 0281. E-mail (S. Vitoratou).
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In this work we consider Cloninger's psychobiological model, which measures two dimensions of personality: character and temperament. Temperament refers to the biological basis of personality and its characteristics, while character refers to an individual's attitudes towards own self, towards humanity and as part of the universe.


The Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised-140 (TCI-R-140) was administered to 3 divergent samples: a general population sample, a sample of male conscripts and a sample of individuals attending a substance abuse rehabilitation programme. Score differences among the three samples were assessed controlling for age and gender and reliability coefficients are reported. The latent structure was studied in all samples, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis methods (EFA and CFA respectively).


The proposed structure was partially replicated via EFA. CFA however indicated less than satisfactory fit, as in previously reported results. To improve the fit, the path diagram was augmented to account for multiple factor complexity, as suggested by the EFA results in all samples. While retaining the original seven-factor structure, the augmented model provided adequate fit. The consistency of the inventory was satisfactory in all samples. Evidence for the construct validity was found in relation to aggression.


This is the first study to conclude in adequate fit, after allowing for the indicators to load on more than one factor within each dimension. While cross-national differences apply, our results were similar (when comparable) with previously reported ones in the literature.

Original article
Copyright © Elsevier Masson SAS 2015

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