Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-544b6db54f-mdtzd Total loading time: 0.31 Render date: 2021-10-24T22:33:29.682Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Psychobiology of threat appraisal in the context of psychotic experiences: A selective review

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 April 2020

R. Underwood
King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, UK
E. Peters
King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre for Mental Health at South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, UK
V. Kumari*
King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre for Mental Health at South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, UK
*Corresponding author. Department of Psychology, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Henry Wellcome Building, De Crespigny Park, PO78, London SE5 8AF, UK. E-mail address: (V. Kumari).
Get access


A key factor in the transition to psychosis is the appraisal of anomalous experiences as threatening. Cognitive models of psychosis have identified attentional and interpretative biases underlying threat-based appraisals. While much research has been conducted into these biases within the clinical and cognitive literature, little examination has occurred at the neural level. However, neurobiological research in social cognition employing threatening stimuli mirror cognitive accounts of maladaptive appraisal in psychosis. This review attempted to integrate neuroimaging data regarding social cognition in psychosis with the concepts of attentional and interpretative threat biases. Systematic review methodology was used to identify relevant articles from Medline, PsycINFO and EMBASE, and PubMed databases. The selective review showed that attentional and interpretative threat biases relate to abnormal activation of a range of subcortical and prefrontal structures, including the amygdala, insula, hippocampus, anterior cingulate, and prefrontal cortex, as well as disrupted connectivity between these regions, when processing threatening and neutral or ambiguous stimuli. Notably, neural findings regarding the misattribution of threat to neutral or ambiguous stimuli presented a more consistent picture. Overall, however, the findings for any specific emotion were mixed, both in terms of the specific brain areas involved and the direction of effects (increased/decreased activity), possibly owing to confounds including small sample sizes, varying experimental paradigms, medication, and heterogeneous, in some cases poorly characterised, patient groups. Further neuroimaging research examining these biases by employing experimentally induced anomalous perceptual experiences and well-characterised large samples is needed for greater aetiological specificity.

European Psychiatric Association 2015

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Anticevic, A, Van Snellenberg, JX, Cohen, RE, Repovs, G, Dowd, EC, Barch, DM. Amygdala recruitment in schizophrenia in response to aversive emotional material: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. Schizophr Bull 2012;38:608621.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bar-Haim, Y, Lamy, D, Pergamin, L, Bakermans-Kranenburg, MJ, van IJzendoorn, MH. Threat-related attentional bias in anxious and nonanxious individuals: a meta-analytic study. Psychol Bull 2007;133:1.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bentall, RP, Corcoran, R, Howard, R, Blackwood, N, Kinderman, P. Persecutory delusions: a review and theoretical integration. Clin Psychol Rev 2001;21:11431192.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bentall, RP, Fernyhough, C, Morrison, AP, Lewis, S, Corcoran, R. Prospects for a cognitive-developmental account of psychotic experiences. Br J Clin Psychol 2007;46:155173.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bergé, D, Carmona, S, Salgado, P, Rovira, M, Bulbena, A, Vilarroya, O. Limbic activity in antipsychotic naïve first-episode psychotic subjects during facial emotion discrimination. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2014;264:271283.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bishop, SJ. Neural mechanisms underlying selective attention to threat. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2008;1129:141152.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blasi, G, Popolizio, T, Taurisano, P, Caforio, G, Romano, R, Di Giorgio, A, et al.Changes in prefrontal and amygdala activity during olanzapine treatment in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res: Neuroimag 2009;173:3138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brett, CM, Peters, EP, Johns, LC, Tabraham, P, Valmaggia, LR, McGuire, P. Appraisals of Anomalous Experiences Interview (AANEX): a multidimensional measure of psychological responses to anomalies associated with psychosis. Br J Psychiatry 2007;51:s23s30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Britton, JC, Lissek, S, Grillon, C, Norcross, MA, Pine, DS. Development of anxiety: the role of threat appraisal and fear learning. Depress Anxiety 2011;28:517.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Button, KS, Ioannidis, JP, Mokrysz, C, Nosek, BA, Flint, J, Robinson, ES, et al.Power failure: why small sample size undermines the reliability of neuroscience. Nat Rev Neurosci 2013;14:365376.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chua, P, Krams, M, Toni, I, Passingham, R, Dolan, R. A functional anatomy of anticipatory anxiety. Neuroimage 1999;9:563571.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cohen, AS, Minor, KS. Emotional experience in patients with schizophrenia revisited: meta-analysis of laboratory studies. Schizophr Bull 2010;36:143150.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Critchley, H, Daly, E, Phillips, M, Brammer, M, Bullmore, E, Williams, S, et al.Explicit and implicit neural mechanisms for processing of social information from facial expressions: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Hum Brain Mapp 2000;9:93105.3.0.CO;2-Z>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Das, P, Kemp, AH, Flynn, G, Harris, AW, Liddell, BJ, Whitford, TJ, et al.Functional disconnections in the direct and indirect amygdala pathways for fear processing in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2007;90:284294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davis, M, Walker, DL, Miles, L, Grillon, C. Phasic vs sustained fear in rats and humans: role of the extended amygdala in fear vs anxiety. Neuropsychopharmacology 2009;35:105135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davis, M, Walker, DL, Miles, L, Grillon, C. Phasic vs sustained fear in rats and humans: role of the extended amygdala in fear vs anxiety. Neuropsychopharmacology 2010;35:105135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davis, FC, Johnstone, T, Mazzulla, EC, Oler, JA, Whalen, PJ. Regional response differences across the human amygdaloid complex during social conditioning. Cereb Cortex 2010;20:612621.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Delvecchio, G, Sugranyes, G, Frangou, S. Evidence of diagnostic specificity in the neural correlates of facial affect processing in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of functional imaging studies. Psychol Med 2013;43:553569.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dolan, MC, Fullam, RS. Psychopathy and functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygenation level-dependent responses to emotional faces in violent patients with schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 2009;66:570577.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ellsworth, PC, Scherer, KR Appraisal processes in emotion. In: Handbook of affective sciences 2003;572595.Google Scholar
Escartí, MJ, de la Iglesia-Vayá, M, Martí-Bonmatí, L, Robles, M, Carbonell, J, Lull, JJ, et al.Increased amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus activation in schizophrenic patients with auditory hallucinations: an fMRI study using independent component analysis. Schizophr Res 2010;117:3141.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fakra, E, Salgado-Pineda, P, Delaveau, P, Hariri, AR, Blin, O. Neural bases of different cognitive strategies for facial affect processing in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2008;100:191205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fowler, D, Garety, P, Kuipers, LCognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis: theory and practice. Chichester: Wiley; 1995.Google Scholar
Freeman, D, Pugh, K, Vorontsova, N, Antley, A, Slater, M. Testing the continuum of delusional beliefs: an experimental study using virtual reality. J Abnorm Psychol 2010;119:83.Google ScholarPubMed
Garety, PA, Kuipers, E, Fowler, D, Freeman, D, Bebbington, PE. A cognitive model of the positive symptoms of psychosis. Psychol Med 2001;31:189195.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Garety, PA, Bebbington, P, Fowler, D, Freeman, D, Kuipers, E. Implications for neurobiological research of cognitive models of psychosis: a theoretical paper. Psychol Med 2007;37:1377.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glynn, SM, Cohen, AN, Dixon, LB, Niv, N. The potential impact of the recovery movement on family interventions for schizophrenia: opportunities and obstacles. Schizophr Bull 2006;32:451463.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gotlib, IH, Kasch, KL, Traill, S, Joormann, J, Arnow, BA, Johnson, SL. Coherence and specificity of information-processing biases in depression and social phobia. J Abnorm Psychol 2004;113:386398.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Green, MJ, Phillips, ML. Social threat perception and the evolution of paranoia. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2004;28:333342.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Green, M, Williams, L, Davidson, D. Visual scanpaths and facial affect recognition in delusion-prone individuals: increased sensitivity to threat?. Cognit Neuropsychiatry 2003;8:1941.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gur, RE, McGrath, C, Chan, RM, Schroeder, L, Turner, T, Turetsky, BI, et al.An fMRI study of facial emotion processing in patients with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2002;159:19921999.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gur, RE, Loughead, J, Kohler, CG, Elliott, MA, Lesko, K, Ruparel, K, et al.Limbic activation associated with misidentification of fearful faces and flat affect in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007;64:13561366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Habel, U, Windischberger, C, Derntl, B, Robinson, S, Kryspin-Exner, I, Gur, RC, et al.Amygdala activation and facial expressions: explicit emotion discrimination versus implicit emotion processing. Neuropsychologia 2007;45:23692377.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Habel, U, Chechko, N, Pauly, K, Koch, K, Backes, V, Seiferth, N, et al.Neural correlates of emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2010;122:113123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, J, Whalley, HC, McKirdy, JW, Romaniuk, L, McGonigle, D, McIntosh, AM, et al.Overactivation of fear systems to neutral faces in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 2008;64:7073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hempel, A, Hempel, E, Schönknecht, P, Stippich, C, Schröder, J. Impairment in basal limbic function in schizophrenia during affect recognition. Psychiatry Res: Neuroimag 2003;122:115124.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Holt, DJ, Weiss, AP, Rauch, SL, Wright, CI, Zalesak, M, Goff, DC, et al.Sustained activation of the hippocampus in response to fearful faces in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 2005;57:10111019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holt, DJ, Kunkel, L, Weiss, AP, Goff, DC, Wright, CI, Shin, LM, et al.Increased medial temporal lobe activation during the passive viewing of emotional and neutral facial expressions in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2006;82:153162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnston, PJ, Stojanov, W, Devir, H, Schall, U. Functional MRI of facial emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia and their electrophysiological correlates. Eur J Neurosci 2005;22:12211232.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kosaka, H, Omori, M, Murata, T, Iidaka, T, Yamada, H, Okada, T, et al.Differential amygdala response during facial recognition in patients with schizophrenia: an fMRI study. Schizophr Res 2002;57:8795.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kumari, V, Das, M, Taylor, PJ, Barkataki, I, Andrew, C, Sumich, A, et al.Neural and behavioural responses to threat in men with a history of serious violence and schizophrenia or antisocial personality disorder. Schizophr Res 2009;110:47.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kumari, V, Fannon, D, Peters, ER, Ffytche, DH, Sumich, AL, Premkumar, P, et al.Neural changes following cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis: a longitudinal study. Brain 2011;134:23962407.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lang, PJ, Bradley, MM, Cuthbert, BNInternational affective picture system (IAPS): instruction manual and affective ratings. (Technical Report A-4) Gainesville, FL: The Center for Research in Psychophysiology, University of Florida; 1999.Google Scholar
Li, HJ, Chan, RC, McAlonan, GM, Gong, QY. Facial emotion processing in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging data. Schizophr Bull 2010;36:10291039.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Li, HJ, Chan, RC, Gong, QY, Liu, Y, Liu, SM, Shum, D, et al.Facial emotion processing in patients with schizophrenia and their non-psychotic siblings: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Schizophr Res 2012;134:143150.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Linney, YM, Peters, ER. The psychological processes underlying symptoms of thought interference in psychosis. Behav Res Ther 2007;45:27262741.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Linscott, R, Van Os, JAn updated and conservative systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological evidence on psychotic experiences in children and adults: on the pathway from proneness to persistence to dimensional expression across mental disorders. Psychol Med 2012;13.Google ScholarPubMed
Lovatt, A, Mason, O, Brett, C, Peters, E. Psychotic-like experiences, appraisals, and trauma. J Nerv Ment Disord 2010;198:813819.Google ScholarPubMed
Ma, YNeuropsychological mechanism underlying antidepressant effect: a systematic meta-analysis. Mol Psychiatry 2014.Google ScholarPubMed
Michalopoulou, PG, Surguladze, S, Morley, LA, Giampietro, VP, Murray, RM, Shergill, SS. Facial fear processing and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia: functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Br J Psychiatry 2008;192:191196.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mier, D, Lis, S, Zygrodnik, K, Sauer, C, Ulferts, J, Gallhofer, B, et al.Evidence for altered amygdala activation in schizophrenia in an adaptive emotion recognition task. Psychiatry Res: Neuroimag 2014;221:195203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moher, D, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J, Altman, DG, The, PG. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA Statement. PLoS Med 2009;6:e1000097.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moors, A, Ellsworth, PC, Scherer, KR, Frijda, NH. Appraisal theories of emotion: state of the art and future development. Emot Rev 2013;5:119124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moritz, S, Laudan, A. Attention bias for paranoia-relevant visual stimuli in schizophrenia. Cognit Neuropsychiatry 2007;12:381390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morrison, AP. The interpretation of intrusions in psychosis: an integrative cognitive approach to hallucinations and delusions. Behav Cogn Psychother 2001;29:257276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mothersill, O, Morris, DW, Kelly, S, Rose, EJ, Bokde, A, Reilly, R, et al. Altered medial prefrontal activity during dynamic face processing in schizophrenia spectrum patients. Schizophr Res 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mukherjee, P, Whalley, HC, McKirdy, JW, McIntosh, AM, Johnstone, EC, Lawrie, SM, et al.Lower effective connectivity between amygdala and parietal regions in response to fearful faces in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2012;134:118124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Phillips, ML, Williams, L, Senior, C, Bullmore, ET, Brammer, MJ, Andrew, C, et al.A differential neural response to threatening and non-threatening negative facial expressions in paranoid and non-paranoid schizophrenics. Psychiatry Res: Neuroimag 1999;92:1131.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Phillips, ML, Drevets, WC, Rauch, SL, Lane, R. Neurobiology of emotion perception II: implications for major psychiatric disorders. Biol Psychiatry 2003;54:515528.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pinkham, AE, Brensinger, C, Kohler, C, Gur, RE, Gur, RC. Actively paranoid patients with schizophrenia over attribute anger to neutral faces. Schizophr Res 2011;125:174178.Google ScholarPubMed
Pinkham, AE, Loughead, J, Ruparel, K, Overton, E, Gur, RE, Gur, RC. Abnormal modulation of amygdala activity in schizophrenia in response to direct-and averted-gaze threat-related facial expressions. Am J Psychiatry 2011;168:293301.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pinkham, AE, Sasson, NJ, Kelsven, S, Simpson, CE, Healey, K, Kohler, C. An intact threat superiority effect for nonsocial but not social stimuli in schizophrenia. J Abnorm Psychol 2014;123:168.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rădulescu, AR, Mujica-Parodi, L. A systems approach to prefrontal-limbic dysregulation in schizophrenia. Neuropsychobiology 2008;57:206216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rasetti, R, Mattay, VS, Wiedholz, LM, Kolachana, BS, Hariri, AR, Callicott, JH, et al.Evidence that altered amygdala activity in schizophrenia is related to clinical state and not genetic risk. Am J Psychiatry 2009;166:216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roseman, IJ, Smith, CAAppraisal theory: overview, assumptions, varieties, controversies. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, USA; 2001.Google Scholar
Russell, TA, Reynaud, E, Kucharska-Pietura, K, Ecker, C, Benson, PJ, Zelaya, F, et al.Neural responses to dynamic expressions of fear in schizophrenia. Neuropsychologia 2007;45:107123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanjuan, J, Lull, JJ, Aguilar, EJ, Martí-Bonmatí, L, Moratal, D, Gonzalez, JC, et al.Emotional words induce enhanced brain activity in schizophrenic patients with auditory hallucinations. Psychiatry Res: Neuroimag 2007;154:2129.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Satterthwaite, TD, Wolf, DH, Loughead, J, Ruparel, K, Valdez, JN, Siegel, SJ, et al.Association of enhanced limbic response to threat with decreased cortical facial recognition memory response in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2010;167:418426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Savulich, G, Shergill, S, Yiend, JBiased cognition in psychosis. J Exp Psychopathol 2012;3:514536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seiferth, NY, Pauly, K, Habel, U, Kellermann, T, Jon Shah, N, Ruhrmann, S, et al.Increased neural response related to neutral faces in individuals at risk for psychosis. Neuroimage 2008;40:289297.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Surguladze, S, Russell, T, Kucharska-Pietura, K, Travis, MJ, Giampietro, V, David, AS, et al.A reversal of the normal pattern of parahippocampal response to neutral and fearful faces is associated with reality distortion in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 2006;60:423431.Google Scholar
Surguladze, SA, Chu, EM, Marshall, N, Evans, A, Anilkumar, AP, Timehin, C, et al.Emotion processing in schizophrenia: fMRI study of patients treated with risperidone long-acting injections or conventional depot medication. J Psychopharmacol (Oxf) 2011;25:722733.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Suslow, T, Lindner, C, Dannlowski, U, Walhöfer, K, Rödiger, M, Maisch, B, et al.Automatic amygdala response to facial expression in schizophrenia: initial hyperresponsivity followed by hyporesponsivity. BMC Neurosci 2013;14:140.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taylor, SF, Chen, AC, Tso, IF, Liberzon, I, Welsh, RCSocial appraisal in chronic psychosis: role of medial frontal and occipital networks. J Psychiatr Res 2011;45:526538.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taylor, HE, Parker, S, Mansell, W, Morrison, APEffects of appraisals of anomalous experience on distress in people at risk of psychosis. Behav Cogn Psychother 2013;41:2433.Google ScholarPubMed
Tone, EB, Davis, JSParanoid thinking, suspicion, and risk for aggression: a neurodevelopmental perspective. Dev Psychopathol 2012;24:10311046.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Villalta-Gil, V, Meléndez-Pérez, I, Russell, T, Surguladze, S, Radua, J, Fusté, M, et al.Functional similarity of facial emotion processing between people with a first episode of psychosis and healthy subjects. Schizophr Res 2013;149:3541.Google ScholarPubMed
Ward, TA, Gaynor, KJ, Hunter, MD, Woodruff, PW, Garety, PA, Peters, ERAppraisals and responses to experimental symptom analogues in clinical and nonclinical individuals with psychotic experiences. Schizophr Bull 2014;40:845855.Google ScholarPubMed
Ward, T, Gaynor, K, Hunter, M, Woodruff, P, Garety, P, Peters, EAppraisals and responses to experimental symptom analogues in clinical and nonclinical individuals with psychotic experiences. Schizophr Bull 2014;40:845855.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Williams, LM, Das, P, Harris, AW, Liddell, BB, Brammer, MJ, Olivieri, G, et al.Dysregulation of arousal and amygdala–prefrontal systems in paranoid schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2004;161:480489.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Williams, LLM, Das, P, Liddell, BJ, Olivieri, G, Peduto, AS, David, AS, et al.Fronto-limbic and autonomic disjunctions to negative emotion distinguish schizophrenia subtypes. Psychiatry Res: Neuroimag 2007;155:2944.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wright, CI, Fischer, H, Whalen, PJ, McInerney, SC, Shin, LM, Rauch, SLDifferential prefrontal cortex and amygdala habituation to repeatedly presented emotional stimuli. Neuroreport 2001;12:379383.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zavos, HS, Freeman, D, Haworth, CA, McGuire, P, Plomin, R, Cardno, AG, et al.Consistent etiology of severe, frequent psychotic experiences and milder, less frequent manifestations: a twin study of specific psychotic experiences in adolescence. JAMA Psychiatry 2014;71:10491057.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Submit a response


No Comments have been published for this article.
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Psychobiology of threat appraisal in the context of psychotic experiences: A selective review
Available formats

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Psychobiology of threat appraisal in the context of psychotic experiences: A selective review
Available formats

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Psychobiology of threat appraisal in the context of psychotic experiences: A selective review
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *