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Grouping for behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia: clinical and biological aspects. Consensus paper of the European Alzheimer disease consortium

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 April 2020

Philippe H. Robert*
Centre Mémoire de Ressources & de Recherche, CHU, Hopital Pasteur, Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, 30, Avenue de la Voie Romaine, 06002Nice cedex 1, France
Frans R.J. Verhey
Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Alzheimer Center, Limburg. University Hospital of Maastricht, The Netherlands
E. Jane Byrne
School of Psychiatry, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
Catherine Hurt
School of Psychiatry, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
Peter Paul De Deyn
Department of Neurology, Zina and Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerpen, Belgium
Flavio Nobili
Clinical Neurophysiology Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy
Roberta Riello
Laboratory of Epidemiology and Neuroimaging, IRCCS, San Giovanni di Dio FBF, Brescia, Italy
Guido Rodriguez
Clinical Neurophysiology Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy
Giovanni B. Frisoni
Laboratory of Epidemiology and Neuroimaging, IRCCS, San Giovanni di Dio FBF, Brescia, Italy
Magda Tsolaki
Department of Neurology, Thessaloniki, Greece
Nora Kyriazopoulou
Department of Neurology, Thessaloniki, Greece
Roger Bullock
Kingshill Research Center, Victoria Hospital, Swindon, UK
Alistair Burns
School of Psychiatry, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
Bruno Vellas
Centre Mémoire de ressources et de recherché de Toulouse, France
*Corresponding author. Tel.: +33 4 92 03 7752; fax: +33 4 92 03 8002. E-mail (P.H. Robert).
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Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), constitute a major clinical component of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). There is a growing interest in BPSD as they are responsible for a large share of the suffering of patients and caregivers, and they strongly determine the patient’s lifestyle and management. Better detection and understanding of these symptoms is essential to provide appropriate management. This article is a consensus produced by the behavioral group of the European Alzheimer’s Disease Consortium (EADC). The aim of this article is to present clinical description and biological correlates of the major behavioral and psychological symptomatology in AD. BPSD is not a unitary concept. Instead, it should be divided into several symptoms or more likely: groups of symptoms, each possibly reflecting a different prevalence, course over time, biological correlate and psychosocial determinants. There is some clinical evidence for clusters within groups of BPSD. Biological studies indicate that patients with AD and BPSD are associated with variations in the pathological features (atrophy, brain perfusion/metabolism, histopathology) when compared to people with AD without BPSD. An individually tailored approach taking all these aspects into account is warranted as it may offer more, and better, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment opportunities.

Scales and Measurement of Psychopathology
Copyright © Elsevier SAS 2005

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