Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-cf9d5c678-gf4tf Total loading time: 0.307 Render date: 2021-07-29T00:47:00.744Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

EPA guidance on the early intervention in clinical high risk states of psychoses

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 April 2020

S.J. Schmidt
Affiliation:
University Hospital of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
F. Schultze-Lutter
Affiliation:
University Hospital of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
B.G. Schimmelmann
Affiliation:
University Hospital of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
N.P. Maric
Affiliation:
School of Medicine, University of Belgrade and Clinic of Psychiatry, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
R.K.R. Salokangas
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
A. Riecher-Rössler
Affiliation:
Center for Gender Research and Early Detection, Psychiatric University Clinics of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
M. van der Gaag
Affiliation:
Department of Clinical Psychology, VU University and EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Psychosis Research, Parnassia Psychiatric Institute, Hague, The Netherlands
A. Meneghelli
Affiliation:
Dipartimento di Salute Mentale, Centro per l’Individuazione e l’Intervento Precoce nelle Psicosi-Programma 2000, Ospedale Niguarda Ca’ Granda, Milan, Italy
M. Nordentoft
Affiliation:
Mental Health Center of Copenhagen, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
M. Marshall
Affiliation:
School of Medicine, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK LANTERN Center, Lancashire Care NHS Foundation Trust, Preston, UK
A. Morrison
Affiliation:
School of Psychological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Psychosis Research Unit, Greater Manchester West NHS Mental Health Trust, Manchester, UK
A. Raballo
Affiliation:
Department of Mental Health, Reggio Emilia Public Health Center, Reggio Emilia, Italy Regional Working Group on Early Detection of Psychosis, Emilia Romagna Regional Health Service, Bologna, Italy
J. Klosterkötter
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
S. Ruhrmann
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
Corresponding
Get access

Abstract

This guidance paper from the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) aims to provide evidence-based recommendations on early intervention in clinical high risk (CHR) states of psychosis, assessed according to the EPA guidance on early detection. The recommendations were derived from a meta-analysis of current empirical evidence on the efficacy of psychological and pharmacological interventions in CHR samples. Eligible studies had to investigate conversion rate and/or functioning as a treatment outcome in CHR patients defined by the ultra-high risk and/or basic symptom criteria. Besides analyses on treatment effects on conversion rate and functional outcome, age and type of intervention were examined as potential moderators. Based on data from 15 studies (n = 1394), early intervention generally produced significantly reduced conversion rates at 6- to 48-month follow-up compared to control conditions. However, early intervention failed to achieve significantly greater functional improvements because both early intervention and control conditions produced similar positive effects. With regard to the type of intervention, both psychological and pharmacological interventions produced significant effects on conversion rates, but not on functional outcome relative to the control conditions. Early intervention in youth samples was generally less effective than in predominantly adult samples. Seven evidence-based recommendations for early intervention in CHR samples could have been formulated, although more studies are needed to investigate the specificity of treatment effects and potential age effects in order to tailor interventions to the individual treatment needs and risk status.

Type
Original article
Copyright
Copyright © Elsevier Masson SAS 2015

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Addington, J, Penn, D, Woods, SW, Addington, D, Perkins, DO. Social functioning in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis. Schizophr Res 2008;99(1–3):119124.10.1016/j.schres.2007.10.001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Addington, J, Epstein, I, Liu, L, French, P, Boydell, KM, Zipursky, RB. A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for individuals at clinical high risk of psychosis. Schizophr Res 2011;125(1):5461.10.1016/j.schres.2010.10.015CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental health disorders (DSM-IV). 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press; 1994.Google Scholar
Amminger, GP, Schäfer, MR, Papageorgiou, K, Klier, CM, Cotton, SM, Harrigan, SM, et al.Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids for indicated prevention of psychotic disorders: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2010;67(2):146154.10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.192CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bechdolf, A, Wagner, M, Veith, V, Ruhrmann, S, Pukrop, R, Brockhaus-Dumke, A, et al.Randomized controlled multicenter trial of cognitive behaviour therapy in the early initial prodromal state: effects on social adjustment post treatment. Early Interv Psychiatry 2007;1:7178.10.1111/j.1751-7893.2007.00013.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bechdolf, A, Müller, H, Stützer, H, Wagner, M, Maier, W, Lautenschlager, M, et al.Rationale and baseline characteristics of PREVENT: a second-generation intervention trial in subjects at-risk (prodromal) of developing first-episode psychosis evaluating cognitive behavior therapy, aripiprazole, and placebo for the prevention of psychosis. Schizophr Bull 2011;37(2):111121.10.1093/schbul/sbr083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bechdolf, A, Wagner, M, Ruhrmann, S, Harrigan, S, Putzfeld, V, Pukrop, R, et al.Preventing progression to first-episode psychosis in early initial prodromal states. Br J Psychiatry 2012;200(1):2229.10.1192/bjp.bp.109.066357CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berger, GE, Wood, SJ, Ross, M, Hamer, CA, Wellard, RM, Pell, G, et al.Neuroprotective effects of low-dose lithium in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis. A longitudinal MRI/MRS study. Curr Pharm Des 2012;18(4):570575.10.2174/138161212799316163CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bertolote, JM, McGorry, P. Early intervention and recovery for young people with early psychosis: consensus statement. Br J Psychiatry 2005;48(Suppl.):116119.10.1192/bjp.187.48.s116CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bodatsch, M, Ruhrmann, S, Wagner, M, Muller, R, Schultze-Lutter, F, Frommann, I, et al.Prediction of psychosis by mismatch negativity. Biol Psychiatry 2011;69:959966.10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.09.057CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bois, C, Whalley, H, McIntosh, A, Lawrie, S. Structural magnetic resonance imaging markers of susceptibility and transition to schizophrenia: a review of familial and clinical high risk population studies. J Psychopharmacol 2015;29(2):144154.10.1177/0269881114541015CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bora, E, Pantelis, C. Theory of mind impairments in first-episode psychosis, individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis and in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophr Res 2013;144(1–3):3136.10.1016/j.schres.2012.12.013CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Borenstein, M, Borenstein, M, Hedges, LV, Higgins, JPT, Rothstein, HR, Introduction to meta-analysis. United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons; 2008. 3341.Google Scholar
Campion, J, Bhui, K, Bhugra, D, European Psychiatric Association European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance on prevention of mental disorders. Eur Psychiatry 2012;27(2):6880.10.1016/j.eurpsy.2011.10.004CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carrion, RE, McLaughlin, D, Goldberg, TE, Auther, AM, Olsen, RH, Olvet, DM, et al.Prediction of functional outcome in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis. JAMA Psychiatry 2013;70(11):11331142.10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.1909CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cornblatt, BA, Lencz, T, Smith, CW, Olsen, R, Auther, AM, Nakayama, E, et al.Can antidepressants be used to treat the schizophrenia prodrome? Results of a prospective, naturalistic treatment study of adolescents. J Clin Psychiatry 2007;68(4):546557.10.4088/JCP.v68n0410CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Datta, SS, Kumar, A, Wright, SD, Furtado, VA, Russell, PS. Evidence-base for using atypical antipsychotics for psychosis in adolescents. Schizophr Bull 2014;40(2):252254.10.1093/schbul/sbt196CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychiatrie, Psychotherapie und Nervenheilkunde (DGPPN) Behandlungsleitlinie Schizophrenie. Darmstadt: Steinkopff Verlag; 2006.Google Scholar
Egerton, A, Stone, JM, Chaddock, CA, Barker, GJ, Bonoldi, I, Howard, RM, et al.Relationship between brain glutamate levels and clinical outcome in individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis. Neuropsychopharmacology 2014;39(12):28912899.10.1038/npp.2014.143CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
European Commission Green paper – Improving the mental health of the population: towards a strategy on mental health for the European Union. Summary of consultation meetings, Brussels: European Commission; 2005.Google Scholar
Fritz, CO, Morris, PE. Effect size estimates: current use, calculations, and interpretation. J Exp Psychol Gen 2012;141(1):218.10.1037/a0024338CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fusar-Poli, P, Deste, G, Smieskova, R, Barlati, S, Yung, AR, Howes, O, et al.Cognitive functioning in prodromal psychosis: a meta-analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012;69(6):562571.10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.1592CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fusar-Poli, P, Borgwardt, S, Bechdolf, A, Addington, J, Riecher-Rössler, A, Schultze-Lutter, F, et al.The psychosis high-risk state: a comprehensive state-of-the-art review. JAMA Psychiatry 2013;70(1):107120.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fusar-Poli, P, Carpenter, WT, Woods, SW, McGlashan, TH. Attenuated psychosis syndrome: ready for DSM-5.1?. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2014;10:155192.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fusar-Poli, P, Nelson, B, Valmaggia, L, Yung, AR, McGuire, PK. Are we really mapping psychosis risk? Neuroanatomical signature of affective disorders in subjects at ultra-high risk. Schizophr Bull 2014;40(1):120131.10.1093/schbul/sbs136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gaebel, W, Möller, HJ. European guidance – a project of the European Psychiatric Association. Eur Psychiatry 2012;27:6567.10.1016/j.eurpsy.2011.08.003CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Giuliano, AJ, Li, H, Mesholam-Gately, RI, Sorenson, SM, Woodberry, KA, Seidman, LJ. Neurocognition in the psychosis risk syndrome: a quantitative and qualitative review. Curr Pharm Des 2012;18(4):399415.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Granö, N, Kallionpää, S, Karjalainen, M, Edlund, V, Saari, E, Itkonen, A, et al. Lower functioning predicts identification of psychosis risk screening status in help-seeking adolescents. Early Interv Psychiatry 2014. 10.1111/eip.12118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Granö, N, Karjalainen, M, Anto, J, Itkonen, A, Edlund, V, Roine, M. Associations between number of different type of care meetings with social network and improvement in mental well-being in adolescents at risk of first-episode psychosis. Early Interv Psychiatry 2011;5(3):212218.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Granö, N, Karjalainen, M, Edlung, V, Saari, E, Itkonen, A, Anto, J, et al.Anxiety symptoms in adolescents at risk for psychosis: a comparison among help seekers. Child Adolesc Ment Health 2014;19(2):97101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Granö, N, Karjalainen, M, Edlund, V, Saari, E, Itkonen, A, Anto, J, et al.Health-related quality of life among adolescents: a comparison between subjects at risk for psychosis and other help seekers. Early Interv Psychiatry 2014;8(2):163169.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Granö, N, Karjalainen, M, Edlund, V, Saari, E, Itkonen, A, Anto, J, et al.Changes in depression, anxiety and hopelessness symptoms during family- and community-oriented intervention for help-seeking adolescents and adolescents at risk of psychosis. Nord J Psychiatry 2014;68(2):9399.10.3109/08039488.2013.768294CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grant, P, Gabriel, F, Kuepper, Y, Wielpuetz, C, Hennig, J. Psychosis-proneness correlates with expression levels of dopaminergic genes. Eur Psychiatry 2014;29(5):304306.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gustavsson, A, Svensson, M, Jacobi, F, Allgulander, C, Alonso, J, Beghi, E, et al.Cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2011;21(10):718779.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Häfner, H, an der Heiden, W. The course of schizophrenia in the light of modern follow-up studies: the ABC and WHO studies. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1999;249(Suppl. 4):1426.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haro, JM, Ayuso-Mateos, JL, Bitter, I, Demotes-Mainard, J, Leboyer, M, Lewis, SW, et al.ROAMER: roadmap for mental health research in Europe. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 2014;23(Suppl. 1):114.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hedge, LV, Olkin, IStatistical methods for meta-analysis. 1st edOrlando: Academic Press; 1985.Google Scholar
Higgins, JPT, Green, S. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. Cochrane Collaboration; 2011.Google Scholar
Higgins, J, Thompson, SG, Deeks, JJ, Altman, DG. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ 2003;327(7414):557560.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hooker, CI, Carol, EE, Eisenstein, TJ, Yin, H, Lincoln, SH, Tully, LM, et al.A pilot study of cognitive training in clinical high risk for psychosis: initial evidence of cognitive benefit. Schizophr Res 2014;157(1–3):314316.10.1016/j.schres.2014.05.034CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huber, G. Reine Defektsyndrome und Basisstadien endogener Psychosen. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1966;34:409426.Google Scholar
Hui, C, Morcillo, C, Russo, DA, Stochl, J, Shelly, GF, Painter, M, et al.Psychiatric morbidity, functioning and quality of life in young people at clinical high risk for psychosis. Schizophr Res 2013;148(1–3):175180.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hutton, P, Taylor, PJ. Cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis prevention: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychol Med 2014;44(3):449468.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jääskeläinen, E, Juola, P, Hirvonen, N, McGrath, JJ, Saha, S, Isohanni, M, et al.A systematic review and meta-analysis of recovery in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 2013;39(6):12961306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jang, JH, Shin, NY, Shim, G, Park, HY, Kim, E, Jang, GE, et al.Longitudinal patterns of social functioning and conversion to psychosis in subjects at ultra-high risk. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2011;45(9):763770.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kay, SR, Fiszbein, A, Opfer, LA. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 1987;13(2):261276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khanna, P, Suo, T, Komossa, K, Ma, H, Rummel-Kluge, C, El-Sayeh, HG, et al. Aripiprazole versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014. 10.1002/14651858.CD006569.pub5.10.1002/14651858.CD006569.pub5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, KR, Lee, SY, Kang, JI, Kim, BR, Choi, SH, Park, JY, et al.Clinical efficacy of individual cognitive therapy in reducing psychiatric symptoms in people at ultra-high risk for psychosis. Early Interv Psychiatry 2011;5(2):174178.10.1111/j.1751-7893.2011.00267.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kirkbride, JB, Fearon, P, Morgan, C, Dazzan, P, Morgan, K, Tarrant, J, et al.Heterogeneity in incidence rates of schizophrenia and other psychotic syndromes: findings from the 3-center AeSOP study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006;63:250258.10.1001/archpsyc.63.3.250CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kline, E, Thompson, E, Bussell, K, Pitts, S, Reeves, G, Schiffman, J. Psychosis-like experiences and distress among adolescents using mental health services. Schizophr Res 2014;152(2–3):498502.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klosterkötter, J, Schultze-Lutter, FPrevention and early treatment. Helmchen, H, Sartorius, N, Ethics in psychiatry – European contributions Heidelberg: Springer Science + Business Media B.V.; 2010. 235262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koutsouleris, N., Riecher-Rössler, A., Meisenzahl, E.M., Smieskova, R., Studerus, E., Kambeitz-Ilankovic, L., et al. Detecting the psychosis prodrome across high-risk populations using neuroanatomical biomarkers. Schizophr Bull [pii: sbu078].Google Scholar
Lakens, D. Calculating and reporting effect sizes to facilitate cumulative science: a practical primer for t-tests and ANOVAs. Front Psychol 2013;4:863.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leucht, S, Corves, C, Arbter, D, Engel, RR, Li, C, Davis, JM. Second-generation versus first-generation antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Lancet 2009;373(9657):3141.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leweke, FM, Piomelli, D, Pahlisch, F, Muhl, D, Gerth, CW, Hoyer, C, et al.Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Transl Psychiatry 2012;2:e94.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lin, A, Wood, SJ, Nelson, B, Brewer, WJ, Spiliotacopoulos, D, Bruxner, A, et al.Neurocognitive predictors of functional outcome two to 13 years after identification as ultra-high risk for psychosis. Schizophr Res 2011;132(1):17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marshall, M, Rathbone, J. Early intervention for psychosis. Schizophr Bull 2011;37(6):11111114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marshall, C, Addington, J, Epstein, I, Liu, L, Deighton, S, Zipursky, R. Treating young individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis. Early Interv Psychiatry 2012;6:6068.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marvin, SE, Miklowitz, DJ, O’Brien, MP, Cannon, TD. Family-focused therapy for individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis: treatment fidelity within a multisite randomized trial. Early Interv Psychiatry 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eip.12144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maurer, K, Hörrmann, F, Trendler, G, Schmidt, M, Haefner, H. Identification of psychosis risk by the Early Recognition Inventory (ERIraos) – Description of the schedules and preliminary results on reliability and validity of the checklist. Nervenheilkunde 2006;25(1):1116.Google Scholar
McGlashan, TH, Johannessen, JO. Early detection and intervention with schizophrenia: rationale. Schizophr Bull 1996;22(2):201222.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGlashan, TH, Zipursky, RB, Perkins, D, Addington, J, Miller, TJ, Woods, SW, et al.The PRIME North America randomized double-blind clinical trial of olanzapine versus placebo in patients at risk of being prodromally symptomatic for psychosis. I. Study rationale and design. Schizophr Res 2003;61:718.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGlashan, TH, Zipursky, RB, Perkins, D, Addington, J, Miller, T, Woods, SW, et al.Randomized, double-blind trial of olanzapine versus placebo in patients prodromally symptomatic for psychosis. Am J Psychiatry 2006;163(5):790799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGlashan, T, Walsh, B, Woods, S. The psychosis-risk syndrome. Handbook for diagnosis and follow-up. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2010.Google Scholar
McGorry, PD. “A stitch in time”. The scope for preventive strategies in early psychosis. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998;248(1):2231.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGorry, P., et al. A comparison study of fish oil capsules and psychological therapy versus placebo capsules and psychological therapy in patients at risk of developing a psychotic disorder. In: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, 2010 [Internet]. https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=83121 [identifier: ACTRN12608000475347].Google Scholar
McGorry, PD, Killackey, EJ. Early intervention in psychosis: a new evidence-based paradigm. Epidemiol Psichiatr Soc 2002;11(4):237247.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGorry, PD, Yung, AR, Phillips, LJ, Yuen, HP, Francey, S, Cosgrave, EM, et al.Randomized controlled trial of interventions designed to reduce the risk of progression to first-episode psychosis in a clinical sample with subthreshold symptoms. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2002;59(10):921928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGorry, PD, Nelson, B, Phillips, LJ, Yuen, HP, Francey, SM, Thampi, A, et al.Randomized controlled trial of interventions for young people at ultra-high risk of psychosis: twelve-month outcome. J Clin Psychiatry 2013;74(4):349356.10.4088/JCP.12m07785CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mental Health Services in the Capital Region Effects of neurocognitive and social-cognitive remediation in patients at ultra-high risk of psychosis (FOCUS). ClinicalTrials.gov [Internet], Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2000. [2014 August 27 2014; NLM identifier: NCT02098408] https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02098408?term=NCT02098408&rank=1.Google Scholar
Meyer, EC, Carrión, RE, Cornblatt, BA, Addington, J, Cadenhead, KS, Cannon, TD, et al.The relationship of neurocognition and negative smyptoms to social and role functioning over time in individuals at clinical high risk in the first phase of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study. Schizophr Bull 2014;40(6):14521461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miklowitz, DJ, O’Brien, MP, Schlosser, DA, Addington, J, Candan, KA, Marshall, C, et al.Family-focused treatment for adolescents and young adults at high risk for psychosis: results of a randomized trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014;53(8):848858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, TJ, McGlashan, TH, Rosen, JL, Cadenhead, K, Cannon, T, Ventura, J, et al.Prodromal assessment with the structured interview for prodromal syndromes and the scale of prodromal symptoms: predictive validity, interrater reliability, and training to reliability. Schizophr Bull 2003;29(4):703715.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moher, D, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J, Altman, DGPRISMA Group Guidance for developers of health research reporting guidelines. PLoS med 2010;7(2):19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morrison, AP, French, P, Walford, L, Lewis, SW, Kilcommons, A, Green, J, et al.Cognitive therapy for the prevention of psychosis in people at ultra-high risk: randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry 2004;185:291297.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morrison, AP, French, P, Parker, S, Roberts, M, Stevens, H, Bentall, RP, et al.Three-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of cognitive therapy for the prevention of psychosis in people at ultrahigh risk. Schizophr Bull 2007;33(3):682687.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morrison, AP, Stewart, SL, French, P, Bentall, RP, Birchwood, M, Byrne, R, et al.Early detection and intervention evaluation for people at high-risk of psychosis-2 (EDIE-2): trial rationale, design and baseline characteristics. Early Interv Psychiatry 2011;5(1):2432.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morrison, AP, French, P, Stewart, SL, Birchwood, M, Fowler, D, Gumley, AI, et al.Early detection and intervention evaluation for people at risk of psychosis: multisite randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2012;5(344):e2233.10.1136/bmj.e2233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morrison, AP, Birchwood, M, Pyle, M, Flach, C, Stewart, SL, Byrne, R, et al.Impact of cognitive therapy on internalised stigma in people with at-risk mental states. Br J Psychiatry 2013;203(2):140145.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mossaheb, N, Schäfer, MR, Schlögelhofer, M, Klier, CM, Cotton, SM, McGorry, P, et al.Effect of omega-3 fatty acids for indicated prevention of young patients at risk for psychosis: when do they begin to be effective. Schizophr Res 2013;148:163167.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research D-serine for the schizophrenia prodrome. ClinicalTrials.gov [Internet], Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2000. [2014 August 27; NLM identifier: NCT01429454] https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00826202?term=d-serine&rank=5.Google Scholar
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Psychosis and schizophrenia in adults: treatment and management. [Online] 2014 [accessed: 25 August 2014] https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/published?type=Guidelines.Google Scholar
Nelson, B. Attenuated psychosis syndrome: don’t jump the gun. Psychopathology 2014;47(5):292296.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nelson, B, McGorry, P, Yung, A, Amminger, P, Francey, S, Berk, M, et al.The NEURAPRO (North America, Europe, Australia prodrome) study: a multicentre RCT of treatment strategies for symptomatic patients at ultra-high risk for progression to schizophrenia and related disorders. Design and study plan. Schizophr Res 2008;102(1–3):155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nieman, DH, Ruhrmann, S, Dragt, S, Soen, F, van Tricht, MJ, Koelman, JH, et al.Psychosis prediction: stratification of risk estimation with information-processing and premorbid functioning variables. Schizophr Bull 2014;40(6):14821490.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System Antidepressant and antipsychotic to treat attenuated positive and negative symptoms. ClinicalTrials.gov [Internet], Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2000. [2014 August 27; NLM identifier: NCT00169988] https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00169988?term=NCT00169988&rank=1.Google Scholar
O’Brien, MP, Zinberg, JL, Bearden, CE, Daley, M, Niendam, TA, Kopelowicz, A, et al.Psycho-educational multi-family group treatment with adolescents at high risk for developing psychosis. Early Interv Psychiatry 2007;1(4):325332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O’Brien, MPO, Miklowitz, DJ, Candan, KA, Marshall, C, Domingues, I, Walsh, BC, et al.A randomized trial of family focused therapy with populations at clinical high risk for psychosis: effects on interactional behavior. J Consult Clin Psychol 2014;82(1):90101.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Okuzawa, N, Kline, E, Fuertes, J, negi, S, Reeves, G, Himelhoch, S, et al.Psychotherapy for adoescents and young adults at high risk for psychosis: a systematic review. Early Interv Psychiatry 2014;8(4):307322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Phillips, LJ, McGorry, P, Yuen, HP, Ward, J, Donovan, K, Kelly, D, et al.Medium-term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of interventions for young people at ultra-high risk of psychosis. Schizophr Res 2007;96:2533.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Preti, A, Cella, M. Randomized-controlled trials in people at ultra-high risk of psychosis: a review of treatment effectiveness. Schizophr Res 2010;123(1):3036.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rietdijk, J, Dragt, S, Klaassen, R, Ising, H, Nieman, D, Wunderink, L, et al.A single blind randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy in a help-seeking population with an at risk mental state for psychosis: the Dutch Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL) trial. Trials 2010;11:30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruhrmann, S, Bechdolf, A, Kühn, KU, Wagner, M, Schultze-Lutter, F, Janssen, B, et al.Acute effects of treatment for prodromal symptoms for people putatively in a late initial prodromal state of psychosis. Br J Psychiatry 2007;191(Suppl. 51):S96S101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruhrmann, S, Paruch, J, Bechdolf, A, Pukrop, R, Wagner, M, Berning, J, et al.Reduced subjective quality of life in persons at risk for psychosis. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2008;117:357368.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ruhrmann, S, Schultze-Lutter, F, Klosterkötter, J. Probably at-risk, but certainly ill – Advocating the introduction of a psychosis spectrum disorder in DSM-V. Schizophr Res 2010;120(1–3):2337.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ruhrmann, S, Klosterkötter, J, Bodatsch, M, Bechdolf, A, Schimmelmann, BG, Nikolaides, A, et al.Pharmacological prevention and treatment in clinical at-risk states for psychosis. Curr Pharm Des 2012;18(4):550557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rüsch, N, Müller, M, Heekeren, K, Theodoridou, A, Metzler, S, Dvorsky, D, et al.Longitudinal course of self-labeling, stigma stress and well-being among young people at risk of psychosis. Schizophr Res 2014;158(1–3):8284.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rüsch, N, Corrigan, PW, Heekeren, K, Theodoridou, A, Dvorsky, D, Metzler, S, et al.Well-being among persons at risk of psychosis: the role of self-labeling, shame, and stigma stress. Psychiatr Serv 2014;65(4):483489.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Salokangas, RKR, Ruhrmann, S, von Reventlow, HG, Heinimaa, M, Svirskis, T, From, T, et al.Axis I diagnoses and transition to psychosis in clinical high-risk patients EPOS project: prospective follow-up of 245 clinical high-risk outpatients in four countries. 2012;138(2–3):192197.Google ScholarPubMed
Salokangas, RKR, Nieman, DH, Heinimaa, M, Svirskis, T, Luutonen, S, From, T, et al.Psychosocial outcome in patients at clinical high risk of psychosis: a prospective follow-up. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2013;48(2):303311.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Salokangas, RKR, Heinimaa, M, From, T, Löyttyniemi, E, Ilonen, T, Luutonen, S, et al.Short-term functional outcome and premorbid adjustment in clinical high-risk patients. Results of the EPOS project. Eur Psychiatry 2014;29(6):371380.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schmidt, SJ, Schimmelmann, BG. Evidence-based psychotherapy in children and adolescents: advances, methodological and conceptual limitations, and perspectives. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2013;22(5):265268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmidt, SJ, Grunert, VM, Schimmelmann, BG, Schultze-Lutter, F, Michel, C. Differences in coping, self-efficacy, and external control beliefs between patients at-risk for psychosis and patients with first-episode psychosis. Psychiatry Res 2014;219(1):95102.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schultze-Lutter, F. Subjective symptoms of schizophrenia in research and the clinic: the basic symptom concept. Schizophr Bull 2009;35(1):58.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shivashankar, S, Telfer, S, Arunagiriraj, J, McKinnon, M, Jauhar, S, Krishnadas, R, et al.Has the prevalence, clinical presentation and social functioning of schizophrenia changed over the last 25 years? Nithsdale schizophrenia survey revisited. Schizophr Res 2013;146(1–3):349356.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smieskova, R, Marmy, J, Schmidt, A, Bendfeldt, K, Riecher-Rössler, A, Walter, M, et al.Do subjects at clinical high risk for psychosis differ from those with a genetic high risk? – A systematic review of structural and functional brain abnormalities. Curr Med Chem 2013;20(3):467481.Google Scholar
Solis, M. Prevention: before the break. Nature 2014;508(7494):1213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stafford, M.R., Jackson, H., Mayo-Wilson, E., Morrison, A.P., Kendall, T. Early interventions to prevent psychosis: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.f185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stowkowy, J., Perkins, D.O., Woods, S.W., Nyman, K., Addington, J.Personal beliefs about experiences in those at clinical high risk for psychosis. Behav Cogn Psychother 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1352465814000307.Google ScholarPubMed
Sullivan, GM, Feinn, R. Using effect size – or why the P-value is not enough. J Grad Med Educ 2012;4(3):279282.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thompson, A, Papas, A, Bartholomeusz, C, Allott, K, Amminger, GP, Nelson, B, et al.Social cognition in clinical “at risk” for psychosis and first episode psychosis populations. Schizophr Res 2012;141(2–3):204209.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tsujino, N, Nemoto, T, Morita, K, Katagiri, N, Ito, S, Mizuno, M. Long-term efficacy and tolerability of perospirone for young help-seeking people at clinical high risk: a preliminary open trial. Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci 2013;11(3):132136.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
University of Calgary Effects of cognitive remediation on cognition in young people at clinical high risk of psychosis. ClinicalTrials.gov [Internet], Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2000. [2014 August 27; NLM identifier: NCT01619319] https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01619319?term=NCT01619319&rank=1.Google Scholar
University of California Effectiveness of neuroadaptive cognitive training in adolescents at risk for psychosis. ClinicalTrials.gov [Internet], Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2000. [2014 August 27; NLM identifier: NCT00655239] https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00655239?term=NCT00655239&rank=1.Google Scholar
van der Gaag, M, Nieman, DH, Rietdijk, J, Dragt, S, Ising, HK, Klaassen, RM, et al.Cognitive-behavioral therapy for subjects at ultrahigh risk for developing psychosis: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Schizophr Bull 2012;38(6):11801188.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van der Gaag, M, Smit, F, Bechdolf, A, French, P, Linszen, DH, Yung, AR, et al.Preventing a first episode of psychosis: meta-analysis of randomized controlled prevention trials of 12 months and longer-term follow-ups. Schizophr Res 2013;149(1–3):5662.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van Tricht, MJ, Ruhrmann, S, Arns, M, Muller, R, Bodatsch, M, Velthorst, E, et al.Can quantitative EEG measures predict clinical outcome in subjects at clinical high risk for psychosis? A prospective multicenter study. Schizophr Res 2014;153:4247.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Whiteford, HA, Degenhardt, L, Rehm, J, Baxter, AJ, Ferrari, AJ, Erskine, HE, et al.Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 2013;382(9904):15751586.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wittchen, HU, Jacobi, F, Rehm, J, Gustavsson, A, Svensson, M, Jönsson, B, et al.The size and burden of mental disorders and other disorders of the brain in Europe 2010. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2011;21(9):655679.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Woods, SW, Breier, A, Zipursky, RB, Perkins, DO, Addington, J, Miller, TJ, et al.Randomized trial of olanzapine versus placebo in the symptomatic acute treatment of the schizophrenic prodrome. Biol Psychiatry 2003;54:453464.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Woods, SW, Walsh, B, Pearlson, GD, McGlashan, TH, Simonsen, E. WC2E glycine treatment of prodromal symptoms. Schizophr Res 2006;86(Suppl.):S7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woods, SW, Tully, EM, Walsh, BC, Hawkins, KA, Callahan, JL, Cohen, SJ, et al.Aripiprazole in the treatment of the psychosis prodrome: an open-label pilot study. Br J Psychiatry 2007;191(Suppl. 51):96101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woods, SW, Walsh, BC, Hawkins, KA, Miller, TJ, Saksa, JR, D'Souza, DC, et al.Glycine treatment of the risk syndrome for psychosis: report of two pilot studies. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2013;23(8):931940.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yale University Randomized controlled trial of aspirin vs placebo in the treatment of pre-psychosis. ClinicalTrials.gov [Internet], Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2000. [2014 August 27; NLM identifier: NCT02047539] https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02047539?term=NCT02047539&rank=1.Google Scholar
Yung, AR, Yuen, HP, McGorry, PD, Phillips, LJ, Kelly, D, Dell’Olio, M, et al.Mapping the onset of psychosis: the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2005;39(11–12):964971.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yung, AR, Phillips, LJ, Simmons, MB, Ward, J, Thompson, P, French, P, et al.CAARMS. Comprehensive Assessment of at Risk Mental States. Parkville Victoria: The PACE Clinic, ORYGEN Research Centre, University of Melbourne, Department of Psychiatry; 2006.Google Scholar
Yung, AR, Phillips, LJ, Nelson, B, Francey, SM, PanYuen, H, Simmons, MB, et al.Randomized controlled trial of interventions for young people at ultra-high risk for psychosis: a 6-month analysis. J Clin Psychiatry 2011;72(4):430440.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Submit a response

Comments

No Comments have been published for this article.
212
Cited by