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Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation as a Treatment for Psychiatric Disorders: A Comprehensive Review

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 March 2012

F.S. Bersani*
Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
A. Minichino
Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
P.G. Enticott
Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, The Alfred and Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
L. Mazzarini
Neurosciences, Mental Health, and Sensory Organs Department, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy Department of Neuropsychiatry, Villa Rosa, Suore Hospitaliere of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, Viterbo, Italy
N. Khan
Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
G. Antonacci
Photonics Group, Department of Physics, Imperial College, London, UK
R.N. Raccah
ATID Ltd Advanced Technology Innovation Distribution, Rome, Italy
M. Salviati
Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
R. Delle Chiaie
Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
G. Bersani
Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
P.B. Fitzgerald
Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, The Alfred and Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
M. Biondi
Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
Corresponding author. Tel.: +39 3405165865; fax: +39 0649914728. E-mail address: (F.S. Bersani).
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Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a technique of neuromodulation and neurostimulation based on the principle of electromagnetic induction of an electric field in the brain. The coil (H-coil) used in deep TMS is able to modulate cortical excitability up to a maximum depth of 6 cm and is therefore able not only to modulate the activity of the cerebral cortex but also the activity of deeper neural circuits. Deep TMS is largely used for the treatment of drug-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD) and is being tested to treat a very wide range of neurological, psychiatric and medical conditions. The aim of this review is to illustrate the biophysical principles of deep TMS, to explain the pathophysiological basis for its utilization in each psychiatric disorder (major depression, autism, bipolar depression, auditory hallucinations, negative symptoms of schizophrenia), to summarize the results presented thus far in the international scientific literature regarding the use of deep TMS in psychiatry, its side effects and its effects on cognitive functions.

Copyright © European Psychiatric Association 2013

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