Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-544b6db54f-jcwnq Total loading time: 0.399 Render date: 2021-10-22T14:45:28.085Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Introduction: special issue on weather and climate impacts in developing countries

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 September 2021

Anna Creti
Affiliation:
Paris Dauphine-PSL University, Paris, France Climate Economics Chair, Paris, France
Philippe Delacote*
Affiliation:
BETA, Université de Lorraine, CNRS, INRAE, AgroParisTech, Nancy, France Climate Economics Chair, Paris, France
Antoine Leblois
Affiliation:
CEEM-M, Univ Montpellier, CNRS, INRAE, Institut Agro, Montpellier, France Climate Economics Chair, Paris, France
*
*Corresponding author. E-mail: philippe.delacote@inrae.fr
Rights & Permissions[Opens in a new window]

Abstract

Shocks related to weather variations have strong effects on developing countries’ economies. Climate change is expected to increase the occurrence and magnitude of extreme weather events such as droughts, floods or hurricanes that strongly affect agriculture and other activities. This special issue gathers literature reviews and case studies that aim to better understand heterogeneous impacts and their transmission channels, as well as to evaluate the impact of such weather shocks on developing economies, including Sub-Saharan African countries, India and Brazil.

Type
Introduction
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

1. Introduction

Shocks related to weather variations have strong effects on developing countries’ economies. Climate change is expected to increase the occurrence and magnitude of extreme weather events such as droughts, floods or hurricanes that strongly affect agriculture and other activities. Yet, impacts on economic performance and livelihoods, as well as adaptation strategies and their environmental feedback, could be looked at deeper and assessed more accurately.

This double special issue follows up the annual conference of the Climate Economics ChairFootnote 1 on ‘Climate, Energy and Development’.Footnote 2 The objective of this issue is (1) to have a better understanding of the economic impacts of weather shocks in developing countries, as well as (2) to investigate the options to cope with climate change. The papers that have been selected encompass case studies from Africa (Ethiopia, Malawi, Uganda, Zambia) as well as Brazil and India.

2. The impact of weather shocks

Impacts related to weather shocks mostly take place in agricultural sectors, which are key to developing countries’ economic development. McCarthy et al. (Reference McCarthy, Kilic, Brubaker, Murray and de la Fuente2021) estimate that floods and droughts severely impact agricultural outputs in Malawi. Yet, weather shocks also impact non-agricultural sectors. Wages in non-agricultural sectors are shown to be impacted by weather events (Oliveira et al., Reference Oliveira, Palialol and Pereda2021); moreover, socio-economic factors closely related to development, such as education, which curb the long-term growth potential of populations, are also affected. Nübler et al. (Reference Nübler, Austrian, Maluccio and Pinchoff2020) assess how the cognitive capacities and educational achievement of girls and boys are negatively impacted by droughts in Kenya. The transmission channels at stake are the factors influencing educational achievements, that is, the health and household wealth of the younger generation, which are negatively affected by droughts. It is important to consider the impact of climate change and weather events not only through production outcomes, but also on welfare. Consumption indicators may help to understand how supply shocks can affect demand. Aggarwal (Reference Aggarwal2020) analyzes how temperature and rainfall variability influence consumption in India. The author shows that the impact differs according to the household's main economic activity: while industrial and agricultural households’ consumption is negatively impacted by a temperature increase, for service sector households consumption tends to increase. The author notices that climate change is likely to foster inequalities. Nutrition can also be an interesting indicator to be used in the context of agricultural sectors in developing countries, as it allows us to bypass the key issue of market access and focus directly on well-being outcomes. Antonelli et al. (Reference Antonelli, Coromaldi, Dasgupta, Emmerling and Shayegh2020) analyze the links between climate, food intake and labor supply in Uganda. Combining econometric estimates and overlapping-generation modeling, they infer the impact of climate change scenarios on food consumption and labor. Shocks and adaptation are also likely to have not only economic, but also environmental feedbacks: strategies undertaken to cope with climate risks may influence several indicators. Focusing on land-use change, Girard et al. (Reference Girard, Delacote and Leblois2021) give some insight on how adaptation in the agricultural sector may interact with deforestation in a literature review focused on Sub-Saharan Africa.

3. Climate change adaptation practices

Extreme weather shocks make adaptation practices and strategies all the more important. With regard to practices, private and public strategies have to be distinguished. First, public policies are likely to influence the coping capacity of agricultural households. Ajefu et al. (Reference Ajefu, Efobi and Beecroft2020) show how input subsidies may help households deal with the negative impact of rainfall shocks and smooth their consumption and food intake. When it comes to private adaptation, Girard et al. (Reference Girard, Delacote and Leblois2021) provide a comprehensive description of the risk-management and risk-coping strategies that may be put in place by agricultural households, and how the economic context may influence the choice of those strategies. McCarthy et al. (Reference McCarthy, Kilic, Brubaker, Murray and de la Fuente2021) estimate that in Malawi, green belts provide protection against floods. In contrast, there is little evidence showing that the adoption of current sustainable land management practices occurs due to the risk of weather shocks. Similarly, Alfani et al. (Reference Alfani, Arslan, McCarthy, Cavatassi and Sitko2021) show the limited impact of adaptation strategies to cope with the El-Nino related drought in Zambia and its impact on maize yields. Nshakira-Rukundo et al. (Reference Nshakira-Rukundo, Kamau and Baumüller2021) review the factors affecting the low uptake of insurance against these shocks by households. They identify several barriers to access. Some of them are purely related to the insurance market (affordability, product characteristics), while others are more behavioral (lack of reliable information, cultural factors). Thinking of adaptation in a broader perspective allows us to question social norms. Bezabih et al. (Reference Bezabih, Di Falco, Mekonnen and Kohlin2021) show that certifying property rights is likely to facilitate the long-term investment required by some adaptation strategies.

Overall, the papers in this special issue illustrate the diversity of the impacts related to weather and climate impacts and how they are enmeshed with local socio-economic conditions. Together with adaptation and mitigation strategies, this variety of impacts brings into question the effectiveness of the actual policy instruments needed to reach the Paris Agreement objectives and their coordination with the broader Objectives of Sustainable Development. This is a topic that deserves to be further investigated.

References

Aggarwal, R (2020) Impacts of climate shocks on household consumption and inequality in India. Environment and Development Economics 124. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355770X20000388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ajefu, JB, Efobi, U and Beecroft, I (2020) Coping with negative shocks and the role of the farm input subsidy programme in rural Malawi. Environment and Development Economics 121. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355770X20000285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alfani, F, Arslan, A, McCarthy, N, Cavatassi, R and Sitko, N (2021) Climate resilience in rural Zambia: evaluating farmers’ response to El Niño-induced drought. Environment and Development Economics 123. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355770X21000097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Antonelli, C, Coromaldi, M, Dasgupta, S, Emmerling, J and Shayegh, S (2020) Climate impacts on nutrition and labor supply disentangled – an analysis for rural areas of Uganda. Environment and Development Economics 126. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355770X20000017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bezabih, M, Di Falco, S, Mekonnen, A and Kohlin, G (2021) Land rights and the economic impacts of climatic anomalies on agriculture: evidence from Ethiopia. Environment and Development Economics.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Girard, J, Delacote, P and Leblois, A (2021) Agricultural households’ adaptation to weather shocks in Sub-Saharan Africa: implications for land-use change and deforestation. Environment and Development Economics 123. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355770X2000056X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCarthy, N, Kilic, T, Brubaker, J, Murray, S and de la Fuente, A (2021) Droughts and floods in Malawi: impacts on crop production and the performance of sustainable land management practices under weather extremes. Environment and Development Economics 118. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355770X20000455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nshakira-Rukundo, E, Kamau, JW and Baumüller, H (2021) Determinants of uptake and strategies to improve agricultural insurance in Africa: a review. Environment and Development Economics 127. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355770X21000085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nübler, L, Austrian, K, Maluccio, JA and Pinchoff, J (2020) Rainfall shocks, cognitive development and educational attainment among adolescents in a drought-prone region in Kenya. Environment and Development Economics 122. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355770X20000406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oliveira, J, Palialol, B and Pereda, P (2021) Do temperature shocks affect non-agriculture wages in Brazil? Evidence from individual-level panel data. Environment and Development Economics 116. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355770X21000073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
You have Access

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Introduction: special issue on weather and climate impacts in developing countries
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Introduction: special issue on weather and climate impacts in developing countries
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Introduction: special issue on weather and climate impacts in developing countries
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *