This review summarizes current knowledge and outlines future directions relevant to questions concerning environmental epigenetics and the processes that contribute to temperament development. Links between prenatal adversity, epigenetic programming, and early manifestations of temperament are important in their own right, also informing our understanding of biological foundations for social–emotional development. In addition, infant temperament attributes represent key etiological factors in the onset of developmental psychopathology, and studies elucidating their prenatal foundations expand our understanding of developmental origins of health and disease. Prenatal adversity can take many forms, and this overview is focused on the environmental effects of stress, toxicants, substance use/psychotropic medication, and nutrition. Dysregulation associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity–disruptive disorders was noted in the context of maternal substance use and toxicant exposures during gestation, as well as stress. Although these links can be made based on the existing literature, currently few studies directly connect environmental influences, epigenetic programming, and changes in brain development/behavior. The chain of events starting with environmental inputs and resulting in alterations to gene expression, physiology, and behavior of the organism is driven by epigenetics. Epigenetics provides the molecular mechanism of how environmental factors impact development and subsequent health and disease, including early brain and temperament development.