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Parenting × Brain Development interactions as predictors of adolescent depressive symptoms and well-being: Differential susceptibility or diathesis-stress?

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 February 2019

Camille Deane
Affiliation:
Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne & Melbourne Health, Melbourne, Australia
Nandita Vijayakumar
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA
Nicholas B. Allen
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, MelbourneAustralia
Orli Schwartz
Affiliation:
Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, MelbourneAustralia Orygen, The National Centre of Excellence in Youth Mental Health, Melbourne, Australia Centre of Youth Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Julian G. Simmons
Affiliation:
Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne & Melbourne Health, Melbourne, Australia Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, MelbourneAustralia
Chad A. Bousman
Affiliation:
Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne & Melbourne Health, Melbourne, Australia Departments of Medical Genetics, Psychiatry, and Physiology & Pharmacology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, Calgary, Canada Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
Christos Pantelis
Affiliation:
Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne & Melbourne Health, Melbourne, Australia
Sarah Whittle*
Affiliation:
Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne & Melbourne Health, Melbourne, Australia Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, MelbourneAustralia
*
Author for correspondence: Sarah Whittle, Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Level 3, Alan Gilbert Building, 161 Barry St, Carlton, VIC 3053; E-mail: swhittle@unimelb.edu.au.

Abstract

It is unclear how individual differences in parenting and brain development interact to influence adolescent mental health outcomes. This study examined interactions between structural brain development and observed maternal parenting behavior in the prediction of adolescent depressive symptoms and psychological well-being. Whether findings supported diathesis-stress or differential susceptibility frameworks was tested. Participants completed observed interactions with their mothers during early adolescence (age 13), and the frequency of positive and aggressive maternal behavior were coded. Adolescents also completed structural magnetic resonance imaging scans at three time points: mean ages 13, 17, and 19. Regression models analyzed interactions between maternal behavior and longitudinal brain development in the prediction of late adolescent (age 19) outcomes. Indices designed to distinguish between diathesis-stress and differential susceptibility effects were employed. Results supported differential susceptibility: less thinning of frontal regions was associated with higher well-being in the context of low levels of aggressive maternal behavior, and lower well-being in the context of high levels of aggressive maternal behavior. Findings suggest that reduced frontal cortical thinning during adolescence may underlie increased sensitivity to maternal aggressive behavior for better and worse and highlight the importance of investigating biological vulnerability versus susceptibility.

Type
Regular Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019

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