Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-n4bck Total loading time: 3.129 Render date: 2022-08-18T18:30:22.466Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Parenting and childhood irritability: Negative emotion socialization and parental control moderate the development of irritability

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 January 2022

Sanjana Ravi*
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA
Mazneen Havewala
Affiliation:
Department of Human Development and Quantitative Methodology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
Katharina Kircanski
Affiliation:
Emotion and Development Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
Melissa A. Brotman
Affiliation:
Emotion and Development Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
Leslie Schneider
Affiliation:
Emotion and Development Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
Kathryn Degnan
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC, USA
Alisa Almas
Affiliation:
School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Nathan Fox
Affiliation:
Department of Human Development and Quantitative Methodology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
Daniel S. Pine
Affiliation:
Emotion and Development Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
Ellen Leibenluft
Affiliation:
Emotion and Development Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
Courtney Filippi
Affiliation:
Emotion and Development Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
*
Corresponding author: Sanjana Ravi, email: sanjana.ravi@vanderbilt.edu

Abstract

Irritability, characterized by anger in response to frustration, is normative in childhood. While children typically show a decline in irritability from toddlerhood to school age, elevated irritability throughout childhood may predict later psychopathology. The current study (n = 78) examined associations between trajectories of irritability in early childhood (ages 2–7) and irritability in adolescence (age 12) and tested whether these associations are moderated by parenting behaviors. Results indicate that negative emotion socialization moderated trajectories of irritability – relative to children with low stable irritability, children who exhibited high stable irritability in early childhood and who had parents that exhibited greater negative emotion socialization behaviors had higher irritability in adolescence. Further, negative parental control behavior moderated trajectories of irritability – relative to children with low stable irritability, children who had high decreasing irritability in early childhood and who had parents who exhibited greater negative control behaviors had higher irritability in adolescence. In contrast, positive emotion socialization and control behaviors did not moderate the relations between early childhood irritability and later irritability in adolescence. These results suggest that both irritability in early childhood and negative parenting behaviors may jointly influence irritability in adolescence. The current study underscores the significance of negative parenting behaviors and could inform treatment.

Type
Regular Article
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. S. (1983). Manual for the child behavior checklist and revised child behavior profile. University of Vermont.Google Scholar
Barkley, R. A. (2013). Defiant children: A clinician’s manual for assessment and parent training. Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Bates, D., Maechler, M., Bolker, B., & Walker, S. (2015). Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software, 67, 148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Belsky, J., Hsieh, K.-H., & Crnic, K. (1998). Mothering, fathering, and infant negativity as antecedents of boys’ externalizing problems and inhibition at age 3 years: Differential susceptibility to rearing experience? Development and Psychopathology, 10, 301319.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Block, J. H. (1965). The child-rearing practices report (CRPR): A set of Q items for the description of parental socialization attitudes and values. University of California, Institute of Human Development.Google Scholar
Brooker, R. J., & Buss, K. A. (2014). Harsh parenting and fearfulness in toddlerhood interact to predict amplitudes of preschool error-related negativity. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 9, 148159.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brotman, M. A., Kircanski, K., & Leibenluft, E. (2017). Irritability in children and adolescents. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 13, 317341. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032816-044941 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burke, J. D., Boylan, K., Rowe, R., Duku, E., Stepp, S. D., Hipwell, A. E., & Waldman, I. D. (2014). Identifying the irritability dimension of ODD: Application of a modified bifactor model across five large community samples of children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 123, 841851. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037898 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Comer, J. S., Chow, C., Chan, P. T., Cooper-Vince, C., & Wilson, L. A. S. (2013). Psychosocial treatment efficacy for disruptive behavior problems in very young children: A meta-analytic examination. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 52, 2636. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2012.10.001 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DeSousa, D. A., Stringaris, A., Leibenluft, E., Koller, S. H., Manfro, G. G., & Salum, G. A. (2013). Cross-cultural adaptation and preliminary psychometric properties of the affective reactivity index in Brazilian youth: Implications for DSM-5 measured irritability. Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, 35, 171180. https://doi.org/10.1590/S2237-60892013000300004 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dougherty, L. R., Smith, V. C., Bufferd, S. J., Stringaris, A., Leibenluft, E., Carlson, G. A., & Klein, D. N. (2013). Preschool irritability: Longitudinal associations with psychiatric disorders at age 6 and parental psychopathology. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 52, 13041313. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2013.09.007 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dunsmore, J. C., Booker, J. A., & Ollendick, T. H. (2013). Parental emotion coaching and child emotion regulation as protective factors for children with oppositional defiant disorder: Emotion coaching with children with ODD. Social Development, 22, 444466. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2011.00652.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eisenberg, N., & Fabes, R. A. (1994). Mothers’ reactions to children’s negative emotions: Relations to children’s temperament and anger behavior. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 40, 138156.Google Scholar
Eisenberg, N., Losoya, S., Fabes, R. A., Guthrie, I. K., Reiser, M., Murphy, B., Shepard, S. A., Poulin, R., & Padgett, S. J. (2001). Parental socialization of children’s dysregulated expression of emotion and externalizing problems. Journal of Family Psychology, 15, 183205. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.15.2.183 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fabes, R. A., Eisenberg, N., & Bernzweig, J. (1990). The coping with children’s negative emotions scale: Procedures and scoring. Arizona State University.Google Scholar
Fabes, R. A., Poulin, R. E., Eisenberg, N., & Madden-Derdrich, D. A. (2002). The coping with children’s negative emotions scale (CCNES): Psychometric properties and relations with children’s emotional competence. Marriage and Family Review, 34, 285310. https://doi.org/10.1300/J002v34n03_05 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Filippi, C. A., Subar, A. R., Sachs, J. F., Kircanski, K., Buzzell, G., Pagliaccio, D., Abend, R., Fox, N. A., Leibenluft, E., & Pine, D. S. (2020). Developmental pathways to social anxiety and irritability: The role of the ERN. Development and Psychopathology, 32, 897907. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579419001329 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fox, N. A., Henderson, H. A., Rubin, K. H., Calkins, S. D., & Schmidt, L. A. (2001). Continuity and discontinuity of behavioral inhibition and exuberance: Psychophysiological and behavioral influences across the first 4 years of life. Child Development, 72, 121. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00262 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hane, A. A., Fox, N. A., Henderson, H. A., & Marshall, P. J. (2008). Behavioral reactivity and approach-withdrawal bias in infancy. Developmental Psychology, 44, 14911496. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012855 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hart, C. H., Newell, L. D., & Olsen, S. F. (2003). Parenting skills and social-communicative competence in childhood. In Greene, J. O. & Burleson, B. R. (Eds.), Handbook of communication and social interaction skills (pp. 753797). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.Google Scholar
Havighurst, S. S., Wilson, K. R., Harley, A. E., Prior, M. R., & Kehoe, C. (2010). Tuning in to kids: Improving emotion socialization practices in parents of preschool children – findings from a community trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 13421350. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02303.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Katz, L. F., & Gottman, J. M. (1997). Buffering children from marital conflict and dissolution. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 26, 157171. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp2602_4 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Katz, L. F., & Windecker-Nelson, B. (2004). Parental meta-emotion philosophy in families with conduct-problem children: Links with peer relations. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32, 385398. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JACP.0000030292.36168.30 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kazdin, A. E. (2010). Problem-solving skills training and parent management training for oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Kendall, P. C. (2011). Child and adolescent therapy: Cognitive-behavioral procedures. Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Kiff, C. J., Lengua, L. J., & Zalewski, M. (2011). Nature and nurturing: Parenting in the context of child temperament. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14, 251301. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-011-0093-4 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kircanski, K., Clayton, M. E., Leibenluft, E., & Brotman, M. A. (2018). Psychosocial treatment of irritability in youth. Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry, 5, 129140. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40501-018-0141-5 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kircanski, K., Craske, M. G., Averbeck, B. B., Pine, D. S., Leibenluft, E., & Brotman, M. A. (2019). Exposure therapy for pediatric irritability: Theory and potential mechanisms. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 118, 141149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.04.007 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kircanski, K., Zhang, S., Stringaris, A., Wiggins, J. L., Towbin, K. E., Pine, D. S., Leibenluft, E., & Brotman, M. A. (2017). Empirically derived patterns of psychiatric symptoms in youth: A latent profile analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 216, 109116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2016.09.016 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kochanska, G., & Kim, S. (2013). Difficult temperament moderates links between maternal responsiveness and children’s compliance and behavior problems in low-income families: Temperament, parenting, socioemotional outcomes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 323332. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kochanska, G., Kuczynski, L., & Radke-Yarrow, M. (1989). Correspondence between mothers’ self-reported and observed child-rearing practices. Child Development, 60, 5663.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krieger, F. V., Leibenluft, E., Stringaris, A., & Polanczyk, G. V. (2013). Irritability in children and adolescents: Past concepts, current debates, and future opportunities. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry, 35, S32S39. https://doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2013-S107 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leibenluft, E., & Stoddard, J. (2013). The developmental psychopathology of irritability. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 14731487. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579413000722 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lengua, L. J. (2006). Growth in temperament and parenting as predictors of adjustment during children’s transition to adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 42, 819832. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.42.5.819 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lengua, L. J., & Kovacs, E. A. (2005). Bidirectional associations between temperament and parenting and the prediction of adjustment problems in middle childhood. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 26, 2138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2004.10.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lochman, J. E., Barry, T. D., & Pardini, D. A. (2003). Anger control training for aggressive youth. Evidence-Based Psychotherapies for Children and Adolescents, 2, 227242.Google Scholar
McLeod, B. D., Wood, J. J., & Weisz, J. R. (2007). Examining the association between parenting and childhood anxiety: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 155172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2006.09.002 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McNally, S., Eisenberg, N., & Harris, J. D. (1991). Consistency and change in maternal child-rearing practices and values: A longitudinal study. Child Development, 62, 190198.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mulraney, M. A., Melvin, G. A., & Tonge, B. J. (2014). Psychometric properties of the affective reactivity index in Australian adults and adolescents. Psychological Assessment, 26, 148155. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034891 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pagliaccio, D., Pine, D. S., Barch, D. M., Luby, J. L., & Leibenluft, E. (2018). Irritability trajectories, cortical thickness, and clinical outcomes in a sample enriched for preschool depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 57, 336.e6342.e6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2018.02.010 Google Scholar
Pluess, M., & Belsky, J. (2010). Children’s differential susceptibility to effects of parenting. Family Science, 1, 1425. https://doi.org/10.1080/19424620903388554 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rickel, A. U., & Biasatti, L. L. (1982). Modification of the block child rearing practices report. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 129134.3.0.CO;2-3>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roberson-Nay, R., Leibenluft, E., Brotman, M. A., Myers, J., Larsson, H., Lichtenstein, P., & Kendler, K. S. (2015). Longitudinal stability of genetic and environmental influences on irritability: From childhood to young adulthood. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 657664. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2015.14040509 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roelofs, J., Meesters, C., ter Huurne, M., Bamelis, L., & Muris, P. (2006). On the links between attachment style, parental rearing behaviors, and internalizing and externalizing problems in non-clinical children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15, 319332. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-006-9025-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Savage, J., Verhulst, B., Copeland, W., Althoff, R. R., Lichtenstein, P., & Roberson-Nay, R. (2015). A genetically informed study of the longitudinal relation between irritability and anxious/depressed symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 54, 377384. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2015.02.010 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shipman, K. L., Schneider, R., Fitzgerald, M. M., Sims, C., Swisher, L., & Edwards, A. (2007). Maternal emotion socialization in maltreating and non-maltreating families: Implications for children’s emotion regulation. Social Development, 16, 268285. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00384.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silk, J. S. (2003). Psychological control and autonomy granting: Opposite ends of a continuum or distinct constructs? Journal of Research on Adolescence, 13, 113128. https://doi.org/10.1111/1532-7795.1301004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stoddard, J., Sharif-Askary, B., Harkins, E. A., Frank, H. R., Brotman, M. A., Penton-Voak, I. S., Maoz, K., Bar-Haim, Y., Munafò, M., Pine, D. S., & Leibenluft, E. (2016). An open pilot study of training hostile interpretation bias to treat disruptive mood dysregulation disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 26, 4957. https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2015.0100 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stoddard, J., Stringaris, A., Brotman, M. A., Montville, D., Pine, D. S., & Leibenluft, E. (2014). Irritability in child and adolescent anxiety disorders. Depression and Anxiety, 31, 566573. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22151 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stringaris, A., Cohen, P., Pine, D. S., & Leibenluft, E. (2009). Adult outcomes of youth irritability: A 20-year prospective community-based study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 10481054.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stringaris, A., Goodman, R., Ferdinando, S., Razdan, V., Muhrer, E., Leibenluft, E., & Brotman, M. A. (2012). The affective reactivity index: A concise irritability scale for clinical and research settings. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 11091117. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02561.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stringaris, A., Zavos, H., Leibenluft, E., Maughan, B., & Eley, T. C. (2012). Adolescent irritability: Phenotypic associations and genetic links with depressed mood. American Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 4754.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sukhodolsky, D. G., Kassinove, H., & Gorman, B. S. (2004). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anger in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 9, 247269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sukhodolsky, D. G., & Scahill, L. (2012). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anger and aggression in children. Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Tseng, W.-L., Thomas, L. A., Harkins, E., Pine, D. S., Leibenluft, E., & Brotman, M. A. (2016). Neural correlates of masked and unmasked face emotion processing in youth with severe mood dysregulation. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11, 7888. https://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsv087 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vidal-Ribas, P., Brotman, M. A., Valdivieso, I., Leibenluft, E., & Stringaris, A. (2016). The status of irritability in psychiatry: A conceptual and quantitative review. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 55, 556570. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2016.04.014 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wakschlag, L. S., Choi, S. W., Carter, A. S., Hullsiek, H., Burns, J., McCarthy, K., Leibenluft, E., & Briggs-Gowan, M. J. (2012). Defining the developmental parameters of temper loss in early childhood: Implications for developmental psychopathology: Early childhood parameters of temper loss. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 10991108. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02595.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wakschlag, L. S., Estabrook, R., Petitclerc, A., Henry, D., Burns, J. L., Perlman, S. B., Voss, J. L., Pine, D. S., Leibenluft, E., & Briggs-Gowan, M. L. (2015). Clinical implications of a dimensional approach: The normal: Abnormal spectrum of early irritability. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 54, 626634. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2015.05.016 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Warnick, E. M., Bracken, M. B., & Kasl, S. (2008). Screening efficiency of the child behavior checklist and strengths and difficulties questionnaire: A systematic review. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 13, 140147. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-3588.2007.00461.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wiggins, J. L., Mitchell, C., Stringaris, A., & Leibenluft, E. (2014). Developmental trajectories of irritability and bidirectional associations with maternal depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 53, 1191.e41205.e4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2014.08.005 Google ScholarPubMed
Zuckerman, M. (1999). Diathesis-stress models. In Zuckerman, M. (Ed.), Vulnerability to psychopathology: A biosocial model (pp. 323). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/10316-001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Ravi et al. supplementary material

Ravi et al. supplementary material

Download Ravi et al. supplementary material(File)
File 21 MB

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Parenting and childhood irritability: Negative emotion socialization and parental control moderate the development of irritability
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Parenting and childhood irritability: Negative emotion socialization and parental control moderate the development of irritability
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Parenting and childhood irritability: Negative emotion socialization and parental control moderate the development of irritability
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *