Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-4hhp2 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-25T20:15:25.042Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Normative development of the Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile from early childhood to adolescence: Associations with personality pathology

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 June 2017

Marike H. F. Deutz*
Affiliation:
Utrecht University
Helen G. M. Vossen
Affiliation:
Utrecht University
Amaranta D. De Haan
Affiliation:
Erasmus University Rotterdam
Maja Deković
Affiliation:
Utrecht University
Anneloes L. Van Baar
Affiliation:
Utrecht University
Peter Prinzie
Affiliation:
Erasmus University Rotterdam
*
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Marike Deutz, Department of Child and Adolescent Studies, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.140, 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands; E-mail: m.h.f.deutz@uu.nl.

Abstract

The Dysregulation Profile (DP) is a broad indicator of concurrent affective, behavioral, and cognitive dysregulation, often measured with the anxious/depressed, aggressive behavior, and attention problems syndrome scales of the Child Behavior Checklist. Despite an expanding body of research on the DP, knowledge of the normative developmental course of the DP from early childhood to adolescence is lacking. Furthermore, although we know that the DP longitudinally predicts personality pathology, no research yet has examined whether next to the DP in early childhood, the rate of change of the DP across development predicts personality pathology. Therefore, using cohort-sequential latent growth modeling in a population-based sample (N = 668), we examined the normative developmental course of mother-reported DP from ages 4 to 17 years and its associations with a wide range of adolescent-reported personality pathology dimensions 3 years later. The results showed that the DP follows a nonlinear developmental course with a peak in early adolescence. The initial level of the DP at age 4 and, to a lesser extent, the rate of change in the DP predicted a range of personality pathology dimensions in late adolescence. The findings suggest that the DP is a broad developmental precursor of personality pathology in late adolescence.

Type
Regular Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

The authors thank all of the parents and children who generously participated in the study.

References

Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4–18 and 1991 profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms & profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.Google Scholar
Althoff, R. R., Ayer, L. A., Crehan, E. T., Rettew, D. C., Baer, J. R., & Hudziak, J. J. (2012). Temperamental profiles of dysregulated children. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 43, 511522. doi:10.1007/s10578-012-0280-7Google Scholar
Althoff, R. R., Verhulst, F. C., Rettew, D. C., Hudziak, J. J., & van der Ende, J. (2010). Adult outcomes of childhood dysregulation: A 14-year follow-up study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 11051116. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2010.08.006Google Scholar
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: AuthorGoogle Scholar
Ayer, L., Greaves-Lord, K., Althoff, R. R., Hudziak, J. J., Dieleman, G. C., Verhulst, F. C., & van der Ende, J. (2013). Blunted HPA axis response to stress is related to a persistent dysregulation profile in youth. Biological Psychology, 93, 343351. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2013.04.002Google Scholar
Becht, A. I., Prinzie, P., Deković, M., van den Akker, A. L., & Shiner, R. L. (2016). Child personality facets and overreactive parenting as predictors of aggression and rule-breaking trajectories from childhood to adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 28, 399413. doi:10.1017/S0954579415000577Google Scholar
Bellani, M., Negri, G. A. L., & Brambilla, P. (2012). The dysregulation profile in children and adolescents: A potential index for major psychopathology? Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 21, 155159. doi:10.1017/S2045796011000849Google Scholar
Biederman, J., Petty, C. R., Day, H., Goldin, R. L., Spencer, T., Faraone, S. V., … Wozniak, J. (2012). Severity of the aggression/anxiety-depression/attention (AAA) CBCL profile discriminates between different levels of deficits in emotional regulation in youth with ADHD. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 33, 236. doi:10.1097/DBP.0b013e3182475267Google Scholar
Boomsma, D. I., Rebollo, I., Derks, E. M., van Beijsterveldt, T. C., Althoff, R. R., Rettew, D. C., & Hudziak, J. J. (2006). Longitudinal stability of the CBCL-juvenile bipolar disorder phenotype: A study in Dutch twins. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 912920. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.02.028Google Scholar
Caporino, N. E., Herres, J., Kendall, P. C., & Wolk, C. B. (2015). Dysregulation in youth with anxiety disorders: Relationship to acute and 7- to 19-year follow-up outcomes of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 47, 539547. doi:10.1007/s10578-015-0587-2Google Scholar
Casey, B. J. (2015). Beyond simple models of self-control to circuit-based accounts of adolescent behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 66, 295319. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-010814-015156Google Scholar
Caspi, A., Houts, R. M., Belsky, D. W., Goldman-Mellor, S. J., Harrington, H., Israel, S., … Moffitt, T. E. (2014). The p factor: One general psychopathology factor in the structure of psychiatric disorders? Clinical Psychological Science, 2, 119137. doi:10.1177/2167702613497473Google Scholar
Caro-Cañizares, I., García-Nieto, R., & Carballo, J. J. (2015). Biological and environmental predictors of the dysregulation profile in children and adolescents: The story so far. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 27, 135141. doi:10.1515/ijamh-2015-5004Google Scholar
Chapman, A. L., Gratz, K. L., & Brown, M. Z. (2006). Solving the puzzle of deliberate self-harm: The experiential avoidance model. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 371394. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2005.03.005Google Scholar
Chen, F. F. (2007). Sensitivity of goodness of fit indexes to lack of measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 14, 464504. doi:10.1080/10705510701301834Google Scholar
Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 233255. doi:10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_5Google Scholar
De Caluwé, E., Decuyper, M., & De Clercq, B. (2013). The Child Behavior Checklist dysregulation profile predicts adolescent DSM-5 pathological personality traits 4 years later. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 22, 401411. doi:10.1007/s00787-013-0379-9Google Scholar
Decuyper, M., De Caluwé, E., De Clercq, B., & De Fruyt, F. (2014). Callous-unemotional traits in youth from a DSM-5 trait perspective. Journal of Personality Disorders, 28, 334357. doi:10.1521/pedi_2013_27_120Google Scholar
De Genna, N. M., Larkby, C., & Cornelius, M. D. (2013). The dysregulation profile predicts cannabis use in the offspring of teenage mothers. ISRN Addiction, 2013, 19. doi:10.1155/2013/659313Google Scholar
Deutz, M. H. F., Geeraerts, S. B., van Baar, A. L., Deković, M., & Prinzie, P. (2016). The dysregulation profile in middle childhood and adolescence across reporters: Factor structure, measurement invariance and links with self-harm and suicidal ideation. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 25, 431442. doi:10.1007/s00787-015-0745-xGoogle Scholar
Diler, R. S., Birmaher, B., Axelson, D., Goldstein, B., Gill, M., Strober, M., … Keller, M. B. (2009). The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the CBCL-bipolar phenotype are not useful in diagnosing pediatric bipolar disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 19, 2330. doi:10.1089/cap.2008.067Google Scholar
Duncan, T. E., Duncan, S. C., & Strycker, L. A. (2006). An introduction to latent variable growth curve modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Feenstra, D. J., Hutsebaut, J., Laurenssen, E. M., Verheul, R., Busschbach, J. J., & Soeteman, D. I. (2012). The burden of disease among adolescents with personality pathology: Quality of life and costs. Journal of Personality Disorders, 26, 593604. doi:10.1521/pedi.2012.26.4.593Google Scholar
Geeraerts, S. B., Deutz, M. H. F., Deković, M., Bunte, T., Schoemaker, K., Espy, K. A., … Matthys, M. (2015). The Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile in preschool children: A broad dysregulation syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 54, 595602. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2015.04.012Google Scholar
Gestsdottir, S., & Lerner, R. M. (2008). Positive development in adolescence: The development and role of intentional self-regulation. Human Development, 51, 202224. doi:10.1159/000135757Google Scholar
Graham, J. W. (2009). Missing data analysis: Making it work in the real world. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 549576. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085530Google Scholar
Halperin, J. M., Rucklidge, J. J., Powers, R. L., Miller, C. J., & Newcorn, J. H. (2011). Childhood CBCL bipolar profile and adolescent/young adult personality disorders: A 9-year follow-up. Journal of Affective Disorders, 130, 155161. 10.1016/j.jad.2010.10.019Google Scholar
Holtmann, M., Buchmann, A. F., Esser, G., Schmidt, M. H., Banaschewski, T., & Laucht, M. (2011). The Child Behavior Checklist-Dysregulation Profile predicts substance use, suicidality, and functional impairment: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 139147. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02309.xGoogle Scholar
Hu, L.-T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 155. doi:10.1080/10705519909540118Google Scholar
Hudziak, J. J., Althoff, R. R., Derks, E. M., Faraone, S. V., & Boomsma, D. I. (2005). Prevalence and genetic architecture of Child Behavior Checklist–juvenile bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 58, 562568. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.03.024Google Scholar
Jucksch, V., Salbach-Andrae, H., Lenz, K., Goth, K., Döpfner, M., Poustka, F., … Holtmann, M. (2011). Severe affective and behavioural dysregulation is associated with significant psychosocial adversity and impairment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 686695. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02322.xGoogle Scholar
Kim, J., Carlson, G. A., Meyer, S. E., Bufferd, S. J., Dougherty, L. R., Dyson, M. W., … Klein, D. N. (2012). Correlates of the CBCL-Dysregulation Profile in preschool-aged children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 918926. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02546.xGoogle Scholar
Kline, R. B. (2006). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Krueger, R. F., Derringer, J., Markon, K. E., Watson, D., & Skodol, A. E. (2012). Initial construction of a maladaptive personality trait model and inventory for DSM-5. Psychological Medicine, 42, 18791890. doi:10.1017/S0033291711002674Google Scholar
Laceulle, O. M., Vollebergh, W. A., & Ormel, J. (2015). The structure of psychopathology in adolescence: Replication of a general psychopathology factor in the TRAILS Study. Clinical Psychological Science, 3, 850860. doi:10.1177/2167702614560750Google Scholar
Leibenluft, E. (2011). Severe mood dysregulation, irritability, and the diagnostic boundaries of bipolar disorder in youths. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 129142. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.10050766Google Scholar
Livesley, W. J., & Jackson, D. N. (2009). Technical manual for the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology—Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). Port Huron, MI: Sigma Assessment Systems.Google Scholar
Masi, G., Muratori, P., Manfredi, A., Pisano, S., & Milone, A. (2015). Child Behaviour Checklist emotional dysregulation profiles in youth with disruptive behaviour disorders: Clinical correlates and treatment implications. Psychiatry Research, 225, 191196. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.11.019Google Scholar
McGough, J. J., Loo, S. K., McCracken, J. T., Dang, J., Clark, S., Nelson, S. F., & Smalley, S. L. (2008). CBCL pediatric bipolar disorder profile and ADHD: Comorbidity and quantitative trait loci analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 11511157. doi:10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181825a68Google Scholar
McGuire, J. F., Small, B. J., Lewin, A. B., Murphy, T. K., De Nadai, A. S., Phares, V., … Storch, E. A. (2013). Dysregulation in pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Research, 209, 589595. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2013.04.003Google Scholar
Meyer, S. E., Carlson, G. A., Youngstrom, E., Ronsaville, D. S., Martinez, P. E., Gold, P. W., … Radke-Yarrow, M. (2009). Long-term outcomes of youth who manifested the CBCL-Pediatric Bipolar Disorder phenotype during childhood and/or adolescence. Journal of Affective Disorders, 113, 227235. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2008.05.024Google Scholar
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2012). Mplus user's guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles: Author.Google Scholar
Nesselroade, J. R., & Baltes, P. B. (1979). Longitudinal research in the study of behavior and development. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Nobile, M., Bianchi, V., Monzani, D., Beri, S., Bellina, M., Greco, A., … Molteni, M. (2016). Effect of family structure and TPH2 G-703T on the stability of dysregulation profile throughout adolescence. Journal of Affective Disorders, 190, 576584. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2015.10.057Google Scholar
Oldham, J. M. (2015). The alternative DSM-5 model for personality disorders. World Psychiatry, 14, 234236. doi:10.1002/wps.20232Google Scholar
Prinzie, P., & Onghena, P. (2005). Cohort sequential design. In Everitt, B. & Howell, D. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of statistics in behavioral science (Vol. 1, pp. 319322). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Prinzie, P., Onghena, P., & Hellinckx, W. (2005). Parent and child personality traits and children's externalizing problem behavior from age 4 to 9 years: A cohort-sequential latent growth curve analysis. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 51, 335366. doi:10.1353/mpq.2005.0017Google Scholar
Prinzie, P., Onghena, P., Hellinckx, W., Grietens, H., Ghesquière, P., & Colpin, H. (2003). The additive and interactive effects of parenting and children's personality on externalizing behaviour. European Journal of Personality, 17, 95117. doi:10.1002/per.467Google Scholar
Prinzie, P., van Harten, L. V., Deković, M., van den Akker, A. L., & Shiner, R. L. (2014). Developmental trajectories of anxious and depressive problems during the transition from childhood to adolescence: Personality × Parenting interactions. Development and Psychopathology, 26, 10771092. doi:10.1017/S0954579414000510Google Scholar
Raffaelli, M., Crockett, L. J., & Shen, Y. L. (2005). Developmental stability and change in self-regulation from childhood to adolescence. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 166, 5475. doi:10.3200/gntp.166.1.54-76Google Scholar
Rescorla, L. A., Bochicchio, L., Achenbach, T. M., Ivanova, M. Y., Almqvist, F., Begovac, I., … Verhilst, F. C. (2014). Parent–teacher agreement on children's problems in 21 societies. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 43, 627642. doi:10.1080/15374416.2014.900719Google Scholar
Rubin, D. H., Althoff, R. R., Walkup, J. T., & Hudziak, J. J. (2013). Cross-informant agreement on child and adolescent withdrawn behavior: A latent class approach. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 44, 361369. doi:10.1007/s10578-012-0330-1Google Scholar
Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (2001). A scaled difference chi-square test statistic for moment structure analysis. Psychometrika, 66, 507514. doi:10.1007/BF02296192Google Scholar
Schafer, J. L., & Graham, J. W. (2002). Missing data: Our view of the state of the art. Psychological Methods, 7, 147177. doi:10.1037/1082-989x.7.2.147Google Scholar
Steinberg, L. (2005). Cognitive and affective development in adolescence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 6974. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2004.12.005Google Scholar
Tromp, N. B., & Koot, H. M. (2010). Self- and parent report of adolescent personality pathology: Informant agreement and relations to dysfunction. Journal of Personality Disorders, 24, 151170. doi:10.1521/pedi.2010.24.2.151Google Scholar
Tromp, N. B., & Koot, H. M. (2012). Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology Basic Questionnaire for Adolescents and Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology Short Form for Adolescents—Voorlopige handleiding 2.0. Ongepubliceerde handleiding. Amsterdam: Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.Google Scholar
Vahl, P., Colins, O. F., Lodewijks, H. P., Markus, M. T., Doreleijers, T. A., & Vermeiren, R. R. (2014). Psychopathic-like traits in detained adolescents: Clinical usefulness of self-report. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 23, 691699. doi:10.1007/s00787-013-0497-4Google Scholar
van den Akker, A. L., Deković, M., Asscher, J., & Prinzie, P. (2014). Mean-level personality development across childhood and adolescence: A temporary defiance of the maturity principle and bidirectional associations with parenting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107, 736750. doi:10.1037/a0037248Google Scholar
van de Schoot, R., Lugtig, P., & Hox., J. (2012). A checklist for testing measurement invariance. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 486492. doi:10.1080/17405629.2012.686740Google Scholar
Widiger, T. A., & Simonsen, E. (2005). Alternative dimensional models of personality disorder: Finding a common ground. Journal of Personality Disorders, 19, 110130. doi:10.1521/pedi.19.2.110.62628Google Scholar
Wilens, T. E., Martelon, M., Anderson, J. P., Shelley-Abrahamson, R., & Biederman, J. (2013). Difficulties in emotional regulation and substance use disorders: A controlled family study of bipolar adolescents. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 132, 114121. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.01.015Google Scholar
Winsper, C., & Wolke, D. (2012). Infant and toddler crying, sleeping and feeding problems and trajectories of dysregulated behavior across childhood. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42, 831843. doi:10.1007/s10802-013-9813-1Google Scholar
Zimmermann, P., & Iwanski, A. (2014). Emotion regulation from early adolescence to emerging adulthood and middle adulthood: Age differences, gender differences, and emotion-specific developmental variations. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 38, 182194. doi:10.1177/0165025413515405Google Scholar