Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-56f9d74cfd-89lq7 Total loading time: 0.748 Render date: 2022-06-25T06:03:33.314Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

The interaction between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and childhood maltreatment as a predictor of personality pathology in females: Emotional reactivity as a potential mediating mechanism

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 February 2018

Amy L. Byrd*
Affiliation:
University of Pittsburgh
Stephen B. Manuck
Affiliation:
University of Pittsburgh
Samuel W. Hawes
Affiliation:
Florida International University
Tayler J. Vebares
Affiliation:
University of Pittsburgh
Vishwajit Nimgaonkar
Affiliation:
University of Pittsburgh
Kodavali V. Chowdari
Affiliation:
University of Pittsburgh
Alison E. Hipwell
Affiliation:
University of Pittsburgh
Kate Keenan
Affiliation:
University of Chicago
Stephanie D. Stepp
Affiliation:
University of Pittsburgh
*
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Amy L. Byrd, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Sterling Plaza, Suite 408, 201 North Craig Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213; E-mail: alb202@pitt.edu.

Abstract

Research consistently demonstrates that common polymorphic variation in monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) moderates the influence of childhood maltreatment on later antisocial behavior, with growing evidence that the “risk” allele (high vs. low activity) differs for females. However, little is known about how this Gene × Environment interaction functions to increase risk, or if this risk pathway is specific to antisocial behavior. Using a prospectively assessed, longitudinal sample of females (n = 2,004), we examined whether changes in emotional reactivity (ER) during adolescence mediated associations between this Gene × Environment and antisocial personality disorder in early adulthood. In addition, we assessed whether this putative risk pathway also conferred risk for borderline personality disorder, a related disorder characterized by high ER. While direct associations between early maltreatment and later personality pathology did not vary by genotype, there was a significant difference in the indirect path via ER during adolescence. Consistent with hypotheses, females with high-activity MAOA genotype who experienced early maltreatment had greater increases in ER during adolescence, and higher levels of ER predicted both antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder symptom severity. Taken together, findings suggest that the interaction between MAOA and early maltreatment places women at risk for a broader range of personality pathology via effects on ER.

Type
Regular Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

We are grateful to all the families who took part in this study, and to the Pittsburgh Girls Study team, which includes interviewers and their supervisors, data managers, student workers, and volunteers. This research was specifically funded by grants from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, US Department of Justice (2013-JF-FX-0058); the National Institute of Mental Health (R01 MH056630); the National Institute on Drug Abuse (R01 DA012237); and by funding from the FISA Foundation and the Falk Fund. Additional funding from the National Institute of Health also supported this work (T32 MH018269 and F32 MH110077). The opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Department of Justice, National Institutes of Health, or the FISA Foundation and Falk Fund.

References

Alia-Klein, N., Goldstein, R. Z., Tomasi, D., Woicik, P. A., Moeller, S. J., Williams, B., … Wang, G.-J. (2009). Neural mechanisms of anger regulation as a function of genetic risk for violence. Emotion, 9, 385396. doi:10.1037/a0016781.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental sisorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.Google Scholar
Åslund, C., Nordquist, N., Comasco, E., Leppert, J., Oreland, L., & Nilsson, K. (2011). Maltreatment, MAOA, and delinquency: Sex differences in gene–environment interaction in a large population-based cohort of adolescents. Behavior Genetics, 41, 262272. doi:10.1007/s10519-010-9356-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barnard, K., Johnson, S., Booth, C., & Bee, H. (1994). Difficult Life Circumstances Scale. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
Barnett, D., Manly, J. T., & Cicchetti, D. (1993). Defining child maltreatment: The interface between policy and research. Child Abuse, Child Development, and Social Policy, 8, 773.Google Scholar
Beauchaine, T. P. (2001). Vagal tone, development, and Gray's motivational theory: Toward an integrated model of autonomic nervous system functioning in psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 183214. doi:10.1017/S0954579401002012.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beauchaine, T. P., Gatzke-Kopp, L., & Mead, H. K. (2007). Polyvagal theory and developmental psychopathology: Emotion dysregulation and conduct problems from preschool to adolescence. Biological Psychology, 74, 174184. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2005.08.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beauchaine, T. P., Klein, D. N., Crowell, S. E., Derbidge, C., & Gatzke-Kopp, L. (2009). Multifinality in the development of personality disorders: A Biology × Sex × Environment interaction model of antisocial and borderline traits. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 735770.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bekh, B., DeFife, J. A., Guarnaccia, C., Phifer, J., Fani, N., Ressler, K. J., & Westen, D. (2011). Emotion dysregulation and negative affect: Association with psychiatric symptoms. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 72, 685.Google Scholar
Benjamin, D., Van Badel, I., & Craig, I. (2000). A novel expression based approach for assessing the inactivation status of human X-linked genes. European Journal of Human Genetics, 8, 103108. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200427.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Black, D. W., Blum, N., Pfohl, B., & Hale, N. (2004). Suicidal behavior in borderline personality disorder: Prevalence, risk factors, prediction, and prevention. Journal of Personality Disorders, 18, 226239. doi:10.1521/pedi.18.3.226.35445.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blair, R. J. (2001). Neurocognitive models of aggression, the antisocial personality disorders, and psychopathy. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 71, 727731. doi:10.1136/jnnp.71.6.727.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bornovalova, M. A., Hicks, B. M., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2009). Stability, change, and heritability of borderline personality disorder traits from adolescence to adulthood: A longitudinal twin study. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 13351353.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boyce, W. T., & Ellis, B. J. (2005). Biological sensitivity to context: I. An evolutionary–developmental theory of the origins and functions of stress reactivity. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 271301. doi:10.1017/s0954579405050145.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buckholtz, J. W., Callicott, J. H., Kolachana, B., Hariri, A. R., Goldberg, T. E., Genderson, M., … Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (2008). Genetic variation in MAOA modulates ventromedial prefrontal circuitry mediating individual differences in human personality. Molecular Psychiatry, 13, 313324. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4002020.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buckholtz, J. W., & Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (2008). MAOA and the neurogenetic architecture of human aggression. Trends in Neurosciences, 31, 120129. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2007.12.006.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burke, J. D. (2012). An affective dimension within oppositional defiant disorder symptoms among boys: Personality and psychopathology outcomes into early adulthood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 11761183. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02598.x.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burke, J. D., Boylan, K., Rowe, R., Duku, E., Stepp, S. D., Hipwell, A. E., & Waldman, I. D. (2014). Identifying the irritability dimension of ODD: Application of a modified bifactor model across five large community samples of children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 123, 841851. doi:10.1037/a0037898.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burke, J. D., Hipwell, A. E., & Loeber, R. (2010). Dimensions of oppositional defiant disorder as predictors of depression and conduct disorder in preadolescent girls. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 484492. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2010.01.016.Google ScholarPubMed
Buss, A. H., & Plomin, R. (1984). Temperament: Early developing personality traits. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Byrd, A. L., Loeber, R., & Pardini, D. A. (2012). Understanding desisting and persisting forms of delinquency: The unique contributions of disruptive behavior disorders and interpersonal callousness. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 371380. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02504.x.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Byrd, A. L., Loeber, R., & Pardini, D. A. (2014). Antisocial behavior, psychopathic features and abnormalities in reward and punishment processing in youth. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 17, 125156. doi:10.1007/s10567-013-0159-6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Byrd, A. L., & Manuck, S. B. (2014). MAOA, childhood maltreatment, and antisocial behavior: Meta-analysis of a gene-environment interaction. Biological Psychiatry, 75, 917. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.05.004.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Card, N. A., Stucky, B. D., Sawalani, G. M., & Little, T. D. (2008). Direct and indirect aggression during childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic review of gender differences, intercorrelations, and relations to maladjustment. Child Development, 79, 11851229.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carrel, L., & Willard, H. (2005). X-inactivation profile reveals extensive variability in X-linked gene expression in females. Nature, 434, 400404. doi:10.1038/nature03479.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caspi, A., McClay, J., Moffitt, T. E., Mill, J., Martin, J., Craig, I. W., … Poulton, R. (2002). Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science, 297, 851854. doi:10.1126/science.1072290.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Choe, D. E., Shaw, D. S., Hyde, L. W., & Forbes, E. E. (2014). Interactions between monoamine oxidase A and punitive discipline in African American and Caucasian men's antisocial behavior. Clinical Psychological Science, 2, 591601. doi:10.1177/2167702613518046.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (1996). Equifinality and multifinality in developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 597600. doi:10.1017/s0954579400007318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (2005). Child maltreatment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 409438. doi:10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.1.102803.144029.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicchetti, D., & Valentino, K. (2006). An ecological-transactional perspective on child maltreatment: Failure of the average expectable environment and its influence on child development. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 129201). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google ScholarPubMed
Coccaro, E. F., McCloskey, M. S., Fitzgerald, D. A., & Phan, K. L. (2007). Amygdala and orbitofrontal reactivity to social threat in individuals with impulsive aggression. Biological Psychiatry, 62, 168178. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.08.024.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cole, P. M., Michel, M. K., & Teti, L. O. D. (1994). The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation: A clinical perspective. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 73102. doi:10.2307/1166139.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1996). Social information-processing mechanisms in reactive and proactive aggression. Child Development, 67, 9931002. doi:10.2307/1131875.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davidson, R. J., Putnam, K. M., & Larson, C. L. (2000). Dysfunction in the neural circuitry of emotion regulation: A possible prelude to violence. Science, 289, 591594. doi:10.1126/science.289.5479.591.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Deckert, J., Catalano, M., Syagailo, Y. V., Bosi, M., Okladnova, O., Di Bella, D., … Fritze, J. (1999). Excess of high activity monoamine oxidase A gene promoter alleles in female patients with panic disorder. Human Molecular Genetics, 8, 621624.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Del Giudice, M., Ellis, B. J., & Shirtcliff, E. A. (2011). The adaptive calibration model of stress responsivity. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 15621592. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.11.007.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Denney, R. M., Koch, H., & Craig, I. W. (1999). Association between monoamine oxidase A activity in human male skin fibroblasts and genotype of the MAOA promoter-associated variable number tandem repeat. Human Genetics, 195, 542551. doi:10.1007/s004390051143.Google Scholar
Dodge, K. A. (2009). Mechanisms of gene-environment interaction effects in the development of conduct disorder. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4, 408414. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6924.2009.01147.x.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dodge, K. A., & Pettit, G. S. (2003). A biopsychosocial model of the development of chronic conduct problems in adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 39, 349. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.39.2.349.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Murphy, B., Maszk, P., Smith, M., & Karbon, M. (1995). The role of emotionality and regulation in children's social functioning: A longitudinal study. Child Development, 66, 13601384. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.39.2.349.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ernst, M., Nelson, E. E., Jazbec, S., McClure, E. B., Monk, C. S., Leibenluft, E., … Pine, D. S. (2005). Amygdala and nucleus accumbens in responses to receipt and omission of gains in adults and adolescents. NeuroImage, 25, 12791291. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.12.038.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Evans, G. W., & Kim, P. (2007). Childhood poverty and health: Cumulative risk exposure and stress dysregulation. Psychological Science, 18, 953957. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.02008.x.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Foa, E. B., Johnson, K. M., Feeny, N. C., & Treadwell, K. R. (2001). The Child PTSD Symptom Scale: A preliminary examination of its psychometric properties. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, 376384. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp3003_9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gadow, K. D., & Sprafkin, J. N. (2002). Child Symptom Inventory 4: Screening and norms manual. Stony Brook, NY: Checkmate Plus.Google Scholar
Gadow, K. D., Sprafkin, J., & Weiss, M. D. (2004). Adult Self-Report Inventory 4 manual. Stony Brook, NY: Checkmate Plus.Google Scholar
Galán, C. A., Choe, D. E., Forbes, E. E., & Shaw, D. S. (2016). The interaction between monoamine oxidase A and punitive discipline in the development of antisocial behavior: Mediation by maladaptive social information processing. Development and Psychopathology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1017/s0954579416001279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gee, D. G. (2016). Sensitive periods of emotion regulation: Influences of parental care on frontoamygdala circuitry and plasticity. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2016, 87110. doi:10.1002/cad.20166.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gee, D. G., Gabard-Durnam, L. J., Flannery, J., Goff, B., Humphreys, K. L., Telzer, E. H., … Tottenham, N. (2013). Early developmental emergence of human amygdala–prefrontal connectivity after maternal deprivation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, 1563815643. doi:10.1073/pnas.1307893110.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glaser, J.-P., Van Os, J., Portegijs, P. J., & Myin-Germeys, I. (2006). Childhood trauma and emotional reactivity to daily life stress in adult frequent attenders of general practitioners. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 61, 229236.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gratz, K. L. (2006). Risk factors for deliberate self-harm among female college students: The role and interaction of childhood maltreatment, emotional inexpressivity, and affect intensity/reactivity. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76, 238. doi:10.1037/0002-9432.76.2.238.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gunderson, J. G., Daversa, M. T., Grilo, C. M., McGlashan, T. H., Zanarini, M. C., Shea, M. T., … Stout, R. L. (2006). Predictors of 2-year outcome for patients with borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 822826. doi:10.1176/ajp.2006.163.5.822.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hare, T. A., Tottenham, N., Davidson, M. C., Glover, G. H., & Casey, B. J. (2005). Contributions of amygdala and striatal activity in emotion regulation. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 624632. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.12.038.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hasking, P. A., Coric, S. J., Swannell, S., Martin, G., Thompson, H. K., & Frost, A. D. (2010). Brief report: Emotion regulation and coping as moderators in the relationship between personality and self-injury. Journal of Adolescence, 33, 767773. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2009.12.006.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hawes, S. W., Perlman, S. B., Byrd, A. L., Raine, A., Loeber, R., & Pardini, D. A. (2016). Chronic anger as a precursor to adult antisocial personality features: The moderating influence of cognitive control. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125, 64. doi:10.1037/abn0000129.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hayes, S. C., Wilson, K. G., Gifford, E. V., Follette, V. M., & Strosahl, K. (1996). Experiential avoidance and behavioral disorders: A functional dimensional approach to diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 1152. doi:10.1037/0022-006x.64.6.1152.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heim, C., Newport, D. J., Heit, S., Graham, Y. P., Wilcox, M., Bonsall, R., … Nemeroff, C. B. (2000). Pituitary-adrenal and autonomic responses to stress in women after sexual and physical abuse in childhood. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284, 592597. doi:10.1001/jama.284.5.592.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heleniak, C., Jenness, J. L., Vander Stoep, A., McCauley, E., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2016). Childhood maltreatment exposure and disruptions in emotion regulation: A transdiagnostic pathway to adolescent internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 40, 394415. doi:10.1007/s10608-015-9735-z.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hinshaw, S. P. (1992). Externalizing behavior problems and academic underachievement in childhood and adolescence: Causal relationships and underlying mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 127. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.111.1.127.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hipwell, A. E., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Keenan, K., White, H. R., & Kroneman, L. (2002). Characteristics of girls with early onset disruptive and antisocial behaviour. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 12, 99118. doi:10.1002/cbm.489.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hipwell, A. E., Stepp, S. D., Feng, X., Burke, J., Battista, D. R., Loeber, R., & Keenan, K. (2011). Impact of oppositional defiant disorder dimensions on the temporal ordering of conduct problems and depression across childhood and adolescence in girls. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 10991108. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02448.x.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Holz, N., Boecker, R., Buchmann, A. F., Blomeyer, D., Baumeister, S., Hohmann, S., … Witt, S. H. (2016). Evidence for a sex-dependent MAOA × Childhood Stress interaction in the neural circuitry of aggression. Cerebral Cortex, 23, 904914. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhu249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huesmann, L. R., Dubow, E. F., & Boxer, P. (2009). Continuity of aggression from childhood to early adulthood as a predictor of life outcomes: Implications for the adolescent-limited and life-course-persistent models. Aggressive Behavior, 35, 136149. doi:10.1002/ab.20300.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hyde, L. W., Byrd, A. L., Votruba-Drzal, E., Hariri, A. R., & Manuck, S. B. (2014). Amygdala reactivity and negative emotionality: Divergent correlates of antisocial personality and psychopathy traits in a community sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 123, 214. doi:10.1037/a0035467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hyde, L. W., Shaw, D. S., Murray, L., Gard, A., Hariri, A. R., & Forbes, E. E. (2016). Dissecting the role of amygdala reactivity in antisocial behavior in a sample of young, low-income, urban men. Clinical Psychological Science, 4, 527544. doi:10.1177/2167702615614511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jaffee, S. R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Dodge, K. A., Rutter, M., Taylor, A., & Tully, L. A. (2005). Nature × Nurture: Genetic vulnerabilities interact with physical maltreatment to promote conduct problems. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 6784. doi:10.1017/s0954579405050042.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jaffee, S. R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., & Taylor, A. (2004). Physical maltreatment victim to antisocial child: Evidence of an environmentally mediated process. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113, 4455. doi:10.1037/0021-843x.113.1.44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnson, J. G., Cohen, P., Brown, J., Smailes, E. M., & Bernstein, D. P. (1999). Childhood maltreatment increases risk for personality disorders during early adulthood. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 600606. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.56.7.600.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keenan, K., Hipwell, A., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2004). The Abuse Questionnaire. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh Girls Study.Google Scholar
Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 593602. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.593.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klimes-Dougan, B., Brand, A. E., Zahn-Waxler, C., Usher, B., Hastings, P. D., Kendziora, K., & Garside, R. B. (2007). Parental emotion socialization in adolescence: Differences in sex, age and problem status. Social Development, 16, 326342. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00387.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Larson, R. W., Moneta, G., Richards, M. H., & Wilson, S. (2002). Continuity, stability, and change in daily emotional experience across adolescence. Child Development, 73, 11511165. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00464.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, B.-T., & Ham, B. J. (2008). Monoamine oxidase A-uVNTR genotype affects limbic brain activity in response to affective facial stimuli. NeuroReport, 19, 515519. doi:10.1097/wnr.0b013e3282f94294.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Linehan, M. (1993). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Van Kammen, W. B. (1998). Antisocial behavior and mental health problems: Explanatory factors in childhood and adolescence. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & White, H. R. (2008). Violence and serious theft: Development and prediction from childhood to adulthood. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lorber, M. F. (2004). Psychophysiology of aggression, psychopathy, and conduct problems: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 531552. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.130.4.531.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Luntz, B. K., & Widom, C. S. (1994). Antisocial personality disorder in abused and neglected children grown up. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 670674. doi:10.1176/ajp.151.5.670.Google ScholarPubMed
Manly, J. T., Kim, J. E., Rogosch, F. A., & Cicchetti, D. (2001). Dimensions of child maltreatment and children's adjustment: Contributions of developmental timing and subtype. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 759782.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Manuck, S. B., & McCaffery, J. M. (2014). Gene-environment interaction. Annual Review of Psychology, 65, 4170. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115100.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maron, E., Lang, A., Tasa, G., Liivlaid, L., Toru, I., Must, A., … Shlik, J. (2005). Associations between serotonin-related gene polymorphisms and panic disorder. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 8, 261266. doi:10.1017/s1461145704004985.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Masten, A. S., & Cicchetti, D. (2010). Developmental cascades. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 491. doi:10.1017/s0954579410000222.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCrory, E. J., De Brito, S. A., Kelly, P. A., Bird, G., Sebastian, C. L., Mechelli, A., … Viding, E. (2013). Amygdala activation in maltreated children during pre-attentive emotional processing. British Journal of Psychiatry, 202, 269276. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.112.116624.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCrory, E. J., De Brito, S. A., Sebastian, C. L., Mechelli, A., Bird, G., Kelly, P. A., & Viding, E. (2011). Heightened neural reactivity to threat in child victims of family violence. Current Biology, 21, 947948. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.112.116624.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McDonald, R. P., & Ho, M. R. (2002). Principles and practice in reporting structural equation analyses. Psychological Methods, 7, 6482. doi:10.1037/1082-989x.7.1.64.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McEvoy, A., & Welker, R. (2000). Antisocial behavior, academic failure, and school climate: A critical review. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 8, 130140. doi:10.1177/106342660000800301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McLaughlin, K. A., & Hatzenbuehler, M. L. (2009). Mechanisms linking stressful life events and mental health problems in a prospective, community-based sample of adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 44, 153160. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.06.019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McLaughlin, K. A., Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Mennin, D. S., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2011). Emotion dysregulation and adolescent psychopathology: A prospective study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49, 544554. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2011.06.003.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McLaughlin, K. A., Kubzansky, L. D., Dunn, E. C., Waldinger, R., Vaillant, G., & Koenen, K. C. (2010). Childhood social environment, emotional reactivity to stress, and mood and anxiety disorders across the life course. Depression and Anxiety, 27, 10871094. doi:10.1002/da.20762.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Buckholtz, J. W., Kolachana, B., Hariri, A. R., Pezawas, L., Blasi, G., … Callicott, J. H. (2006). Neural mechanisms of genetic risk for impulsivity and violence in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103, 62696274. doi:10.1073/pnas.0511311103.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674701. doi:10.1037/0033-295x.100.4.674.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moffitt, T. E. (2005). The new look of behavioral genetics in developmental psychopathology: Gene-environment interplay in antisocial behaviors. Psychological Bulletin, 131, 533554. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.131.4.533.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moilanen, K. L., Shaw, D. S., & Maxwell, K. L. (2010). Developmental cascades: Externalizing, internalizing, and academic competence from middle childhood to early adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 635653. doi:10.1017/s0954579410000337.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morris, A. S., Silk, J. S., Steinberg, L., Myers, S. S., & Robinson, L. R. (2007). The role of the family context in the development of emotion regulation. Social Development, 16, 361388. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00389.x.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Muthén, B. O., & Muthén, L. K. (2012). Mplus user's guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles: Author.Google Scholar
Nicotra, A., Pierucci, F., Parvez, H., & Senatori, O. (2004). Monoamine oxidase expression during development and aging. Neurotoxicology, 25, 155165. doi:10.1016/s0161-813x(03)00095-0.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nikulina, V., Widom, C. S., & Brzustowicz, L. M. (2012). Child abuse and neglect, MAOA, and mental health outcomes: A prospective examination. Biological Psychiatry, 71, 350357. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.09.008.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nock, M. K. (2010). Self-injury. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 339363. doi:10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.121208.131258.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nock, M. K., Wedig, M. M., Holmberg, E. B., & Hooley, J. M. (2008). The emotion reactivity scale: Development, evaluation, and relation to self-injurious thoughts and behaviors. Behavior Therapy, 39, 107116. doi:10.1016/j.beth.2007.05.005.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Odgers, C. L., Moffitt, T. E., Broadbent, J. M., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H., … Caspi, A. (2008). Female and male antisocial trajectories: From childhood origins to adult outcomes. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 673716. doi:10.1017/s0954579408000333.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oldham, J. M. (2006). Borderline personality disorder and suicidality. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 2026. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.163.1.20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paris, J. (1997). Antisocial and borderline personality disorders: Two separate diagnoses or two aspects of the same psychopathology? Comprehensive Psychiatry, 38, 237242. doi:10.1016/s0010-440x(97)90032-8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paris, J. (2003). Personality disorders over time: Precursors, course and outcome. Journal of Personality Disorders, 17, 479488. doi:10.1521/pedi.17.6.479.25360.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Perry, L. M., Goldstein-Piekarski, A. N., & Williams, L. M. (2017). Sex differences modulating serotonergic polymorphisms implicated in the mechanistic pathways of risk for depression and related disorders. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 95, 737762. doi:10.1002/jnr.23877.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Philibert, R. A., Gunter, T. D., Beach, S. R. H., Brody, G. H., & Madan, A. (2008). MAOA methylation is associated with nicotine and alcohol dependence in women. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 147B, 565570. doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.30778.Google ScholarPubMed
Prom-Wormley, E. C., Eaves, L. J., Foley, D. L., Gardner, C. O., Archer, K. J., Wormley, B. K., … Silberg, J. L. (2009). Monoamine oxidase A and childhood adversity as risk factors for conduct disorder in females. Psychological Medicine, 39, 579590. doi:10.1017/s0033291708004170.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Raine, A. (2002). Biosocial studies of antisocial and violent behavior in children and adults: A review. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 311326. doi:10.1023/a:1015754122318.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reif, A., Weber, H., Domschke, K., Klauke, B., Baumann, C., Jacob, C. P., … Pauli, P. (2012). Meta-analysis argues for a female-specific role of MAOA-uVNTR in panic disorder in four European populations. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 159B, 786793. doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.32085.Google ScholarPubMed
Reti, I. M., Xu, J. Z., Yanofski, J., McKibben, J., Uhart, M., Cheng, Y. J., … Nestadt, G. (2011). Monoamine oxidase A regulates antisocial personality in whites with no history of physical abuse. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 52, 188194. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2010.05.005.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rhee, S. H., & Waldman, I. D. (2002). Genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis of twin and adoption studies. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 490529. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.128.3.490.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rivera, M., Gutiérrez, B., Molina, E., Torres-González, F., Bellón, J. A., Moreno-Küstner, B., … Martínez-Espín, E. (2009). High-activity variants of the uMAOA polymorphism increase the risk for depression in a large primary care sample. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 150B, 395402. doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.30829.Google Scholar
Rogosch, F. A., & Cicchetti, D. (2005). Child maltreatment, attention networks, and potential precursors to borderline personality disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 10711089. doi:10.1017/s0954579405050509.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rothbart, M. K. (2007). Temperament, development, and personality. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 207212. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00505.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rutter, M. (1997). Nature–nurture integration: The example of antisocial behavior. American Psychologist, 52, 390. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.52.4.390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sabol, S. Z., Hu, S., & Hamer, D. (1998). A functional polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A gene promoter. Human Genetics, 103, 273279. doi:10.1007/s004390050816.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Samochowiec, J., Hajduk, A., Samochowiec, A., Horodnicki, J., Stȩpień, G., Grzywacz, A., & Kucharska-Mazur, J. (2004). Association studies of MAO-A, COMT, and 5-HTT genes polymorphisms in patients with anxiety disorders of the phobic spectrum. Psychiatry Research, 128, 2126. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2004.05.012.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scarpa, A., & Raine, A. (1997). Psychophysiology of anger and antisocial behavior. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 20, 375394. doi:10.1016/s0193-953x(05)70318-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmahl, C., & Bremner, J. D. (2006). Neuroimaging in borderline personality disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 40, 419427. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2005.08.011.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schulze, T. G., Müller, D. J., Krauss, H., Scherk, H., Ohlraun, S., Syagailo, Y. V., … Papassotiropoulos, A. (2000). Association between a functional polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A gene promoter and major depressive disorder. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 96, 801803. doi:10.1002/1096-8628(20001204)96:6<801::aid-ajmg21>3.0.co;2-4.3.0.CO;2-4>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shields, A., & Cicchetti, D. (1998). Reactive aggression among maltreated children: The contributions of attention and emotion dysregulation. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27, 381395. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp2704_2.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Singh, A. L., & Waldman, I. D. (2010). The etiology of associations between negative emotionality and childhood externalizing disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 376. doi:10.1037/a0019342.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sjöberg, R. L., Nilsson, K. W., Wargelius, H. L., Leppert, J., Lindström, L., & Oreland, L. (2007). Adolescent girls and criminal activity: Role of MAOA-LPR genotype and psychosocial factors. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 144B, 159164. doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.30360.Google ScholarPubMed
Somerville, L. H., Jones, R. M., & Casey, B. (2010). A time of change: Behavioral and neural correlates of adolescent sensitivity to appetitive and aversive environmental cues. Brain and Cognition, 72, 124133. doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2009.07.003.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spear, L. P. (2009). Heightened stress responsivity and emotional reactivity during pubertal maturation: Implications for psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 8797. doi:10.1017/s0954579409000066.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steinberg, L. (2005). Cognitive and affective development in adolescence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 6974. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2004.12.005.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steinberg, L., & Morris, A. S. (2001). Adolescent development. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 2, 5587. doi:10.1891/194589501787383444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stepp, S. D., Lazarus, S. A., & Byrd, A. L. (2016). A systematic review of risk factors prospectively associated with borderline personality disorder: Taking stock and moving forward. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 7, 316. doi:10.1037/per0000186.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stepp, S. D., Scott, L. N., Jones, N. P., Whalen, D. J., & Hipwell, A. E. (2015). Negative emotional reactivity as a marker of vulnerability in the development of borderline personality disorder symptoms. Development and Psychopathology, 28, 213234. doi:10.1017/s0954579415000395.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stepp, S. D., Scott, L. N., Morse, J. Q., Nolf, K. A., Hallquist, M. N., & Pilkonis, P. A. (2014). Emotion dysregulation as a maintenance factor of borderline personality disorder features. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 55, 657666. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.11.006.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Straus, M. A., Hamby, S. L., Boney-McCoy, S., & Sugarman, D. B. (1996). The revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2) development and preliminary psychometric data. Journal of Family Issues, 17, 283316. doi:10.1177/019251396017003001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Straus, M. A., Hamby, S. L., Finkelhor, D., Moore, D. W., & Runyan, D. (1998). Identification of child maltreatment with the Parent–Child Conflict Tactics Scales: Development and psychometric data for a national sample of American parents. Child Abuse and Neglect, 22, 249270. doi:10.1016/s0145-2134(97)00174-9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stringaris, A., & Goodman, R. (2009a). Longitudinal outcome of youth oppositionality: Irritable, headstrong, and hurtful behaviors have distinctive predictions. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 404412. doi:10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181984f30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stringaris, A., & Goodman, R. (2009b). Three dimensions of oppositionality in youth. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 216223. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01989.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Suzuki, H., Luby, J. L., Botteron, K. N., Dietrich, R., McAvoy, M. P., & Barch, D. M. (2014). Early life stress and trauma and enhanced limbic activation to emotionally valenced faces in depressed and healthy children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 53, 800813. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2014.04.013.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tarullo, A. R., & Gunnar, M. R. (2006). Child maltreatment and the developing HPA axis. Hormones and Behavior, 50, 632639. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2006.06.010.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taylor, A., & Kim-Cohen, J. (2007). Meta-analysis of gene-environment interactions in developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 19, 10291037. doi:S095457940700051X.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Teicher, M. H., Andersen, S. L., Polcari, A., Anderson, C. M., Navalta, C. P., & Kim, D. M. (2003). The neurobiological consequences of early stress and childhood maltreatment. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 27, 3344. doi:10.1016/s0149-7634(03)00007-1.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tomko, R. L., Trull, T. J., Wood, P. K., & Sher, K. J. (2014). Characteristics of borderline personality disorder in a community sample: Comorbidity, treatment utilization, and general functioning. Journal of Personality Disorders, 28, 734750. doi:10.1521/pedi_2012_26_093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tottenham, N. (2014). The importance of early experiences for neuro-affective development. In Anderson, S. L. & Pine, D. S. (Eds.), The neurobiology of childhood (pp. 109129). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
Tottenham, N., & Galván, A. (2016). Stress and the adolescent brain: Amygdala-prefrontal cortex circuitry and ventral striatum as developmental targets. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 70, 217227. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.07.030.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tottenham, N., Hare, T. A., Millner, A., Gilhooly, T., Zevin, J., & Casey, B. J. (2011). Elevated amygdala response to faces following early deprivation. Developmental Science, 14, 190204. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2010.00971.x.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tottenham, N., & Sheridan, M. A. (2009). A review of adversity, the amygdala and the hippocampus: A consideration of developmental timing. Frontiers in Human Neurosciece, 8, 68. doi:10.3389/neuro.09.068.2009.Google Scholar
Trull, T. J., Jahng, S., Tomko, R. L., & Wood, P. K. (2010). Revised NESARC personality disorder diagnoses: Gender, prevalence, and comorbidity with substance dependence disorders. Journal of Personality, 24, 412426. doi:10.1521/pedi.2010.24.4.412.Google ScholarPubMed
Turecki, G., Ernst, C., Jollant, F., Labonté, B., & Mechawar, N. (2012). The neurodevelopmental origins of suicidal behavior. Trends in Neurosciences, 35, 1423. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2011.11.008.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Harmelen, A.-L., van Tol, M.-J., Dalgleish, T., van der Wee, N. J., Veltman, D. J., Aleman, A., … Elzinga, B. M. (2014). Hypoactive medial prefrontal cortex functioning in adults reporting childhood emotional maltreatment. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9, 20262033. doi:10.1093/scan/nsu008.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Harmelen, A.-L., van Tol, M.-J., Demenescu, L. R., van der Wee, N. J., Veltman, D. J., Aleman, A., … Elzinga, B. M. (2013). Enhanced amygdala reactivity to emotional faces in adults reporting childhood emotional maltreatment. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8, 362369. doi:10.1093/scan/nss007.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
VanTieghem, M. R., & Tottenham, N. (2016). Neurobiological programming of early life stress: Functional development of amygdala-prefrontal circuitry and vulnerability for stress-related psychopathology. Current Topics in Behavioral Neuroscience. Advance online publication. doi:10.1007/7854_2016_42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Verona, E., Patrick, C. J., & Joiner, T. E. (2001). Psychopathy, antisocial personality, and suicide risk. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 462470. doi:10.1037/0021-843x.110.3.462.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vollm, B., Richardson, P., Stirling, J., Elliott, R., Dolan, M., Chaudhry, I., … Deakin, B. (2004). Neurobiological substrates of antisocial and borderline personality disorder: Preliminary results of a functional fMRI study. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 14, 3954. doi:10.1002/cbm.559.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Voltas, N., Aparicio, E., Arija, V., & Canals, J. (2015). Association study of monoamine oxidase-A gene promoter polymorphism (MAOA-uVNTR) with self-reported anxiety and other psychopathological symptoms in a community sample of early adolescents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 31, 6572. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2015.02.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wald, A. (1943). Tests of statistical hypotheses concerning several parameters when the number of observations is large. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society, 54, 426482. doi:10.2307/1990256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waldman, I. D., Tackett, J. L., Van Hulle, C. A., Applegate, B., Pardini, D., Frick, P. J., & Lahey, B. B. (2011). Child and adolescent conduct disorder substantially shares genetic influences with three socioemotional dispositions. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120, 57. doi:10.1037/a0021351.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Widom, C. S. (1989). The cycle of violence. Science, 244, 160. doi:10.1126/science.2704995.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Widom, C. S., & Brzustowicz, L. M. (2006). MAOA and the “cycle of violence”: Childhood abuse and neglect, MAOA genotype, and risk for violent and antisocial behavior. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 684689. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.03.039.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wood, P. K. (2011). Developmental models for children's temperament: Alternatives to chronometric polynomial curves. Infant and Child Development, 20, 194212. doi:10.1002/icd.692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wood, P. K., & Jackson, K. M. (2013). Escaping the snare of chronological growth and launching a free curve alternative: General deviance as latent growth model. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 739754. doi:10.1017/s095457941300014x.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wood, P. K., Steinley, D., & Jackson, K. M. (2015). Right-sizing statistical models for longitudinal data. Psychological Methods, 20, 470. doi:10.1037/met0000037.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Younger, W., Tsai, S.-J., Hong, C.-J., Chen, T.-J., Chen, M.-C., & Yang, C.-W. (2005). Association study of a monoamine oxidase a gene promoter polymorphism with major depressive disorder and antidepressant response. Neuropsychopharmacology, 30, 17191723. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300785.Google Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Byrd et al. supplementary material 1

Supplementary Table

Download Byrd et al. supplementary material 1(File)
File 23 KB
15
Cited by

Linked content

Please note a has been issued for this article.