Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-544b6db54f-dkqnh Total loading time: 0.238 Render date: 2021-10-24T01:23:04.186Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Does the Incredible Years reduce child externalizing problems through improved parenting? The role of child negative affectivity and serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 April 2017

Joyce Weeland*
Affiliation:
University of Amsterdam Utrecht University
Rabia R. Chhangur
Affiliation:
University of Amsterdam Utrecht University
Sara R. Jaffee
Affiliation:
University of Pennsylvania
Danielle Van Der Giessen
Affiliation:
University of Amsterdam
Walter Matthys
Affiliation:
Utrecht University
Bram Orobio De Castro
Affiliation:
Utrecht University
Geertjan Overbeek
Affiliation:
University of Amsterdam
*
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Joyce Weeland, PO Box 15.804, Amsterdam 1001 NH, The Netherlands; E-mail: j.weeland@uva.nl.

Abstract

In a randomized controlled trial, the Observational Randomized Controlled Trial of Childhood Differential Susceptibility (ORCHIDS study), we tested whether observed parental affect and observed and reported parenting behavior are mechanisms of change underlying the effects of the behavioral parent training program the Incredible Years (IY). Furthermore, we tested whether some children are more susceptible to these change mechanisms because of their temperamental negative affectivity and/or serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype. Participants were 387 Dutch children between 4 and 8 years of age (M age = 6.31, SD = 1.33; 55.3% boys) and their parents. Results showed that although IY was successful in improving parenting behavior and increasing parental positive affect, these effects did not explain the significant decreases in child externalizing problems. We therefore found no evidence for changes in parenting behavior or parental affect being the putative mechanisms of IY effectiveness. Furthermore, intervention effects on child externalizing behavior were not moderated by child negative affectivity or 5-HTTLPR genotype. However, child 5-HTTLPR genotype did moderate intervention effects on negative parenting behavior. This suggests that in research on behavioral parent training programs, “what works for which parents” might also be an important question.

Type
Regular Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

This work was financially supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO: 452-10-005). We thank Loes Keijsers and Ellen Hamaker for their advice on the analyses performed for this manuscript.

References

Albert, D., Belsky, D. W., Crowley, D. M., Bates, J. E., Pettit, G. S., Lansford, J. E., … Dodge, K. A. (2015). Developmental mediation of genetic variation in response to the Fast Track prevention program. Development and Psychopathology, 27, 8195.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Auerbach, F. M., Ebstein, R., Kahana, M., & Levine, J. (2001). The association of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) and the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5-HTTLPR) with temperament in 12-month-old Infants. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 777783. doi:10.1017/S0021963001007612 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Auerbach, J., Geller, V., Lezer, S., Shinwell, E., Belmaker, R. H., Levine, J., & Ebstein, R. P. (1999). Dopamine D4 receptor (D4DR) and serotonin transporter promoter (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms in the determination of temperament in 2-month-old infants. Molecular Psychiatry, 4, 369373. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4000531 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Pijlman, F. T. A., Mesman, J., & Juffer, F. (2008). Experimental evidence for differential susceptibility: Dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism (DRD4 VNTR) moderates intervention effects on toddlers’ externalizing behavior in a randomized controlled trial. Developmental Psychology, 44, 293300. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.44.1.293 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Belsky, J., Hsieh, K. H., & Crnic, K. A. (1998). Mothering, fathering, and infant negativity as antecedents of boys’ externalizing problems and inhibition at age 3 years: Differential susceptibility to rearing experience? Development and Psychopathology, 10, 301319. Retrieved from http://journals.cambridge.org/abstract_S095457949800162X CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Belsky, J., & Pluess, M. (2009). Beyond diathesis stress: Differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 885908. doi:10.1037/a0017376 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2008). Infant temperament, parenting, and externalizing behavior in first grade: A test of the differential susceptibility hypothesis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 49, 124131. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01829.x Google ScholarPubMed
Bralten, J., Franke, B., Waldman, I., Rommelse, N., Hartman, C., Asherson, P., … Arias-Vásquez, A. (2013). Candidate genetic pathways for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show association to hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in children with ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 52, 12041212. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2013.08.020 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cassidy, J., Parke, R. D., Butkovsky, L., & Braungart, J. M. (1992). Family-peer connections: The roles of emotional expressiveness within the family and children's understanding of emotions. Child Development, 63, 603618. doi:10.2307/1131349 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chaplin, T. M., Cole, P. M., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (2005). Parental socialization of emotion expression: Gender differences and relations to child adjustment. Emotion, 5, 8088. doi:10.1037/1528-3542.5.1.80 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chhangur, R. R., Weeland, J., Matthys, W., & Overbeek, G. (2015). Gene by environment research to prevent externalizing problem behavior: Ethical questions raised from a public healthcare perspective. Public Health Ethics. Advance online publication. doi:10.1093/phe/phv024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chhangur, R. R., Weeland, J., Overbeek, G., Matthys, W., Castro, B., Giessen, D., & Belsky, J. (2016). Genetic moderation of intervention efficacy: Dopaminergic genes, the Incredible Years, and externalizing behavior in children. Child Development. Advanced online publication. doi:10.1111/cdev.12612 Google ScholarPubMed
Chhangur, R. R., Weeland, J., Overbeek, G., Matthys, W., & Orobio de Castro, B. (2012). ORCHIDS: An observational randomized controlled trial on childhood differential susceptibility. BMC Public Health, 12, e917. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-917 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chorpita, B. F., Becker, K. D., & Daleiden, E. L. (2007). Understanding the common elements of evidence-based practice: Misconceptions and clinical examples. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 647652. doi:10.1097/chi.0b013e318033ff71 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2013). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Cole, D. A., & Maxwell, S. E. (2003). Testing mediational models with longitudinal data: Questions and tips in the use of structural equation modeling. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 558577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coplan, R. J., Hastings, P. D., Lagacé-Séguin, D. G., & Moulton, C. E. (2002). Authoritative and authoritarian mothers’ parenting goals, attributions, and emotions across different childrearing contexts. Parenting, 2, 126. doi:10.1207/S15327922PAR0201_1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crandall, A., Deater-Deckard, K., & Riley, A. W. (2015). Maternal emotion and cognitive control capacities and parenting: A conceptual framework. Developmental Review, 36, 105126. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2015.01.004 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davies, P. T., & Cicchetti, D. (2013). How and why does the 5-HTTLPR gene moderate associations between maternal unresponsiveness and children's disruptive problems? Child Development, 85, 484500. doi:10.1111/cdev.12148 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Derryberry, D., & Rothbart, M. K. (1988). Arousal, affect, and attention as components of temperament. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 958.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dix, T. (1991). The affective organization of parenting: Adaptive and maladaptative processes. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dragan, W. Ł., & Oniszczenko, W. (2005). Polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene and their relationship to two temperamental traits measured by the formal characteristics of behavior-temperament inventory: Activity and emotional reactivity. Neuropsychobiology, 51, 269274. doi:10.1159/000085823 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duncombe, M. E., Havighurst, S. S., Holland, K. A., & Frankling, E. J. (2012). The contribution of parenting practices and parent emotion factors in children at risk for disruptive behavior disorders. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 43, 715733. doi:10.1007/s10578-012-0290-5 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Durlak, J. A., & DuPre, E. P. (2008). Implementation matters: A review of research on the influence of implementation on program outcomes and the factors affecting implementation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41, 327350. doi:10.1007/s10464-008-9165-0 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eyberg, S. M., & Pincus, D. (1999). Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory and Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory—Revised: Professional manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
Feldman, M. A., & Werner, S. E. (2002). Collateral effects of behavioral parent training on families of children with developmental disabilities and behavior disorders. Behavioral Interventions, 17, 7583. doi:10.1002/bin.111 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Forehand, R., Lafko, N., Parent, J., & Burt, K. B. (2014). Is parenting the mediator of change in behavioral parent training for externalizing problems of youth? Clinical Psychology Review, 34, 608619. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2014.10.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gallitto, E. (2015). Temperament as a moderator of the effects of parenting on children's behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 27, 257273.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gardner, F., Burton, J., & Klimes, I. (2006). Randomised controlled trial of a parenting intervention in the voluntary sector for reducing child conduct problems: Outcomes and mechanisms of change. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 47, 11231132. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01668.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gyurak, A., Haase, C. M., Sze, J., Goodkind, M. S., Coppola, G., Lane, J., … Levenson, R. W. (2013). The effect of the serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on empathic and self-conscious emotional reactivity. Emotion, 13, 2535.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hamaker, E. L., Kuiper, R. M., & Grasman, R. P. (2015). A critique of the cross-lagged panel model. Psychological Methods, 21, 102116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hanisch, C., Hautmann, C., Plück, J., Eichelberger, I., & Döpfner, M. (2014). The prevention program for externalizing problem behavior (PEP) improves child behavior by reducing negative parenting: Analysis of mediating processes in a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55, 473484. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12177 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hankin, B. L., Nederhof, E., Oppenheimer, C. W., Jenness, J., Young, J. F., Abela, J. R. Z., … Oldehinkel, A. J. (2011). Differential susceptibility in youth: Evidence that 5-HTTLPR × Positive Parenting is associated with positive affect “for better and worse.” Translational Psychiatry, 1, e44. doi:10.1038/tp.2011.44 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heininga, V., Oldehinkel, A., Veenstra, R., & Nederhof, E. (2015). I just ran a thousand analyses: Benefits of multiple testing in understanding equivocal evidence on gene-environment interactions. PlOS ONE, 10, e01.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 155. doi:10.1080/10705519909540118 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Isaacs, L., Webb, A., Jerome, S., & Fabiano, G. (2015). Inclusion and engagement of fathers in behavioral parent training for ADHD: An update and recommendations. ADHD Report, 23, 17. doi:10.1521/adhd.2015.23.8.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Isley, S. L., O'Neil, R., Clatfelter, D., & Parke, R. D. (1999). Parent and child expressed affect and children's social competence: Modeling direct and indirect pathways. Developmental Psychology, 35, 547560.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaminski, J. W., Valle, L. A., Filene, J. H., & Boyle, C. L. (2008). A meta-analytic review of components associated with parent training program effectiveness. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 567589. doi:10.1007/s10802-007-9201-9 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Karreman, A., van Tuijl, C., van Aken, M. A. G., & Deković, M. (2006). Parenting and self-regulation in preschoolers: A meta-analysis. Infant and Child Development, 15, 561579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kazdin, A. E. (2007). Mediators and mechanisms of change in psychotherapy research. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, 127. doi:10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.3.022806.091432 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keijsers, L. (2015). Parental monitoring and adolescent problem behaviors: How much do we really know? International Journal of Behavioral Development. Advance online publication. doi:10.1177/0165025415592515 Google Scholar
Kret, M. E., Denollet, J., Grèzes, J., & de Gelder, B. (2011). The role of negative affectivity and social inhibition in perceiving social threat: An fMRI study. Neuropsychologia, 49, 11871193. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.02.007 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leijten, P., Raaijmakers, M. A. J., Orobio de Castro, B., & Matthys, W. (2013). Does socioeconomic status matter? A meta-analysis on parent training effectiveness for disruptive child behavior. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 42, 384392. doi:10.1080/15374416.2013.769169 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lindahl, K. M., & Malik, N. M. (1996). System for Coding Interactions in Parent-Child Dyads (SCIPD): A coding system for structured and unstructured parent-child tasks. Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami, Department of Psychology.Google Scholar
Lipscomb, S. T., Leve, L. D., Shaw, D. S., Neiderhiser, J. M., Scaramella, L. V, Ge, X., … Reiss, D. (2012). Negative emotionality and externalizing problems in toddlerhood: Overreactive parenting as a moderator of genetic influences. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 167179. doi:10.1017/S0954579411000757 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Martin, S. E., Clements, M. L., & Crnic, K. A. (2002). Maternal emotions during mother-toddler interaction: Parenting in affective context. Parenting: Science and Practice, 2, 105126. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com.proxy.library.uu.nl/doi/abs/10.1207/S15327922PAR0202_02 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCart, M. R., Priester, P. E., Davies, W. H., & Azen, R. (2006). Differential effectiveness of behavioral parent-training and cognitive-behavioral therapy for antisocial youth: A meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 525541. doi:10.1007/s10802-006-9031-1 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Menting, A. T., Orobio de Castro, B., & Matthys, W. (2013). Effectiveness of the Incredible Years parent training to modify disruptive and prosocial child behavior: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 901913. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2013.07.006 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morris, A. S., Silk, J. S., Steinberg, L., Sessa, F. M., Avenevoli, S., & Essex, M. J. (2002). Temperamental vulnerability and negative parenting as interacting predictors of child adjustment. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 461471. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2002.00461.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murphy, S. E., Norbury, R., Godlewska, B. R., Cowen, P. J., Mannie, Z. M., Harmer, C. J., & Munafò, M. R. (2013). The effect of the serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on amygdala function: A meta-analysis. Molecular Psychiatry, 18, 512520. doi:10.1038/mp.2012.19 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pezawas, L., Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Drabant, E. M., Verchinski, B. A., Munoz, K. E., Kolachana, B. S., … Weinberger, D. R. (2005). 5-HTTLPR polymorphism impacts human cingulate-amygdala interactions: A genetic susceptibility mechanism for depression. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 828834. doi:10.1038/nn1463 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Putnam, S. P., & Rothbart, M. K. (2006). Development of short and very short forms of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment, 87, 102112. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa8701_09 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ramos, M. C., Guerin, D. W., Gottfried, A. W., Bathurst, K., & Oliver, P. H. (2005). Family conflict and children's behavior problems: The moderating role of child temperament. Structural Equation Modeling, 12, 278298. doi:10.1207/s15328007sem1202_6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, E. A., & Eyberg, S. M. (1981). The dyadic parent–child interaction coding system: Standardization and validation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 245250. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.49.2.245 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rodriguez, S., Gaunt, T. R., & Day, I. N. (2009). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium testing of biological ascertainment for Mendelian randomization studies. American Journal of Epidemiology, 169, 505514. doi:10.1093/aje/kwn359 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ross, L. F., Saal, H. M., David, K. L., Anderson, R. R., & American Academy of Pediatrics. (2013). Technical report: Ethical and policy issues in genetic testing and screening of children. Genetics in Medicine, 15, 234245.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rothbaum, F., & Weisz, J. R. (1994). Parental caregiving and child externalizing behavior in nonclinical samples: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 5574. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.116.1.55 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rudy, D., & Grusec, J. E. (2006). Authoritarian parenting in individualist and collectivist groups: Associations with maternal emotion and cognition and children's self-esteem. Journal of Family Psychology, 20, 6878. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.20.1.68 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rueger, S. Y., Katz, R. L., Risser, H. J., & Lovejoy, M. C. (2011). Relations between parental affect and parenting behaviors: A meta-analytic review. Parenting: Science and Practice, 11, 133. doi:10.1080/15295192.2011.539503 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salinas, A., Smith, J. C., & Armstrong, K. (2011). Engaging fathers in behavioral parent training: Listening to fathers’ voices. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 26, 304311. doi:10.1016/j.pedn.2010.01.008 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sameroff, J. A. (2000). Developmental systems and psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 297312. Retrieved from http://journals.cambridge.org/abstract_S0954579400003035 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sandler, I. N., Schoenfelder, E. N., Wolchik, S. A., & MacKinnon, D. P. (2011). Long-term impact of prevention programs to promote effective parenting: Lasting effects but uncertain processes. Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 299329. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.121208.131619 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scott, S., & O'Connor, T. G. (2012). An experimental test of differential susceptibility to parenting among emotionally-dysregulated children in a randomized controlled trial for oppositional behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 11841193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Selig, J. P., & Preacher, K. J. (2009). Mediation models for longitudinal data in developmental research. Research in Human Development, 6, 144164. doi:10.1080/15427600902911247 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Soper, D. S. (2016). Significance of the difference between two slopes calculator [Computer software]. Retrieved from http://www.danielsoper.com/statcalc Google Scholar
Tolan, P. H., Dodge, K., & Ruter, M. (2013). Tracking the multiple pathways of parent and family influence on disruptive behaviour disorders. In Tolan, P. H. & Leventhal, B. L. (Eds.), Disruptive behaviour disorders (pp. 161191). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van den Hoofdakker, B. J., Nauta, M. H., Dijck-Brouwer, D. A., van der Veen-Mulders, L., Sytema, S., Emmelkamp, P. M. G., … Hoekstra, P. J. (2012). Dopamine transporter gene moderates response to behavioral parent training in children with ADHD: A pilot study. Developmental Psychology, 48, 567574. doi:10.1037/a0026564 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van IJzendoorn, M. H., Belsky, J., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2012). Serotonin transporter genotype 5HTTLPR as a marker of differential susceptibility & quest: A meta-analysis of child and adolescent gene-by-environment studies. Translational Psychiatry, 2, e147. doi:10.1038/tp.2012.73 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Zeijl, J., Mesman, J., Stolk, M. N., Alink, L. R. A., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., … Koot, H. M. (2007). Differential susceptibility to discipline: The moderating effect of child temperament on the association between maternal discipline and early childhood externalizing problems. Journal of Family Psychology, 21, 626636. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.21.4.626 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Webster-Stratton, C. (1989). The relationship of marital support, conflict, and divorce to parent perceptions, behaviors, and childhood conduct problems. Journal of Marriage and Family, 51, 417430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Webster-Stratton, C. (2001). Parenting Practices Interview. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
Webster-Stratton, C. (2008). The Incredible Years: Parents, teachers, and children training series. Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 18, 3145. doi:10.1300/J007v18n03_04 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weeland, J., Chhangur, R. R., van der Giessen, D., Matthys, W., Orobio de Castro, B., & Overbeek, G. (2017). Intervention effectiveness of The Incredible Years: New insights into sociodemographic and intervention-based moderators. Behavior Therapy, 48, 118. doi:10.1016/j.beth.2016.08.002 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weeland, J., Overbeek, G., Orobio de Castro, B., & Matthys, W. (2015). Underlying mechanisms of gene-environment interactions in externalizing behavior: A systematic review and search for theoretical mechanisms. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 18, 413442. doi:10.1007/s10567-015-0196-4 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weeland, J., Slagt, M., Brummelman, E., Matthys, W., Orobio de Castro, B., & Overbeek, G. (2015). 5-HTTLPR expression outside the skin: An experimental test of the emotional reactivity hypothesis in children. PLOS ONE, 10, e0141474. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0141474 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zhao, X., Lynch, J. G., & Chen, Q. (2010). Reconsidering Baron and Kenny: Myths and truths about mediation analysis. Journal of Consumer Research, 37, 197206. doi:10.1086/651257 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Weeland supplementary material S1

Supplementary Figure

Download Weeland supplementary material S1(File)
File 218 KB
Supplementary material: File

Weeland supplementary material S2

Supplementary Figure

Download Weeland supplementary material S2(File)
File 61 KB
Supplementary material: File

Weeland supplementary material S3

Supplementary Table

Download Weeland supplementary material S3(File)
File 34 KB
9
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Does the Incredible Years reduce child externalizing problems through improved parenting? The role of child negative affectivity and serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Does the Incredible Years reduce child externalizing problems through improved parenting? The role of child negative affectivity and serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Does the Incredible Years reduce child externalizing problems through improved parenting? The role of child negative affectivity and serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *