Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-z9m8x Total loading time: 0.468 Render date: 2022-09-25T03:34:57.955Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Distinct and interactive contributions of physical abuse, socioeconomic disadvantage, and negative life events to children's social, cognitive, and affective adjustment

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 October 2008

Alexandra Okun*
Affiliation:
University of Michigan
Jeffrey G. Parker
Affiliation:
University of Michigan
Alytia A. Levendosky
Affiliation:
University of Michigan
*
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Alexandra Okun, Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, 580 Union Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1346.

Abstract

Past research highlights the importance of considering the sequelae of physical abuse in the context of other risk factors and possible exacerbating circumstances. The present research examines the relative, unique, and interactive effects of physical abuse, sociocultural disadvantage, and cumulative negative life events. Multiple measures and data sources were used to assess the socioeconomic circumstances, exposure to recent negative events, and social, cognitive, and affective adjustment of 19 physically abused and 49 nonabused elementary school-age children. Results indicated that abuse strongly independently predicted problems in children's adjustment with peers, self-perceptions, and depression. Abuse was also related to increased behavioral problems at home and at school, though this relation abated and even reversed itself as social disadvantage increased. Cumulative negative events independently predicted negative self-perceptions and, for girls, increased depression. Socioeconomic hardship was independently related to children's cognitive maturity. In addition, socioeconomic disadvantage qualified the relation between negative events and children's adjustment to peers, such that increased negative events were related to lower peer adjustment among less disadvantaged children but increased peer adjustment of children with more disadvantage. These results support calls for a more contextualized approach to examining the developmental outcomes of physical abuse, one that considers multiple risk factors simultaneously.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1994

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Aber, J. L., & Allen, J. P. (1987). The effects of maltreatment on young children's socio-emotional development: An attachment theory perspective. Developmental Psychology, 23, 406414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aber, J. L., Allen, J. P., Carlson, V., & Cicchetti, D. (1989). The effects of maltreatment on development during early childhood: Recent studies and their theoretical, clinical, and policy implications. In Cicchetti, D. & Carlson, V. (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect (pp. 579619). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. S. (1986). Child Behavior Checklist and Youth Self-Report. Burlington, VT: Author.Google Scholar
Alessandri, S. M. (1991). Play and social behavior in maltreated preschoolers. Development and Psychopathotogy, 3, 191205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allen, D. M., & Tarnowski, K. J. (1989). Depressive characteristics of physically-abused children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 17, 111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Asher, S. R., & Parker, J. G. (1989). The significance of peer relationship problems in childhood. In Schneider, B. H., Attili, G., Nadel, J., & Weiss-berg, R. P. (Eds.), Social competence in developmental perspective (pp. 523). Amsterdam: Kluwer Academic Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Belsky, J. (1980). Child maltreatment: An ecological integration. American Psychologist, 35, 320335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Booth, C. L., Mitchell, S. K., Barnard, K. E., & Spieker, S. J. (1989). Development of maternal social skills in multi-problem families: Effects on the mother-child relationship. Developmental Psychology, 25, 403412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carlson, V., Cicchetti, D., Barnett, D., & Braunwald, K. (1989). Disorganized/disorganized attachment relationships in maltreated infants. Developmental Psychology, 25, 525531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cicchetti, D. (1989). How research on child maltreatment has informed the study of child development: Perspectives from developmental psychopathology, In Cicchetti, D. & Carlson, V. (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect (pp. 377431). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cicchetti, D. (1990). The organization and coherence of socioemotional, cognitive and representational development: Illustrations through a developmental psychopathology perspective on Down syndrome and child maltreatment. In Thompson, R. A. (Ed.), Socioemotional development: Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (Vol. 36, pp. 259366). Lincoln, NB: Univ. of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
Cicchetti, D., & Carlson, V. (1989). Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cicchetti, D., Carlson, V., Braunwald, K., & Aber, J. L. (1987). The sequelae of child maltreatment. In Gelles, R. J. & Lancaster, J. B. (Eds.), Child abuse and neglect: Biosocial dimensions (pp. 277298). Hawthorne, NY: Aldine.Google Scholar
Cicchetti, D., & Rizley, R. (1981). Developmental perspectives on the etiology, intergenerational transmission, and sequelae of child maltreatment. New Directions for Child Development, 11, 3155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cicchetti, D., & Todd-Manly, J. (1990). Problems and solutions to conducting research in maltreating families: An autobiographical perspective. In Siegel, I. & Brody, G. (Eds.), Research on families. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Coddington, R. D. (1972a). The significance of life events as etiologic factors in the diseases of children: I. A survey of professional workers. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 16, 718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coddington, R. D. (1972b). The significance of life events as etiologic factors in the diseases of children: II. A study of a normal population. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 16, 205213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1975). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Compas, B. E. (1987). Stress and life events during childhood and adolescence. Clinical Psychology Review, 7, 275302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dean, A. L., Malik, M. M., Richards, W., & Stringer, S. A. (1986). Effects of parental maltreatment on children's conceptions of interpersonal relationships. Developmental Psychology, 22, 617626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Petit, G. S. (1990). Mechanisms in the cycle of violence. Science, 250, 16781683.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dubow, E. F., & Tisak, J. (1989). The relation between stressful life events and adjustment in elementary school children: The role of social support and social problem-solving skills.Google Scholar
Dubow, E. F., Tisak, J., Causey, D., Hryshko, A., & Reid, G. (1991). A two-year longitudinal study of stressful life events, social support, and social problem-solving skills: Contributions to children's behavioral and academic adjustment. Child Development, 62, 583599.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, S. (1980). Revised manual for the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
Egeland, B., Sroufe, L. A., & Erickson, M. (1983). The developmental consequences of different patterns of maltreatment. Child Abuse and Neglect, 7, 459469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elmer, E. (1977). A follow-up study of traumatized children. Pediatrics, 59, 273279.Google ScholarPubMed
Gersten, J. C., Langner, T. S., Eisenberg, J. G., & Sim-cha-Fagan, O. (1977). An evaluation of the etiological role of stressful life-change events in psychological disorders. Journal of Health and Social Behaviors, 18, 228244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harter, S. (1986). Manual for the Self-Perception Profile for Children. Denver, CO: University of Denver.Google Scholar
Hartup, W. W. (1983). Peer relations. In Heth-erington, E. M. (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development, (pp. 103196). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Haskett, M. E., & Kistner, J. A. (1991). Social interactions and peer perceptions of young physically abused children. Child Development, 62, 979990.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hollingshead, A. B. (1975). Four-Factor Index of Social Status. Unpublished manuscript, Yale University, New Haven, CT.Google Scholar
Johnson, J. H., & Bradlyn, A. S. (1988). Life events and adjustment in. childhood and adolescence: Methodological and conceptual issues. In Cohen, L. H. (Ed.), Life events and psychological functioning: Theoretical and methodological issues (pp. 6496). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Kaufman, J. (1991). Depressive disorders in maltreated children. Journal of the American Academy and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 257265.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaufman, J., & Cicchetti, D. (1989). Effects of maltreatment on school-age children's socioemotional development: Assessments in a day-camp setting. Developmental Psychology, 25, 516524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kazdin, A. E., Moser, J., Colbus, D., & Bell, R. (1985). Depressive symptoms among physically abused and psychiatrically disturbed children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 94, 298307.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klimes-Dougan, B., & Kistner, J. (1990). Physically abused preschoolers' responses to peers' distress. Developmental Psychology, 26, 599602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kovacs, M. (1985). The Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 21, 995999.Google Scholar
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
Luthar, S. S. (1991). Vulnerability and resilience: A study of high-risk adolescents. Child Development, 62, 600616.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Masten, A. S., Garmezy, N., Tellegen, A., Pellegrini, D. S., Larkin, K., & Larsen, A. (1988). Competence and stress in school children: The moderating effects of individual and family qualities. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 29, 745764.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McLoyd, V. C. (1990). The impact of economic hardship on black families and children: Psychological distress, parenting, and socioemotional development. Child Development, 61, 311346.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mueller, E., & Silverman, N. (1989). Peer relations in maltreated children. In Cicchetti, D. & Carlson, V. (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect (pp. 529578). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1987). Peer relations and later personal adjustment: Are low-accepted children at risk? Psychological Bulletin. 102, 357389.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1993). Beyond group acceptance: Friendship and friendship quality as distinct dimensions of peer adjustment. In Perlman, D. & Jones, W. (Eds.), Advances in personal relationships (Vol. 4). pp. 261294. London: Kingsley.Google Scholar
Parker, J. G., & Gottman, J. M. (1989). Social and emotional development in a relational context: Friendship interaction from early childhood to adolescence, In Berndt, T. J. & Ladd, G. W. (Eds.), Peer relationships in child development (pp. 95131). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Patterson, G. R., DeBaryshe, B., & Ramsey, E. (1989). A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. American Psychologist, 44, 329335.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rieder, C., & Cicchetti, D. (1989). Organizational perspective on cognitive control functioning and cognitive-affective balance in maltreated children. Developmental Psychology, 25, 382393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sameroff, A. J., Seifer, R., Barocas, R., Zax, M., & Greenspan, S. (1987). Intelligence quotient scores of 4-year-old children: Social environmental risk factors. Pediatrics, 79, 343350.Google ScholarPubMed
Sandier, I. N., & Block, M. (1979). Life stress and maladaptation of children. American Journal of Community Psychology, 7, 425440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sarason, I. G., Johnson, J. H., & Siegel, J. M. (1978). Assessing the impact of life changes: Development of the Life Experiences Survey. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 932946.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Saylor, C. F., Finch, A. J., Spirito, A., & Bennet, B. (1984). The Children's Depression Inventory: A systematic evaluation of psychometric properties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 955967.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schneider-Rosen, K., & Cicchetti, D. (1984). The relationship between affect and cognition in maltreated infants: Quality of attachment and the development of visual self-recognition. Child Development, 55, 648658.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smetana, J. G., & Kelly, M. (1989). Social cognition in maltreated children. In Cicchetti, D. & Carlson, V. (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect (pp. 620646). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smetana, J. G., Kelly, M., & Twentyman, C. T. (1984). Abused, neglected, and nonmaltreated children's conceptions of moral and conventional transgressions. Child Development, 55, 277287.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smucker, M. R., Craighead, L. W., & Green, B. J. (1986). Normative and reliability data for the Children's Depression Inventory. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 14, 2539.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Swearingen, E. M., & Cohen, L. H. (1985). Life events and psychological distress: A prospective study of young adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 21, 10451054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toth, S. L., Todd-Manly, J., & Cicchetti, D. (1992). Child maltreatment and vulnerability to depression. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 97112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trickett, P. K., Aber, J. L., Carlson, V., and Cicchetti, D. (1991). Relationship of socioeconomic status to the etiology and development sequelae of physical child abuse. Developmental Psychology, 27, 148158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vondra, J., Barnett, D., & Cicchetti, D. (1990). Self-concept, motivation, and competence among preschoolers from maltreating and comparison families. Child Abuse and Neglect, 14, 525540.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Walker, E., Downey, G., & Bergman, A. (1989). The effects of parental psychopathology and maltreatment on child behavior. A test of the diathesis-stress model. Child Development, 60, 1524.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Widom, C. S. (1989). The cycle of violence. Science, 244, 160166.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolfe, D. A. (1987). Child abuse: Implications for child development and psychopathology. London: Sage.Google Scholar
Zigler, E., & Hall, N. W. (1989). Physical child abuse in America: Past, present, and future. In Cicchetti, D. & Carlson, V. (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect (pp. 3875). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
42
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Distinct and interactive contributions of physical abuse, socioeconomic disadvantage, and negative life events to children's social, cognitive, and affective adjustment
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Distinct and interactive contributions of physical abuse, socioeconomic disadvantage, and negative life events to children's social, cognitive, and affective adjustment
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Distinct and interactive contributions of physical abuse, socioeconomic disadvantage, and negative life events to children's social, cognitive, and affective adjustment
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *