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The development of depressogenic self-schemas: Associations with children's regional grey matter volume in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 September 2021

Pan Liu*
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, Brain and Mind Institute, Western University, London, ON, Canada
Elizabeth P. Hayden
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, Brain and Mind Institute, Western University, London, ON, Canada
Lea R. Dougherty
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
Hoi-Chung Leung
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA
Brandon Goldstein
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, USA
Daniel N. Klein
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA
*
Author for Correspondence: Pan Liu, Western Interdisciplinary Research Building, Room 2172, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada; E-mail: pliu261@gmail.com

Abstract

Cognitive theories of depression contend that biased cognitive information processing plays a causal role in the development of depression. Extensive research shows that deeper processing of negative and/or shallower processing of positive self-descriptors (i.e., negative and positive self-schemas) predicts current and future depression in adults and children. However, the neural correlates of the development of self-referent encoding are poorly understood. We examined children's self-referential processing using the self-referent encoding task (SRET) collected from 74 children at ages 6, 9, and 12; around age 10, these children also contributed structural magnetic resonance imaging data. From age 6 to age 12, both positive and negative self-referential processing showed mean-level growth, with positive self-schemas increasing relatively faster than negative ones. Further, voxel-based morphometry showed that slower growth in positive self-schemas was associated with lower regional gray matter volume (GMV) in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC). Our results suggest that smaller regional GMV within vlPFC, a critical region for regulatory control in affective processing and emotion development, may have implications for the development of depressogenic self-referential processing in mid-to-late childhood.

Type
Regular Article
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

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