To save this undefined to your undefined account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your undefined account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A deficiency of dietary protein or amino acids has long been known to impair immune function and increase the susceptibility of animals and humans to infectious disease. However, only in the past 15 years have the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms begun to unfold. Protein malnutrition reduces concentrations of most amino acids in plasma. Findings from recent studies indicate an important role for amino acids in immune responses by regulating: (1) the activation of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, natural killer cells and macrophages; (2) cellular redox state, gene expression and lymphocyte proliferation; and (3) the production of antibodies, cytokines and other cytotoxic substances. Increasing evidence shows that dietary supplementation of specific amino acids to animals and humans with malnutrition and infectious disease enhances the immune status, thereby reducing morbidity and mortality. Arginine, glutamine and cysteine precursors are the best prototypes. Because of a negative impact of imbalance and antagonism among amino acids on nutrient intake and utilisation, care should be exercised in developing effective strategies of enteral or parenteral provision for maximum health benefits. Such measures should be based on knowledge about the biochemistry and physiology of amino acids, their roles in immune responses, nutritional and pathological states of individuals and expected treatment outcomes. New knowledge about the metabolism of amino acids in leucocytes is critical for the development of effective means to prevent and treat immunodeficient diseases. These nutrients hold great promise in improving health and preventing infectious diseases in animals and humans.
It is hypothesized that the intake of long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) throughout pregnancy could protect against pre-eclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension or intra-uterine growth retardation, and is essential for optimal neural development. The objective of the present study was to systematically evaluate the effect of LC-PUFA supplementation of high-risk pregnant women's diets on pregnancy outcomes and growth measures at birth. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library through March 2006 and references in reviewed articles for randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing LC-PUFA supplementation with placebo or no supplementation in women with high-risk pregnancies. We found no evidence that supplementation influenced the duration of pregnancy or the percentage of preterm deliveries < 37 weeks of gestation. However, compared with controls, supplementation was associated with a significantly lower rate of early preterm delivery ( < 34 weeks of gestation) (two RCT; n 291; relative risk 0·39 (95 % CI 0·18, 0·84)). There was no significant difference in the infant birth weight, the rate of low birth weight ( < 2500 g or < 10th percentile) and the recurrence of intra-uterine growth retardation. Other pregnancy outcomes (for example, the rate of pregnancy-induced hypertension, the rate of pre-eclampsia and the rate of Caesarean section) were also similar in both groups. In conclusion, the present data suggest that supplementation with n-3 LC-PUFA in women with high-risk pregnancies reduced the risk of early preterm delivery in the fatty acid-supplemented group compared with the placebo group, while no other effects on pregnancy outcomes were detected.
High postprandial levels of TAG may further induce endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in subjects with high fasting levels of TAG, an effect that seems to be related to oxidative stress. The present study investigated whether minor compounds of olive oil with antioxidant activity decrease postprandial levels of soluble isoforms of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), as surrogate markers of vascular inflammation, after a high-fat meal. A randomized crossover and blind trial on fourteen healthy and fourteen hypertriacylglycerolaemic subjects was performed. The study involved a 1-week adaptation lead-in period on a National Cholesterol Education Program Step I diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) containing 1125 mg polyphenols/kg and 350 mg tocopherols/kg, or refined olive oil (ROO) with no polyphenols or tocopherols. After a 12 h fast, the participants ate a high-fat meal enriched in EVOO or ROO (50 g/m2 body surface area), which on average provided 3700 kJ energy with a macronutrient profile of 72 % fat, 22 % carbohydrate and 6 % protein. Blood samples drawn hourly over the following 8 h demonstrated a similar postprandial TAG response for both EVOO and ROO meals. However, in both healthy and hypertriacylglycerolaemic subjects the net incremental area under the curve for sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were significantly lower after the EVOO meal. In conclusion, the consumption of EVOO with a high content of minor antioxidant compounds may have postprandial anti-inflammatory protective effects.
To investigate the effects of three different conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) preparations containing different ratios of CLA isomers on insulin signalling, fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial function, Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet either unsupplemented or supplemented with one of three CLA preparations at 1 % of the diet for 8 weeks. The first CLA preparation contained approximately 30 % cis-9, trans-11 (c9, t11)-CLA isomer and 40 % trans-10, cis-12 (t10, c12)-CLA isomer (CLA-mix). The other two preparations were an 80:20 mix (c9, t11-CLA-mix) or a 10:90 mix of two CLA isomers (t10, c12-CLA-mix). Insulin resistance was decreased in all three supplemented groups based on the results of homeostasis model assessment and the revised quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index. The phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 on serine decreased in the livers of all three supplemented groups, while subsequent Akt phosphorylation increased only in the t10, c12-CLA-mix group. Both the c9, t11-CLA-mix and the t10, c12-CLA-mix increased the expression of hepatic adiponectin receptors R1 and 2, which are thought to enhance insulin sensitivity and fat oxidation. The c9, t11-CLA-mix increased protein and mRNA levels of PPARα, acyl-CoA oxidase and uncoupling protein, which are involved in fatty acid oxidation and energy dissipation. The c9, t11-CLA-mix enhanced mitochondrial function and protection against oxidative stress by increasing the activities of cytochrome c oxidase, manganese-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase and the level of GSH. In conclusion, all three CLA preparations reduced insulin resistance. Among them, the c9, t11-CLA-mix was the most effective based on the parameters reflecting insulin resistance and fat oxidation, and mitochondrial antioxidative enzyme activity in the liver.
Reduced food availability in pregnancy influences fetal growth, obstetric outcomes and offspring health in both developing and developed countries. The objective of the present study was to determine responses to moderate global maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) during pregnancy in baboons (Papio hamadryas) – an established non-human primate model for pregnancy-related research. Starting at 30 d gestation (dG), twelve pregnant baboons received 70 % of food (MNR group) consumed by twenty ad libitum-fed pregnant controls. Maternal body weight, BMI, food intake and physical activity were measured before pregnancy, at 90 dG and at 165 dG (full-term 180 dG). Fetal and placental weights were recorded at the time of Caesarean section (90 and 165 dG). Activity patterns were also evaluated in fourteen non-pregnant female baboons. Behavioural observations were made in five non-pregnant, six control and four MNR animals. Pregnant baboons decreased overall physical activity and energy-expensive behaviours compared with non-pregnant baboons. In the MNR group, maternal weight, weight gain and maternal physical activity were reduced compared with the control animals. MNR decreased placental weight and volume compared with control, while fetal weight and length were unaffected. We conclude that decreased physical activity and increased usage of maternal available body stores play an important role in the maternal response to pregnancy. Also, adaptations in maternal behaviour and energy utilisation protect fetal growth during moderate MNR.
Human milk is a rich source of RNA, free nucleotides (NT) and nucleosides (NS). To determine the uptake of different NS sources by the intestinal epithelium, jejunal explants from suckling piglets were cultured in a medium supplemented with a mixture of NS (adenosine, cytidine, guanosine, inosine, uridine; 10 mg/l each), a mixture of five NT (AMP, CMP, GMP, IMP, UMP; 7 mg/l each) or RNA (60 mg/l), respectively. Aliquots from the media were taken at different times (0·5, 2, 5, 15, 30, 60, 180 min). NS and NT concentrations were analysed in the different supernatants at those periods using solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC. When explants were cultured in the presence of NS the concentration of these compounds, excepting cytidine, rapidly decreased, suggesting that they are efficiently taken up. When explants were incubated in the presence of NT, the total concentration of these compounds decreased while the total concentration of NS increased, suggesting that enterocytes efficiently hydrolyse NT into NS. Likewise, when explants were incubated in the presence of RNA, the total concentration of both NT and NS increased, indicating that intestinal explants are able to hydrolyse RNA to NT and then to NS in the absence of luminal enzymes. In conclusion, the jejunum of piglets at weaning is able to hydrolyse RNA and free NT to NS, and NS, excepting cytidine, are efficiently taken up by the small intestine. These results suggest that the current concentration of NT used to supplement infant formulas should be reconsidered.
This study assessed the impact of reduced dietary protein during specific periods of fetal life upon muscle fibre development in young rats. Pregnant rats were fed a control or low-protein (LP) diet at early (days 0–7 gestation, LPEarly), mid (days 8–14, LPMid), late (days 15–22, LPLate) or throughout gestation (days 0–22, LPAll). The muscle fibre number and composition in soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of the offspring were studied at 4 weeks of age. In the soleus muscle, both the total number and density of fast fibres were reduced in LPMid females (P = 0·004 for both, Diet × Sex × Fibre type interactions), while both the total number and density of glycolytic (non-oxidative) fibres were reduced in LPEarly, LPMid and LPLate (but not LPAll) offspring compared with controls (P < 0·001 for both, Diet × Fibre type interaction). In the gastrocnemius muscle, only the density of oxidative fibres was reduced in LPMid compared with control offspring (P = 0·019, Diet × Fibre type interaction), with the density of slow fibres being increased in LPAll males compared with control (P = 0·024, Diet × Sex × Fibre type interaction). There were little or no effects of maternal diet on fibre type diameters in the two muscles. In conclusion, a maternal low-protein diet mainly during mid-pregnancy reduced muscle fibre number and density in 4-week-old rats, but there were muscle-specific differences in the fibre types affected.
CVD is associated with a cellular inflammatory/immune response. n-3 PUFA and moderate aerobic exercise independently alter cytokine production and leucocyte function. There is limited evidence for the combined effect of these treatments on immune function, particularly in patients with risk factors for CVD. We hypothesised that exercise would enhance the anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 PUFA. In a randomised, placebo-controlled study, fifty volunteers were allocated double-blind to consume either sunflower oil (6 g/d, placebo) or DHA-rich fish oil (6 g/d; about 2 g n-3 PUFA; 1·6 g DHA /d) for 12 weeks. Volunteers were further randomised to undertake regular exercise (walking 3 d/week for 45 min at 75 % of maximum heart rate) or maintain their usual physical activity for 12 weeks. Immune functions were assessed in blood taken initially and after 12 weeks. There was no effect on cytokine production by T cells and monocytes. Superoxide anion production from stimulated blood neutrophils was decreased by fish oil (19·5 (sem 8·5) %, P = 0·016) but not by exercise, and this change was negatively correlated with the incorporation of DHA into erythrocytes (r–0·385, P = 0·047). Participation in regular exercise maintained neutrophil bactericidal activity, which decreased in non-exercising subjects (2·9 (sem 0·7) %, P = 0·013). Neutrophil chemotaxis and adherence were not significantly affected by exercise, oil, or the combination of the two. Thus the combination of moderate exercise and fish-oil supplementation, which reduces cardiovascular risk, may also help to counteract inflammation.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate and long-term effects of early feed restriction (ER) on morphology and gene expression of lateral gastrocnemius muscle. Newly hatched crossbred broiler chickens were allocated into control and ER groups, the latter being free-fed on alternate days from hatch to 14 days of age (14 d), followed by ad libitum feeding as the control group until 63 d. The lateral gastrocnemius muscle was taken at 14 and 63 d, respectively for myofibre typing by both myosin ATPase staining and relative quantification of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) mRNA for slow-twitch (SM), red fast-twitch (FRM) and white fast-twitch (FWM) myofibres. The body weight and lateral gastrocnemius weight were significantly lower in the ER group, accompanied by significantly reduced serum triiodothyronine. The ER group exhibited significantly higher SM and FRM MyHC expression at 14 d, but lower SM expression at 63 d. Myosin ATPase staining revealed a similar pattern. The percentage of SM was higher at 14 d while lower at 63 d in the ER group. These morphological changes were accompanied by changes of mRNA expression for growth-related genes. The ER group expressed lower insulin-like growth factoar I (IGF-I) and higher IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) at 14 d, yet significantly increased growth hormone receptor and IGF-IR mRNA at 63 d. These results indicate that ER may delay the slow to fast myofibre conversion as an immediate effect, but would result in a lower percentage of slow fibres owing to compensatory growth in the long term, which involves changes of mRNA expression for the growth-related genes in the muscle.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhoea in children and piglets. Infection of ETEC results in fluid secretion and electrolyte losses in the small intestine. In this study the effects of tempeh, a traditional fungal fermented soyabean product, on fluid losses induced by ETEC infection in piglets was investigated. Pairs of ETEC-infected and non-infected small intestinal segments of piglets were perfused simultaneously for 8 h with pre-digested tempeh, its supernatant and saline as an internal control. In saline perfused segments, ETEC infection reduced net fluid absorption by more than 500 μl/cm2, whereas this reduction was significantly less for pre-digested tempeh and its supernatant (75 and 282 μl/cm2, respectively). The supernatant of pre-digested tempeh was also compared with its permeate and retentate fractions. These fractions were created by ultra-filtration and contained respectively low and high molecular weight (>5 kDa) compounds. Again ETEC infection caused a significant reduction of net fluid absorption when perfused with saline (386 μl/cm2) and also with the permeate fraction (300 μl/cm2), but much less with the supernatant and the retentate fraction (125 and 140 μl/cm2, respectively). The reduction in net fluid absorption upon ETEC infection when perfused with supernatant of either undigested or pre-digested tempeh was not different. Therefore from this study it can be concluded that a high molecular weight soluble fraction of tempeh is able to protect against fluid losses induced by ETEC, suggesting that this could play a potential role in controlling ETEC-induced diarrhoea.
Trivalent chromium (Cr3+) is an essential trace element involved in insulin function. Cr deficiencies result in decreased insulin sensitivity, glucose intolerance and an increased risk of diabetes. Cr status decreases with age suggesting that the elderly may be at high risk of Cr deficiency. This study aimed to provide information about the Cr content of foods in France and the Cr intake in French free-living elderly. We measured the food Cr content and daily Cr intake of freely chosen diets for 3 d in twelve French free-living elderly people and their Cr excretion and plasma hormonal related variables, leptin, insulin and cortisol. Considering the relationship between insulin resistance and oxidative stress, we also determined plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, thiol groups and total and reduced glutathione. Although these subjects had well-balanced diets, their daily Cr intakes did not reach the French recommendations. The low Cr intakes were due to the low Cr density of the foods. We found a negative correlation between Cr intakes and insulin, BMI and leptin.
Four hundred and forty-five randomly selected hospitalised patients had their nutritional status assessed from anthropometric, haematological and biochemical data. Nutritional status was compared between survivors and non-survivors at baseline, 6 weeks and 6 months. Using Cox's proportional hazard analysis, we measured the association between nutritional assessment variables and 1-year mortality after adjusting for disability, chronic illness, medications, smoking and tissue inflammation. Nutritional status was significantly worse amongst non-survivors compared with survivors, and non-survivors showed marked and significant deterioration in all measures of nutritional status compared with survivors. After adjusting for poor prognostic indicators the hazard ratios of death in the fourth, third and second quarters of both baseline serum albumin and mid-upper arm circumference distributions relative to the first were 0·68, 0·77 and 0·58 (trend P = 0·013) and 0·61, 1·0 and 0·87 (trend P = 0·005) respectively. Intervention studies are needed to determine whether the relationship between malnutrition and the poor outcome highlighted by the present study is causal or a mere association.
Healthy young men were fed four diets for 2 weeks each providing natural fats containing palmitic acid (16 : 0) predominantly in the sn-1, 3 position of dietary TAG or containing 16 : 0 predominantly in the sn-2 position with low or high levels of linoleic acid (18 : 2n-6). Two treatments supplied 16 : 0 in the sn-1, 3 positions from palmstearin with low (3 % energy) or high (>7 % energy) 18 : 2n-6 and two treatments supplied 16 : 0 in the sn-2 position from lard with high or low levels of 18 : 2n-6. Diets contained 30–35 % energy as fat, 7–11 % energy as 16 : 0 and moderate levels of cholesterol. Fasting serum cholesterol and lipoprotein concentrations were measured. Cholesterol fractional synthesis rate (FSR) was determined by 2H incorporation. Diets providing 16 : 0 in the sn-2 position resulted in lower fasting serum total cholesterol (TC) and a lower TC:HDL ratio than diets providing 16 : 0 in the sn-1, 3 positions. Diets with high levels of 18 : 2n-6 significantly decreased the TC:HDL ratio, reaffirming the well-known cholesterol-reducing effect of 18 : 2n-6. A lower non-esterified cholesterol FSR was observed with low dietary levels of 18 : 2n-6. No differences between dietary treatments were found for serum HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol or TAG. It is concluded that dietary fats containing 16 : 0 in the sn-2 position may result in slightly lower fasting TC than diets providing 16 : 0 in the sn-1, 3 positions, while the level of n-6 polyunsaturated fat influences endogenous cholesterol synthesis.
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disorder caused by environmental and genetic factors. The purpose of this study was to analyse the possible influence of functional variants of genes of OCTN cation transporters on the carnitine ester profile of patients with CD. Genotyping for SLC22A4 1672C → T, SLC22A5-207G → C mutations and three common NOD2 variants (R702W, G908R and 1007finsC) were performed in 100 adult CD patients and in ninety-four healthy controls by direct sequencing. The carnitine ester profile was determined using ESI triple quadrupole tandem MS. Contrary to the NOD2/CARD15 mutations, none of the SLC variants showed increased prevalence in the CD group, the prevalence of TC haplotype did not differ between the patients and the controls. In the mixed group of CD patients the fasting propionyl- (0·243 (sem 0·008) v. 0·283 (sem 0·014) μmol/l), butyryl- (0·274 (sem 0·009) v. 0·301 (sem 0·013)) and isovalerylcarnitine (0·147 (sem 0·006) v. 0·185 (sem 0·009)) levels were decreased; while the level of octenoyl- (0·086 (sem 0·006) v. 0·069 (sem 0·005)), myristoleyl- (0·048 (sem 0·003) v. 0·037 (sem 0·003)), palmitoyl- (0·140 (sem 0·005) v. 0·122 (sem 0·004)) and oleylcarnitine (0·172 (sem 0·006) v. 0·156 (sem 0·008); P < 0·05 in all comparisons) were increased. After sorting the patients into SLC22A genotype-specific subgroups, no significant differences could be observed between them. The carnitine ester profile data suggest selective involvement of the carnitine esters in CD patients, probably due to their altered metabolism.
Undernutrition among hospitalized patients is highly prevalent. In contrast, the obesity pandemic is increasing in prevalence among all, including cardiology patients. The dietary challenge during hospitalization is to provide a healthy diet that stimulates the appetite and is suitable for both patients at risk of undernutrition and of cardiovascular events. The aim of the present study was to compare energy and macronutrient intake between a conventional hospital menu (Fixed) with a concept providing free serving hours and ad libitum intake à la carte (Free) among cardiology patients. The comparison was done between concepts for all lean (BMI < 25 kg/m2) and overweight and obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) patients and subgroups. Food intake was registered during a 3-week period on Fixed for forty-eight randomly selected patients and later by two similar time periods on Free1 for twenty-eight and Free2 for thirty-seven other patients. Free compared with Fixed increased the energy intake – but not above requirement – among the obese only (P < 0·001; Free v. Fixed). This was explained by an increase in the relative fat intake of 50 % (P < 0·001) and 37 % (P < 0·001) for Free1 and Free2 respectively. During Free1, the relative fat intake correlated positively with BMI (r 0·6; P < 0·01), and the relative carbohydrate intake negatively with BMI (r − 0·7; P < 0·01); the same pattern was seen during Free2, although insignificant. We conclude that the introduction of an ad libitum à la carte kitchen (Free) to cardiology patients slightly increases the average nutritional intake, but contains a potential health hazard for overweight cardiovascular patients, due to the selection of high-fat dishes and decreased carbohydrate intake. This emphasises the need for improvement in fat sources and in dietary advice when an ad libitum concept is applied during hospitalization.
Few data have evaluated Zn balance in young children after the first year of life. The objective of the present study was to study the relationships among Zn intake, absorption, endogenous faecal excretion, and retention in a group of healthy children. Thirty children, aged 15–48 months, were studied on a diet representative of their usual daily mineral intake. Zn absorption was assessed using a dual-tracer stable-isotope technique. Endogenous Zn faecal excretion and Cu absorption were determined in a subset of children. We found that Zn intake from the in-patient weighed dietary record (5·0 (sd 2·1) mg/d) was significantly greater than the current estimated average requirement (EAR; 2·5 mg/d; P < 0·0001). Neither fractional Zn absorption, urinary Zn excretion, nor endogenous faecal Zn excretion was significantly related to Zn intake (r2 < 0·1; P>0·4, for all). Absolute Zn absorption was significantly related to Zn intake (r2 0·696; P < 0·0001), as was Zn retention (r2 0·506; P < 0·0001). Cu absorption was relatively high (75·1 (sd 10·8) %) despite the high Zn intake. The EAR for Zn based on this dataset would appear to be between 4·2 and 4·7 mg/d to allow for a net average retention of 120 μg/d consistent with growth needs. We concluded that at relatively high Zn intakes there was little evidence of down regulation of absorption or up regulation of urinary or endogenous faecal Zn excretion across the intake range studied. Zn retention was positively correlated with intake. A Zn intake between 4·2 and 4·7 mg/d should meet the requirement for normal growth for this age group.
Glucosinolate consumption from brassica vegetables has been implicated in reduction of cancer risk. The isothiocyanate breakdown products of glucosinolates appear to be particularly important as chemoprotective agents. Before consumption, brassica vegetables are generally cooked, causing the plant enzyme, myrosinase, to be denatured, influencing the profile of glucosinolate breakdown products produced. Some human intestinal microflora species show myrosinase-like activity (e.g. bifidobacteria). We aimed to increase bifidobacteria by offering a prebiotic (inulin) in a randomised crossover study. Six volunteers consumed inulin (10 g/d) for 21 d followed by a 21 d control period (no inulin). Treatment periods were reversed for the remaining six volunteers. During the last 5 d of each period two cabbage-containing meals were consumed. Total urine output was collected for 24 h following each meal. Cabbage was microwaved for 2 min (lightly cooked) or 5·5 min (fully cooked). Faecal samples were collected at the start and after the inulin and control treatments. Bifidobacteria were enumerated by real-time PCR. Allyl isothiocyanate production was quantified by measuring urinary excretion of allyl mercapturic acid (AMA). Bifidobacteria increased following prebiotic supplementation (P < 0·001) but there was no impact of this increase on AMA excretion. AMA excretion was greater following consumption of lightly cooked cabbage irrespective of prebiotic treatment (P < 0·001). In conclusion, the most effective way to increase isothiocyanate production may be to limit the length of time that brassica vegetables are cooked prior to consumption.
This study evaluated carnitine and lipid status of fifty Korean newborns. Each subject was assigned to two groups: one according to body weight at birth and the other according to gestational age. Serum total, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol were significantly lower and triacylglycerols were significantly higher, by 14 %, in the low birth weight infant (LBWI, 1310–2490 g) group compared with the normal birth weight infant (NBWI, 2570–4420 g) group. Neither birth weight nor gestational age affected serum total carnitine concentrations. However, serum ASAC (acid-soluble acylcarnitine) concentrations were 43 % higher (P < 0·001) in the LBWI group compared with the NBWI group, and approximately twice as high (P < 0·05) in the 28–32 gestational age group compared with the other gestational age groups. NEC (non-esterified acyl carnitine) fractions were significantly higher in the NBWI and 28–32 week groups (P < 0·001 and P < 0·05); consequently serum acyl/NEC carnitine ratios were four times higher in the LBWI group compared with the NBWI group and 2–3 times higher in the 25–32 week age group compared with the more advanced gestational age groups. Urinary carnitine excretion, including the NEC fraction and total carnitine, was significantly higher (P < 0·001) for LBWI than for NBWI. By gestational age, NEC excretion of the 28–32 week group was significantly (P < 0·05) higher than that of the other two groups, but total carnitine excretion was not different among the groups. This study demonstrated that Korean immature and preterm newborns have higher serum triacylglycerol concentrations but lower carnitine status than NBWI. Therefore, the lower carnitine status and moderately higher triacylglycerols may suggest that LBWI in Korea might be at risk for poor carnitine status and decreased capacity to utilise fatty acids for energy.
Certain dietary patterns may be related to the risk of CVD. We hypothesised that a plant-centred dietary pattern would be associated with a reduced risk of first myocardial infarction (MI). A case–control study of Norwegian men and postmenopausal women (age 45–75 years) was performed. A FFQ was administered, generally within 3 d after incident MI (n 106 cases). Controls (n 105) were frequency matched on sex, age and geographic location. On the FFQ, 190 items were categorised into thirty-five food groups and an a priori healthy diet pattern score was created. We estimated OR using logistic regression with adjustment for energy intake, family history of heart disease, marital status, current smoking, education and age. Among food groups, the risk of MI was significantly higher per sd of butter and margarine (OR 1·66 (95 % CI 1·12, 2·46)), and lower per sd of tomatoes (OR 0·53 (95 % CI 0·35, 0·79)), high-fat fish (OR 0·57 (95 % CI 0·38, 0·86)), wine (OR 0·58 (95 % CI 0·41, 0·83)), salad (OR 0·59 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·87)), wholegrain breakfast cereals (OR 0·64 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·90)), cruciferous vegetables (OR 0·66 (95 % CI 0·47, 0·93)) and non-hydrogenated vegetable oil (OR 0·68 (95 % CI 0·49, 0·95)). An abundance of cases were found to have a low a priori healthy diet pattern score. A dietary pattern emphasising nutrient-rich plant foods and high-fat fish and low in trans fatty acids was associated with decreased risk of MI among Norwegians.
A population-based case–control study of diet, inherited susceptibility and prostate cancer was undertaken in the lowlands and central belt of Scotland to investigate the effect of phyto-oestrogen intake and serum concentrations on prostate cancer risk. A total of 433 cases and 483 controls aged 50–74 years were asked to complete a validated FFQ and provide a non-fasting blood sample. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found significant inverse associations with increased serum concentrations of enterolactone (adjusted OR 0·40, 95 % CI 0·22, 0·71] and with the consumption of soy foods (adjusted OR 0·52, 95 % CI 0·30, 0·91). However, no significant associations were observed for isoflavone intake or serum genistein, daidzein and equol. This study supports the hypotheses that soy foods and enterolactone metabolised from dietary lignans protect against prostate cancer in older Scottish men.