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The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with a nano chitosan–zinc complex (CP–Zn, 100 mg/kg Zn) could alleviate weaning stress in piglets challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 by improving growth performance and intestinal antioxidant capacity. The in vivo effects of CP–Zn on growth performance variables (including gastrointestinal digestion and absorption functions and the levels of key proteins related to muscle growth) and the antioxidant capacity of the small intestine (SI) were evaluated in seventy-two weaned piglets. The porcine jejunal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2 was used to further investigate the antioxidant mechanism of CP–Zn in vitro. The results showed that CP–Zn supplementation increased the jejunal villus height and decreased the diarrhoea rate in weaned piglets. CP–Zn supplementation also improved growth performance (average daily gain and average daily feed intake), increased the activity of carbohydrate digestion-related enzymes (amylase, maltase, sucrase and lactase) and the mRNA expression levels of nutrient transporters (Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1, glucose transporter type 2, peptide transporter 1 and excitatory amino acid carrier 1) in the jejunum and up-regulated the expression levels of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway-related proteins (insulin receptor substrate 1, phospho-mTOR and phospho-p70S6K) in muscle. In addition, CP–Zn supplementation increased glutathione content, enhanced total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) activity, and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the jejunum. Furthermore, CP–Zn decreased the content of MDA and reactive oxygen species, enhanced the activity of T-SOD and GSH-px and up-regulated the expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway-related proteins (Nrf2, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 and haeme oxygenase 1) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated IPEC-J2 cells. Collectively, these findings indicate that CP–Zn supplementation can improve growth performance and the antioxidant capacity of the SI in piglets, thus alleviating weaning stress.
The FNDC5 gene encodes the fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 that is a membrane protein mainly expressed in skeletal muscle, and the FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism may be associated with liver disease severity in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the influence of the FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism on the relationship between sarcopenia and the histological severity of NAFLD. A total of 370 adult individuals with biopsy-proven NAFLD were studied. The association between the key exposure sarcopenia and the outcome liver histological severity was investigated by binary logistic regression. Stratified analyses were undertaken to examine the impact of FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism on the association between sarcopenia and the severity of NAFLD histology. Patients with sarcopenia had more severe histological grades of steatosis and a higher prevalence of significant fibrosis and definite non-alcoholic steatohepatitis than those without sarcopenia. There was a significant association between sarcopenia and significant fibrosis (adjusted OR 2·79, 95 % CI 1·31, 5·95, P = 0·008), independent of established risk factors and potential confounders. Among patients with sarcopenia, significant fibrosis occurred more frequently in the rs3480 AA genotype carriers than in those carrying the FNDC5 rs3480 G genotype (43·8 v. 17·2 %, P = 0·031). In the association between sarcopenia and liver fibrosis, there was a significant interaction between the FNDC5 genotype and sarcopenia status (P value for interaction = 0·006). Sarcopenia is independently associated with significant liver fibrosis, and the FNDC5 rs3480 G variant influences the association between sarcopenia and liver fibrosis in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD.
Pomegranate peel is an agro-industrial residue obtained after fruit processing with high total polyphenol (TP) content, making it an attractive by-product for its reuse. Pomegranate peel extract (PPE) and its bioactive compounds have shown positive effects on obesity models. Effects on favouring mitochondrial biogenesis and function have also been described. However, once phenolic compounds are extracted, their stability can be affected by diverse factors. Microencapsulation could improve PPE stability, allowing its incorporation into functional foods. Nevertheless, studies on the potential biological effects of PPE microparticles (MPPE) in obesity models are lacking. This study aims to evaluate the effect of MPPE on brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondrial structure and function and metabolic alterations related to obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). PPE was microencapsulated by spray drying using inulin (IN) as a wall material and physically–chemically characterised. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6J mice (n 40) were randomly distributed into five groups: control diet (CD), HFD, HFD + IN, HFD + PPE (50 mg/kg per d TP) and HFD + MPPE (50 mg/kg per d TP), for 14 weeks. A glucose tolerance test and indirect calorimetry were conducted. Blood and adipose tissue samples were obtained. MPPE supplementation prevented HFD-induced body weight gain (P < 0·001), fasting glycaemia (P = 0·007) and total cholesterol rise (P = 0·001). MPPE resulted in higher BAT mitochondrial complex IV activity (P = 0·03) and prevented HFD-induced mitochondrial cristae alteration (P = 0·02). In conclusion, MPPE prevented HFD-induced excessive body weight gain and associated metabolic disturbances, potentially by activating complex IV activity and preserving mitochondrial cristae structure in BAT in mice fed with a HFD.
There are few data on the effects on TAG, glucose and uric acid of chronic consumption of a moderate dose of fructose in solid foods. Twenty-eight participants with prediabetes and/or obesity and overweight commenced the study (BMI 32·3 kg/m2, age 44·7 years, fasting glucose 5·3 (sd 0·89) mmol/l and 2-h glucose 6·6 (sd 1·8) mmol/l). Twenty-four men and women who completed the study consumed, in random order, two acute test meals of muffins sweetened with either fructose or sucrose. This was followed by 4-week chronic consumption of 42 g/d of either fructose or sucrose in low-fat muffins after which the two meal tests were repeated. The sugar type in the chronic feeding period was also randomised. Fasting TAG increased after chronic consumption of fructose by 0·31 (sd 0·37) mmol/l compared with sucrose in those participants with impaired fasting glucose (IFG)/impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (P = 0·004). Total cholesterol (0·33 mmol/l), LDL-cholesterol (0·24 mmol/l) and HDL-cholesterol (0·08 mmol/l) increased significantly over the 1- month feeding period with no differences between muffin types. Fasting glucose was not different after 1 month of muffin consumption. Uric acid response was not different between the two sugar types either baseline or 1 month, and there were no differences between baseline and 1 month. The increase in fasting TAG in participants with IFG/IGT suggests the need for caution in people at increased risk of type 2 diabetes.
PUFA modulate immune function and have been associated with the risk of childhood atopy and asthma. We investigated the effect of maternal fat intake in mice on PUFA status, elongase and desaturase gene expression, inflammatory markers and lung function in the offspring. C57BL/6J mice (n 32) were fed either standard chow (C, 20·4 % energy as fat) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 39·9 % energy as fat) for 4 weeks prior to conception and during gestation and lactation. At 21 d of age, offspring were weaned onto either the HFD or C, generating four experimental groups: C/C, C/HF, HF/C and HF/HF. Plasma and liver fatty acid composition were measured by GC and gene expression by quantitative PCR. Lung resistance to methacholine was assessed. Arachidonic acid concentrations in offspring plasma and liver phospholipids were increased by HFD; this effect was greater in the post-natal HFD group. DHA concentration in offspring liver phospholipids was increased in response to HFD and was higher in the post-natal HFD group. Post-natal HFD increased hepatic fatty acid desaturase (FADS) 2 and elongation of very long-chain fatty acid 5 expression in male offspring, whereas maternal HFD elevated expression of FADS1 and FADS2 in female offspring compared with males. Post-natal HFD increased expression of IL-6 and C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) in perivascular adipose tissue. The HFD lowered lung resistance to methacholine. Excessive maternal fat intake during development modifies hepatic PUFA status in offspring through regulation of gene expression of enzymes that are involved in PUFA biosynthesis and modifies the development of the offspring lungs leading to respiratory dysfunction.
Mucositis is an inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa resulting from high doses of radio/chemotherapy treatment and may lead to interruption of antineoplasic therapy. Soluble fibres, like pectin, increase SCFA production, which play a role in gut homoeostasis and inflammation suppression. Due to the properties of pectin, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a high-fibre (HF) diet on chemotherapy-induced mucositis in a murine model. C57/BL6 mice received control (AIN93M), HF, low/zero fibre (LF) diets for 10 d prior to mucositis challenging with irinotecan (75 mg/kg), or they were treated with acetate added to drinking water 5 d prior to and during the mucositis induction. Mice that received the HF diet showed decreased immune cells influx and improved histopathological parameters in the intestine, compared with mice that received the normal diet. Furthermore, the HF diet decreased intestinal permeability induced in the mucositis model when compared with the control group. This effect was not observed for acetate alone, which did not improve gut permeability. For instance, mice that received the LF diet had worsened gut permeability, compared with mice that received the normal diet and mucositis. The effects of the HF and LF diets were shown to modulate the intestinal microbiota, in which the LF diet increased the levels of Enterobacteriaceae, a group associated with gut inflammation, whereas the HF diet decreased this group and increased Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium (SCFA producers) levels. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the importance of dietary fibre intake in the modulation of gut microbiota composition and homoeostasis maintenance during mucositis in this model.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on glycaemic control and consumption of processed (PF) and ultraprocessed (UPF) foods in pregnant women with pre-gestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM). This is a randomised, controlled, single-blind clinical trial with forty-nine adult women with PGDM, followed at a public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The control group (CG) received a standard diet consisting of 45–55 % of the total energy intake of carbohydrates, 15–20 % of proteins and 25–30 % of lipids. The DASH group (DG) received an adapted DASH diet, which did not differ from the standard diet in the percentage of macronutrients, but had higher contents of fibre, unsaturated fats and minerals such as Ca, Mg and K; and lower contents of Na and saturated fats than the standard diet. In the analysis by protocol, the DG presented a higher incidence of glycaemic control after 12 weeks of intervention (57·1 v. 8·3 %, P = 0·01, moderate effect size) and a lower mean consumption of UPF (−9·9 %, P = 0·01) compared with the CG. There was no statistically significant difference in fasting and postprandial blood glucose concentrations, or in the consumption of PF between the groups (P > 0·05). The DASH diet may be a strategy for glycaemic control in pregnant women with PGDM, favouring the adoption of a nutritionally adequate diet with lower consumption of UPF. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of the DASH diet on glycaemic profile, and maternal and perinatal outcomes in women with PGDM.
Although hepcidin synthesis is stimulated by inflammation and inhibited by Fe deficiency, the strength of their opposing effects on serum hepcidin (SHep) in humans remains unclear. It was recently shown that an inflammatory stimulus in anaemic women did not increase SHep or decrease Fe absorption. The enhancing effect of ascorbic acid on Fe absorption may not be effective during inflammation because of increased SHep. Our study aim was to test whether reducing inflammation in Fe-depleted overweight (OW) women with low-grade inflammation would lower SHep and improve Fe absorption with and without ascorbic acid, compared with normal-weight (NW) women without inflammation. Before and after 14 d of anti-inflammatory treatment (3 × 600 mg ibuprofen daily) in OW and NW women (n 36; 19–46 years of age), we measured SHep and fractional Fe absorption (FIA) (erythrocyte Fe incorporation) from 57Fe- and 58Fe-labelled test meals with and without ascorbic acid. There were significant group effects on IL-6, C-reactive protein, serum ferritin and SHep (for all, P < 0·05). There was a significant treatment effect on SHep (P < 0·05): in OW women, treatment decreased IL-6 by approximately 30 % and SHep by approximately 45 %. However, there were no significant treatment or group effects on FIA. Body Fe stores (BIS) were a significant positive predictor of SHep before and after treatment (P < 0·001), but IL-6 was not. Reducing chronic inflammation in OW women halved SHep but did not affect Fe absorption with or without ascorbic acid, and the main predictor of Fe absorption was BIS.
Folate status for women during early pregnancy has been investigated, but data for women during mid-pregnancy, late pregnancy or lactation are sparse or lacking. Between May and July 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 1211 pregnant and lactating women from three representative regions in China. Approximately 135 women were enrolled in each stratum by physiological periods (mid-pregnancy, late pregnancy or lactation) and regions (south, central or north). Plasma folate concentrations were measured by microbiological assay. The adjusted medians of folate concentration decreased from 28·8 (interquartile range (IQR) 19·9, 38·2) nmol/l in mid-pregnancy to 18·6 (IQR 13·2, 26·4) nmol/l in late pregnancy, and to 17·0 (IQR 12·3, 22·5) nmol/l in lactation (Pfor trend < 0·001). Overall, lower folate concentrations were more likely to be observed in women residing in the northern region, with younger age, higher pre-pregnancy BMI, lower education or multiparity, and in lactating women who had undergone a Caesarean delivery or who were breastfeeding exclusively. In total, 380 (31·4 %) women had a suboptimal folate status (folate concentration <13·5 nmol/l). Women in late pregnancy and lactating, residing in the northern region, having multiparity and low education level had a higher risk of suboptimal folate status, while those with older age had a lower risk. In conclusion, maternal plasma folate concentrations decreased as pregnancy progressed, and were influenced by geographic region and maternal socio-demographic characteristics. Future studies are warranted to assess the necessity of folic acid supplementation during later pregnancy and lactation especially for women at a higher risk of folate depletion.
The aim was to systematically analyse the association of the specific flavonoids, Mg and their interactions from different food sources with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in a cohort study. A total of 6417 participants aged 20 to 74 years from the Harbin Cohort Study on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Non-communicable Diseases were included. Multivariate logistic regression analyses, forest plot and restricted cubic spline were performed in the study. After a 5·3-year follow-up, 1283 incident cases of the MetS were reported. Those with a higher total flavonoid intake had a lower risk of the MetS (fourth v. first quartile, relative risk (RR) 0·58; 95 % CI 0·37, 0·93; P = 0·024) and central obesity (RR 0·56; 95 % CI 0·33, 0·95; P = 0·032). Further analysis showed that the specific flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, luteolin, and flavonoids from fruits, potatoes and legumes had the similar associations with risk of the MetS and central obesity (P < 0·05 for all). A higher intake of total flavonoids, quercetin and luteolin combined with a high level of Mg was more strongly associated with a lower risk of the MetS (RR 0·60; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·81 for total; RR 0·61; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·82 for quercetin; RR 0·52; 95 % CI 0·38, 0·71 for luteolin; all Pfor interaction < 0·01). Dose–response effects showed an L-shaped curve between the total intake of five flavonoids and the risk of the MetS. A higher flavonoid intake is associated with a lower risk of the MetS and central obesity; their combination with Mg helps to strengthen their negative association with the MetS.
Babies born small-for-gestational age (SGA) have an increased risk of mortality, morbidity and adverse functional consequences. Studies suggest that pre-pregnancy maternal diet may influence newborns’ size. This study aimed to determine whether maternal pre-pregnancy dietary patterns (DP) are associated with delivering SGA newborns in the ProcriAr Cohort Study, Sao Paulo-Brazil. Pre-pregnancy DP of 299 women were investigated using factor analysis with principal component’s estimation, based on intake reported on a validated 110-item FFQ. Newborns were classified as SGA if their weight and/or length, adjusted by gestational age and sex, were below the 10th percentile of the INTERGROWTH-21st standards. Multivariate Poisson regression modelling with robust error variance was performed to examine associations between the different DP (in quintiles) and SGA. In a model adjusted by maternal sociodemographic and health behaviours, women who scored in the highest quintile of the DP ‘Snacks, sandwiches, sweets and soft drinks’ (in relation to the women who scored in the lowest quintile) were significantly more likely to deliver SGA babies (relative risk 1·92; 95 % CI 1·08, 3·39). This study verified that women’s pre-pregnancy dietary behaviour characterised by an energy-dense nutrient-poor food intake was a risk factor for delivering SGA newborns. Investments in education and improved access to healthful food and nutritional information before pregnancy should be prioritised due to their potential positive impact on child health. However, further studies are warranted to identify specific metabolic pathways that may be underlying these associations.
The impact of diet on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and CVD has been investigated widely, but few studies have investigated the association between dietary patterns (DP) and the predicted CVD, derived from reduced rank regression (RRR). The objectives of this study were to derive DP using RRR and principal component analysis (PCA) and investigate their associations with the MetS and estimated 10-year atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD). We used the baseline dataset from the Xinjiang multi-ethnic cohort study in China, collected from June 2018 to May 2019. A total of 14 982 subjects aged 35–74 years from Urumqi, Huo Cheng and Mo Yu were included in the analysis. The 10-year ASCVD risk was estimated using the Chinese ASCVD risk equations. The associations of DP with the MetS and 10-year ASCVD were determined using multivariable logistic regression models. In Urumqi and Mo Yu, the increased RRR DP score was associated with a higher OR of having the MetS and with a higher OR of elevated 10-year ASCVD risk. However, only the first DP determined by PCA in Urumqi was inversely associated with the MetS and elevated 10-year ASCVD risk. The prevalence of the MetS and elevated ASCVD risk in urban population is higher than that in rural areas. Our results may help nutritionists develop more targeted dietary strategies to prevent the MetS and ASCVD in different regions in China.
In this study, we analysed the prevalence of diabetes in Inner Mongolia and explored the relationship between dietary patterns and diabetes using the Chinese Dietary Balance Index-16 (DBI-16). This study was a surveillance survey of Chronic Disease and Nutrition Monitoring among Chinese Adults in Inner Mongolia in 2015. Dietary data were collected using the 24-h dietary recall and weighing method over three consecutive days. Dietary quality was evaluated via the DBI-16. A generalised linear model was used to examine the associations between the DBI-16 and dietary patterns. The relationship between dietary patterns and diabetes was analysed using logistic regression. In Inner Mongolia, the diabetes prevalence was 8·5 % and the estimated standardised prevalence was 6·0 %. Four major dietary patterns were identified: ‘meat/dairy products’, ‘traditional northern’, ‘high cereal/tuber’ and ‘high-salt/alcohol’. Generalised linear models showed that the ‘meat/dairy product’ pattern was relatively balanced (βLBS = –1·993, βHBS = –0·206, βDQD = –2·199; all P < 0·05) and was associated with a lower diabetes risk (OR 0·565; 95 % CI 0·338, 0·945; P < 0·05) after adjusting for potential confounders. The other three dietary patterns (i.e. ‘traditional northern’, ‘high cereal/tuber’ and ‘high-salt/alcohol’) exhibited relatively unbalanced dietary quality and were unassociated with diabetes risk. Diabetes prevalence in Inner Mongolia was moderate. The dietary quality of the ‘meat/dairy product’ pattern was relatively balanced and was correlated with a decreased risk of diabetes prevalence, suggesting that dietary quality may help decrease diabetes prevalence and provide a suggestion for local dietary guidelines.
The Grocery Purchase Quality Index (GPQI) reflects concordance between household grocery purchases and US dietary recommendations. However, it is unclear whether GPQI scores calculated from partial purchasing records reflect individual-level diet quality. This secondary analysis of a 9-month randomised controlled trial examined concordance between the GPQI (range 0–75, scaled to 100) calculated from 3 months of loyalty-card linked partial (≥50 %) household grocery purchasing data and individual-level Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores at baseline and 3 months calculated from FFQ (n 209). Concordance was assessed with overall and demographic-stratified partially adjusted correlations; covariate-adjusted percentage score differences, cross-classification and weighted κ coefficients assessed concordance across GPQI tertiles (T). Participants were middle aged (55·4 (13·9) years), female (90·3 %), from non-smoking households (96·4 %) and without children (70·7 %). Mean GPQI (54·8 (9·1) %) scores were lower than HEI scores (baseline: 73·2 (9·1) %, 3 months: 72·4 (9·4) %) and moderately correlated (baseline r 0·41 v. 3 months r 0·31, P < 0·001). Correlations were stronger among participants with ≤ bachelor’s degree, obesity and children. Scores showed moderate agreement (κ = 0·25); concordance was highest in T3. Participants with high (T3) v. low (T1) GPQI scores had 7·3–10·6 higher odds of having HEI scores >80 % at both time points. Household-level GPQI was moderately correlated with self-reported intake, indicating their promise for evaluating diet quality. Partial purchasing data appear to moderately reflect individual diet quality and may be useful in interventions monitoring changes in diet quality.
In the past, food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) were derived nearly exclusively by using systematic reviews on diet–health relationships and translating dietary reference values for nutrient intake into foods. This approach neglects many other implications that dietary recommendations have on society, the economy and environment. In view of pressing challenges, such as climate change and the rising burden of diet-related diseases, the simultaneous integration of evidence-based findings from different dimensions into FBDGs is required. Consequently, mathematical methods and data processing are evolving as powerful tools in nutritional sciences. The possibilities and reasons for the derivation of FBDGs via mathematical approaches were the subject of a joint workshop hosted by the German Nutrition Society (DGE) and the Federation of European Nutrition Societies (FENS) in September 2019 in Bonn, Germany. European scientists were invited to discuss and exchange on the topics of mathematical optimisation for the development of FBDGs and different approaches to integrate various dimensions into FBDGs. We concluded that mathematical optimisation is a suitable tool to formulate FBDGs finding trade-offs between conflicting goals and taking several dimensions into account. We identified a lack of evidence for the extent to which constraints and weights for different dimensions are set and the challenge to compile diverse data that suit the demands of optimisation models. We also found that individualisation via mathematical optimisation is one perspective of FBDGs to increase consumer acceptance, but the application of mathematical optimisation for population-based and individual FBDGs requires more experience and evaluation for further improvements.
The prevalence of central obesity in the total population has been reported in numerous studies. However, information on the prevalence of central obesity within normal-category BMI is scant. In the present study, we examined the profiles of central obesity among normal-weight children and adolescents. A total of 29 516 (14 226 boys and 15 290 girls) normal-weight children and adolescents (excluding underweight, overweight and obesity) aged 7–18 years were included in the final analysis. Central obesity was defined by the international age- and sex-specific cut-offs of waist circumference (WC) and threshold of waist:height ratio (WHtR ≥ 0·5). All subjects were classified into four groups (Q1–Q4) according to the age- and sex-specific quartiles of BMI, those in the upper fourth (Q4) were defined as ‘high-normal BMI’ and those in the lower fourth (Q1) were defined as ‘low-normal BMI’. The prevalence of central obesity as measured by WC was 9·90 (95 % CI 9·41, 10·39) % for boys and 8·11 (95 % CI 7·68, 8·54) % for girls; by WHtR was 2·97 (95 % CI 2·69, 3·25) % for boys and 2·44 (95 % CI 2·20, 2·68) % for girls. Subjects in the Q4 group had a much higher prevalence of central obesity than their counterparts in the Q1 group (P < 0·01). Our findings suggest that the health risks of children with normal-weight central obesity may be missed when BMI is used alone as a measure; it is meaningful to include WC in clinical practice and to include the simple message ‘Keep your waist to less than half your height’.