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The association between the maternal diet and the maternal and infant gut microbiome: a systematic review

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 March 2020

Siofra E. Maher
Affiliation:
UCD Perinatal Research Centre, School of Medicine, University College Dublin, National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
Eileen C. O’Brien
Affiliation:
UCD Perinatal Research Centre, School of Medicine, University College Dublin, National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
Rebecca L. Moore
Affiliation:
UCD Perinatal Research Centre, School of Medicine, University College Dublin, National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
David F. Byrne
Affiliation:
UCD Perinatal Research Centre, School of Medicine, University College Dublin, National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
Aisling A. Geraghty
Affiliation:
UCD Perinatal Research Centre, School of Medicine, University College Dublin, National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
Radka Saldova
Affiliation:
The National Institute for Bioprocessing, Research, and Training (NIBRT), Dublin, Ireland UCD School of Medicine, College of Health and Agricultural Science, University College Dublin, Ireland
Eileen F. Murphy
Affiliation:
Alimentary Health Group, Cork Airport Business Park, Cork, Ireland
Douwe Van Sinderen
Affiliation:
APC Microbiome Ireland, National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland School of Microbiology, National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland
Paul D. Cotter
Affiliation:
APC Microbiome Ireland, National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Cork, Ireland
Fionnuala M. McAuliffe*
Affiliation:
UCD Perinatal Research Centre, School of Medicine, University College Dublin, National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
*
*Corresponding author: Prof. Fionnuala McAuliffe, UCD Perinatal Research Centre, School of Medicine, University College Dublin, National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. E-mail: fionnuala.mcauliffe@ucd.ie Telephone: +353 1 637 3216 Fax: +353 1 662 7586
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Abstract

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During pregnancy, changes occur to influence the maternal gut microbiome, and potentially the fetal microbiome. Diet has been shown to impact the gut microbiome. Little research has been conducted examining diet during pregnancy with respect to the gut microbiome. To meet inclusion criteria, dietary analyses must have been conducted as part of the primary aim. The primary outcome was the composition of the gut microbiome (infant or maternal), as assessed using culture-independent sequencing techniques. This review identified seven studies for inclusion, five examining the maternal gut microbiome and two examining the fetal gut microbiome. Microbial data were attained through analysis of stool samples by 16S rRNA gene-based microbiota assessment. Studies found an association between the maternal diet and gut microbiome. High-fat diets (% fat of total energy), fat-soluble vitamins (mg/day) and fibre (g/day) were the most significant nutrients associated with the gut microbiota composition of both neonates and mothers. High-fat diets were significantly associated with a reduction in microbial diversity. High-fat diets may reduce microbial diversity, while fibre intake may be positively associated with microbial diversity. The results of this review must be interpreted with caution. The number of studies was low, and the risk of observational bias and heterogeneity across the studies must be considered. However, these results show promise for dietary intervention and microbial manipulation in order to favour an increase of health-associated taxa in the gut of the mother and her offspring.

Type
Review Article
Creative Commons
Creative Common License - CCCreative Common License - BY
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Copyright
© The Authors 2020
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Open access
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