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Effects of energy balance on appetite and physiological mediators of appetite during strenuous physical activity: secondary analysis of a randomised crossover trial

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 January 2021

J. Philip Karl
Affiliation:
Military Nutrition Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, 10 General Greene Ave, Bldg 42, Natick, MA 01760, USA
Adrienne Hatch-McChesney
Affiliation:
Military Nutrition Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, 10 General Greene Ave, Bldg 42, Natick, MA 01760, USA
Jillian T. Allen
Affiliation:
Military Nutrition Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, 10 General Greene Ave, Bldg 42, Natick, MA 01760, USA Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN 21017, USA
Heather S. Fagnant
Affiliation:
Military Nutrition Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, 10 General Greene Ave, Bldg 42, Natick, MA 01760, USA
Patrick N. Radcliffe
Affiliation:
Military Nutrition Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, 10 General Greene Ave, Bldg 42, Natick, MA 01760, USA Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN 21017, USA
Graham Finlayson
Affiliation:
Appetite Control and Energy Balance Research Group, School of Psychology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
Jess A. Gwin
Affiliation:
Military Nutrition Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, 10 General Greene Ave, Bldg 42, Natick, MA 01760, USA Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN 21017, USA
Lee M. Margolis
Affiliation:
Military Nutrition Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, 10 General Greene Ave, Bldg 42, Natick, MA 01760, USA
Stephen R. Hennigar
Affiliation:
Military Nutrition Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, 10 General Greene Ave, Bldg 42, Natick, MA 01760, USA Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN 21017, USA Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University, 414 Sandels Building, 120 Convocation Way, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA
James P. McClung
Affiliation:
Military Nutrition Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, 10 General Greene Ave, Bldg 42, Natick, MA 01760, USA
Stefan M. Pasiakos
Affiliation:
Military Nutrition Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, 10 General Greene Ave, Bldg 42, Natick, MA 01760, USA
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Energy deficit is common during prolonged periods of strenuous physical activity and limited sleep, but the extent to which appetite suppression contributes is unclear. The aim of this randomised crossover study was to determine the effects of energy balance on appetite and physiological mediators of appetite during a 72-h period of high physical activity energy expenditure (about 9·6 MJ/d (2300 kcal/d)) and limited sleep designed to simulate military operations (SUSOPS). Ten men consumed an energy-balanced diet while sedentary for 1 d (REST) followed by energy-balanced (BAL) and energy-deficient (DEF) controlled diets during SUSOPS. Appetite ratings, gastric emptying time (GET) and appetite-mediating hormone concentrations were measured. Energy balance was positive during BAL (18 (sd 20) %) and negative during DEF (–43 (sd 9) %). Relative to REST, hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption ratings were all higher during DEF (26 (sd 40) %, 56 (sd 71) %, 28 (sd 34) %, respectively) and lower during BAL (–55 (sd 25) %, −52 (sd 27) %, −54 (sd 21) %, respectively; P condition < 0·05). Fullness ratings did not differ from REST during DEF, but were 65 (sd 61) % higher during BAL (P condition < 0·05). Regression analyses predicted hunger and prospective consumption would be reduced and fullness increased if energy balance was maintained during SUSOPS, and energy deficits of ≥25 % would be required to elicit increases in appetite. Between-condition differences in GET and appetite-mediating hormones identified slowed gastric emptying, increased anorexigenic hormone concentrations and decreased fasting acylated ghrelin concentrations as potential mechanisms of appetite suppression. Findings suggest that physiological responses that suppress appetite may deter energy balance from being achieved during prolonged periods of strenuous activity and limited sleep.

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Full Papers
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Nutrition Society

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Effects of energy balance on appetite and physiological mediators of appetite during strenuous physical activity: secondary analysis of a randomised crossover trial
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