When people living in poverty are asked to describe their living conditions, mental health issues quickly come to mind (grief, sadness, anger, fear, bitterness, frustration, discontent, anxiety, and emotional damage consisting of low mood and depression, fatigue, hypersensitivity, sleep difficulties and physical pain). Although the association between poverty and mental health have been widely demonstrated in the literature, care must be taken to avoid the psychiatrization of poverty. However, how can healthcare be provided to people living in poverty when basic needs are not met? This article explores the global challenge of providing mental health services in impoverished populations, using the example of the poorest country in America: Haiti. It examines the availability of services offered through the Mental Health Centre at Morne Pelé, and the necessity for innovative and comprehensive approaches to provide culturally appropriate care that meets the real needs of populations. It highlights effective measures that policy makers should implement to develop an efficient mental healthcare system based on the lessons of the Mental Health Centre at Morne Pelé.