Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-cf9d5c678-j7tnp Total loading time: 0.772 Render date: 2021-07-31T05:33:29.450Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

The Logic of Climate and Culture: Evolutionary and Psychological Aspects of CLASH

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 May 2017

Paul A. M. Van Lange
Department of Applied and Experimental Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Maria I. Rinderu
Department of Applied and Experimental Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Brad J. Bushman
School of Communication, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 Department of Communication Science, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


A total of 80 authors working in a variety of scientific disciplines commented on the theoretical model of CLimate, Aggression, and Self-control in Humans (CLASH). The commentaries cover a wide range of issues, including the logic and assumptions of CLASH, the evidence in support of CLASH, and other possible causes of aggression and violence (e.g., wealth, income inequality, political circumstances, historic circumstances, pathogen stress). Some commentaries also provide data relevant to CLASH. Here we clarify the logic and assumptions of CLASH and discusses its extensions and boundary conditions. We also offer suggestions for future research. Regardless of whether none, some, or all of CLASH is found to be true, we hope it will stimulate future research on the link between climate and human behavior. Climate is one of the most presing issues of our time.

Authors' Response
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Balliet, D., Tybur, J. & Van Lange, P. A. M. (2017) Functional Interdependence Theory: An evolutionary account of social situations. Personality and Social Psychology Review. Advanced online publication. doi: 10.1177/1088868316657965.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baumeister, R. F. (2005) The cultural animal: Human nature, meaning, and social life. Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baumeister, R. F. & Tierney, J. (2011) Willpower: Rediscovering the greatest human strength. Penguin Press.Google Scholar
Baumeister, R. F., Vohs, K. D. & Oettingen, G. (2016) Pragmatic prospection: How and why people think about the future. Review of General Psychology 20:316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boyd, R. & Richerson, P. (2005) The origin and evolution of cultures. University Press.Google Scholar
Boyd, R. & Richerson, P. (2009) Culture and the evolution of human cooperation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 364:3281–88. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2009.0134.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burke, M., Hsiang, S. M. & Miguel, E. (2015) Climate and conflict. Annual Review of Economics 7:577617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carleton, T. A. & Hsiang, S. M. (2016) Social and economic impacts of climate. Science 353:6304. doi: 10.1126/science.aad9837.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cohen, D. (1998) Culture, social organization, and patterns of violence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75:408–19. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.75.2.408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Vries, R. & Van Gelder, J. L. (2013) Tales of two self-control scales: Relations with Five-Factor and HEXACO traits. Personality and Individual Differences 54:756–60. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2012.12.023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeWall, C. N., Finkel, E. J. & Denson, T. F. (2011) Self-control inhibits aggression. Social and Personality Psychology Compass 5/7:458–72. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9004.2011.00363.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dinesen, P. T. (2012) Does generalized (dis)trust travel? Examining the impact of cultural heritage and destination-country environment on trust of immigrants. Political Psychology 33:495511. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9221.2012.00886.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dohmen, T., Enke, B., Falk, A., Huffman, D. & Sunde, U. (2015) Patience and wealth of nations. Unpublished manuscript. University of Bonn.Google Scholar
Fehr, E. & Schmidt, K. M. (1999) A theory of fairness, competition, and cooperation. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 111:817–68. doi: 10.1162/003355399556151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fincher, C. L. & Thornhill, R. (2012) Parasite-stress promotes ingroup assortative sociality: The cases of strong family ties and heightened religiosity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35:61119. doi: 10.1017/s0140525x11000021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fincher, C. L., Thornhill, R., Murray, D. R. & Schaller, M. (2008) Pathogen prevalence predicts human cross-cultural variability in individualism/collectivism. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 275:1640. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X11000021.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frankenhuis, W. E., Panchanathan, K. & Nettle, D. (2016) Cognition in hash and unpredictable environments. Current Opinion in Psychology 7:7680. doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.08.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gelfand, M. J. (2012) Culture's constraints: International differences in the strength of social norms. Current Directions in Psychological Science 21:420–24. doi: 10.1177/0963721412460048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gelfand, M. J., Bhawuk, D. P., Nishii, L. & Bechtold, D. (2004) Individualism and collectivism. In: Culture, leadership, and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 cultures, ed. House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W. & Gupta, V., pp. 437512. Sage.Google Scholar
Gottfredson, M. R. & Hirschi, T., eds. (1990) A general theory of crime. Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Guernier, V., Hochberg, M. E. & Guégan, J-F. (2004) Ecology drives worldwide distribution of human diseases. PLoS Biology 2(6):e141. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020141.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hawton, K. (2007) Restricting access to methods of suicide. Crisis 28:49. doi: 10.1027/0227-5910.28.S1.4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Henrich, J. (2015a) Culture and social behavior. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences 3:8489. doi: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2015.02.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Henrich, J. (2015b) The secret of our success: How culture is driving human evolution, domesticating our species, and making us smarter. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Henry, B., Caspi, A., Mofitt, T. E. & Silva, P. A. (1996) Temperamental and familial predictors of violent and nonviolent criminal convictions: Age 3 to age 18. Developmental Psychology 32:614–23. doi: 10.1037//0012-1649.32.4.614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hofstede, G., ed. (2001) Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations, 2nd edition. Sage.Google Scholar
IJzerman, H. & Semin, G. R. (2009) The thermometer of social relations mapping social proximity on temperature. Psychological Science 20(10):1214–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Joireman, J., Anderson, J. & Strathman, A. (2003) The aggression paradox: Understanding links among aggression, sensation seeking, and the consideration of future consequences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84:1287–302. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.84.6.1287.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kelley, H. H., Holmes, J. W., Kerr, N. L., Reis, H. T., Rusbult, C. E. & Van Lange, P. A. M. (2003) An atlas of interpersonal situations. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kenrick, D. T. & Gomez Jacinto, L. (2013) Economics, sex, and the emergence of society. In: Advances in culture and psychology, vol. 4, ed. Gelfand, M. J., Chiu, C. & Hong, Y., pp. 78123. Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Köbis, N. C., Van Prooijen, J. W., Righetti, F. & Van Lange, P. A. M. (2016) Prospection in individual and interpersonal corruption dilemmas. Review of General Psychology 20:7185. doi: 10.1037/gpr0000069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lawrence, C. & Andrews, K. (2004) The influence of perceived prison crowding on male inmates' perception of aggressive events. Aggressive Behavior 30:273–83. doi: 10.1002/ab.20024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mazloumi, A., Golbabaei, F., Khani, S. M., Kazemi, Z., Hosseini, M., Abbasinia, M., Dehghan, S. F. (2014) Evaluating effects of heat stress on cognitive function among workers in a hot industry. Health Promotion Perspectives 4:240–46. doi: 10.5681/hpp.2014.031.Google Scholar
Mischel, W. (2012) Self-control theory. In: Handbook of theories of social psychology, vol. 2, ed. Van Lange, P. A. M., Kruglanski, A. & Higgins, E. T., pp. 122. Sage.Google Scholar
Mischel, W., Shoda, Y. & Peake, P. K. (1988) The nature of adolescent competencies predicted by preschool delay of gratification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54:687–99. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.54.4.687.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murray, D. R. & Schaller, M. (2016) The behavioral immune system: Implications for social cognition, social interaction, and social influence. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 53:75129. doi: 10.1016/bs.aesp.2015.09.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
National Centers for Environmental Information (2015) Global analysis. Available at: Scholar
Nisbett, R. E. (1993) Violence and U.S. regional culture. American Psychologist 48:441–49. doi: 10.1037/0003-066x.48.4.441.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nisbett, R. E. & Cohen, D., eds. (1996) Culture of honor: The psychology of violence in the South. Westview Press.Google Scholar
Nowak, A., Gelfand, M. J., Borkowski, W., Cohen, D. & Hernandez, I. (2016) The evolutionary basis of honor cultures. Psychological Science 27:1224. doi: 10.1177/0956797615602860.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parks, C. D., Joireman, J. & Van Lange, P. A. M. (2013) Cooperation, trust, and antagonism: How public goods are promoted. Psychological Science in the Public Interest 14:119–65. doi: 10.1177/1529100612474436.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Plante, C., Allen, J. J. & Anderson, C. A. (2017) Likely effects of rapid climate change on violence and conflict. In: The Oxford research encyclopedia of climate science. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Pollet, T. V., Tybur, J. M., Frankenhuis, W. E. & Rickard, I. J. (2014) What can cross-cultural correlations teach us about human nature? Human Nature 25:410–29. doi: 10.1007/s12110-014-9206-3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pratt, T. C. & Cullen, F. T. (2000) The empirical status of Gottfredson and Hirschi's General Theory of Crime: A meta-analysis. Criminology 38:931–64. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2000.tb00911.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Richardson, K., Steffen, W. & Liverman, D. (2011) Climate change: Global risk, challenges and decisions. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Russell, G. W. (1983) Crowd size and density in relation to athletic aggression and performance. Social Behavior and Personality 11:915. doi: 10.2224/sbp.1983.11.1.9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schaller, M. (2006) Parasites, behavioral defenses, and the social psychological mechanisms through which cultures are evoked. Psychological Inquiry 17:96101. doi: 10.1207/pli.2006.17.issue-4.Google Scholar
Schaller, M. (2016) The behavioral immune system. In: The handbook of evolutionary psychology, vol. 1, 2nd edition, ed. Buss, D. M., pp. 206–24. Wiley.Google Scholar
Simpson, J. A. & Belsky, J. (2016) Attachment theory within a modern evolutionary framework. In: Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications, 3rd edition, ed. Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. R., pp. 91116. Guilford.Google Scholar
Solinger, O. N. Van Olffen, W. Roe, R. A. (2008) Beyond the three-component model of organizational commitment. Journal of Applied Psychology 93:7083. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.93.1.70.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tangney, J. P., Baumeister, R. F. & Boone, A. L. (2004) High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success. Journal of Personality 72:271324.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van de Vliert, E. (2013a) Climato-economic habitats support patterns of human needs, stresses, and freedoms. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36(05):465–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van de Vliert, E., Schwartz, S. H., Huismans, S. E., Hofstede, G. & Daan, S. (1999) Temperature, cultural masculinity, and domestic political violence. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 30:291314. doi: 10.1177/0022022199030003002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van de Vliert, E. & Tol, R. S. J. (2014) Harsh climate promotes harsh governance (except in cold-dry-wealthy environments). Climate Research 61:1928. doi: 10.3354/cr01246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van de Vliert, E., Van der Vegt, G. S. & Janssen, O. (2009) Prosocial to egoistic enculturation of our children: A climato-economic contextualization. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research 2(2):123–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Gelder, J.-L., Hershfield, H. & Nordgren, L. F. (2013) Vividness of the future self predicts delinquency. Psychological Science 24:974–80. doi: 10.1177/0956797612465197.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van Gelder, J.-L., Luciano, E. C., Weulen Krananbarg, M. & Hershfield, H. (2015) Friends with my future self: Longitudinal vividness intervention reduces delinquency. Criminology 53:158–79. doi: 10.1111/1745-9125.12064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Lange, P. A. M. (1999) The pursuit of joint outcomes and equality in outcomes: An integrative model of social value orientation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 77:337–49. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.77.2.337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Lange, P. A. M. (2013) What we should expect from theories in social psychology. Truth, Abstraction, Progress, and Applicability as standards (TAPAS). Personality and Social Psychology Review 17:234–41. doi: 10.1177/1088868312453088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Lange, P. A. M. (2015) Generalized trust: Lessons from genetics and culture. Current Directions in Psychological Science 24:7176. doi: 10.1177/0963721414552473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Lange, P. A. M., Bien, M., Rinderu, M. I. & Van Doesum, N. (2016) Football coaches are fired and hired more often in countries closer to the equator: A test of CLASH in Europe. Unpublished manuscript, VU Amsterdam.Google Scholar
Van Lange, P. A. M. Joireman, J., Parks, C. D. & Van Dijk, E. (2013) The psychology of social dilemmas: A review. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 120:125–41. doi: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2012.11.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Lange, P. A. M. & Rusbult, C. E. (2012) Interdependence theory. In: Handbook of theories of social psychology, vol. 2, ed. Van Lange, P. A. M., Kruglanski, A. W. & Higgins, E. T., pp. 251–72. Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Lange, P. A. M., Vinkhuyzen, A. A. E. & Posthuma, D. (2014) Genetic influences are virtually absent for trust. PLoS One 9(4):e93880. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093880.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
White, R. A., Arael, D., Papadopoulos, F. C., Lambert, G. W. & Miller, M. (2015) Does suicide have a strong association with seasonality than sunlight? BMJ Open 5:18. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilkinson, R. & Pickett, K. (2009) The spirit level: Why more equal societies almost always do better. Allen Lane.Google Scholar
Williams, L. E. & Bargh, J. A. (2008) Experiencing physical warmth promotes interpersonal warmth. Science 322(5901):606607.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yamagishi, T. & Mifune, N. (2009) Social exchange and solidarity: In-group love or out-group hate? Evolution and Human Behavior 30:229–37. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2009.02.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The Logic of Climate and Culture: Evolutionary and Psychological Aspects of CLASH
Available formats

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

The Logic of Climate and Culture: Evolutionary and Psychological Aspects of CLASH
Available formats

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

The Logic of Climate and Culture: Evolutionary and Psychological Aspects of CLASH
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *