The degree and nature of association between trace metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Ag, & Cd) and cyanobacterial mats, phytoplankton and sediments has been assessed in the Lake Vanda region of the Wright Valley, Victoria Land. Trace metal:Fe ratios and SEM imaging confirmed that apparent trace metal enrichment in cyanobacterial mats, relative to the sediment beneath, was due to incorporation of fine (sub-micron) sediment particles in the muciligenous matrix of the mat. In suspended particulate material (SPM) filtered from the oxic water of Lake Vanda and the Onyx River, the degree of trace metal binding to the SPM did not appear to correlate with phytoplankton content. Instead a positive correlation was observed between Fe and trace metal content. The SPM at the top of the lake water column, where only the finest sediment remains suspended, had the highest trace metal concentrations. It is concluded that the trace metal content of cyanobacterial mats and phytoplankton samples is primarily due to incorporation of fine sediment particles of high surface area which therefore enhance trace metal adsorption capacity. This reinforces the existing hypothesis that trace metal solubility in this environment is primarily controlled by abiotic processes.