Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-4hhp2 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-19T01:39:02.243Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

The Heart of Heritage: Sociocultural Dimensions of Heritage Language Learning

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 July 2010

Abstract

The very notion of heritage language (HL) is a sociocultural one insofar as it is defined in terms of a group of people who speak it. Heritage languages also have a sociocultural function, both as a means of communication and as a way of identifying and transforming sociocultural groups. This article surveys two broad approaches to research on the sociocultural dimensions of HL learning. While both of these approaches acknowledge the close connection and mutual dependency between HL learning processes and sociocultural processes, they differ in that one of them takes a correlational perspective, and the other a social constructivist perspective. This article reviews a selective body of work conducted from each of the two perspectives and concludes with a discussion of the implications of the sociocultural complexity associated with HL learning for research and practice.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2010

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

REFERENCES

Abdalla, M. (2009, June). Negotiating the syllabus: The case of Arab heritage learners. Paper presented at the Third Heritage Language Summer Institute, Urbana, IL.Google Scholar
Agha, A., & Wortham, S. (2005). Discourse across speech events: Intertextuality and interdiscursivity in social life [Special issue]. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 15 (1).Google Scholar
Andrews, D. R. (1999). Sociocultural perspectives on language change in diaspora. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Atkinson, D. (2002). Toward a sociocognitive approach to SLA. Modern Language Journal, 86, 525545.Google Scholar
Baker, C. (2006). Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Bartlett, L. (2007). Bilingual literacies, social identification, and educational trajectories. Linguistics and Education, 18, 215231.Google Scholar
Bayley, R., & Schecter, S. (Eds.). (2003). Language socialization in bilingual and multilingual societies. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berger, P. L., & Luckmann, T. (1966). The social construction of reality: A treatise on the sociology of knowledge. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
Bermel, N., & Kagan, O. (2000). The maintenance of written Russian in heritage speakers. In Kagan, O. & Rifkin, B. (Eds.), The learning and teaching of Slavic languages and cultures (pp. 405436). Bloomington, IN: Slavica.Google Scholar
Bhabha, H. K. (1994). The location of culture. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Bhatt, R. (2009, June). Sociolinguistic inquiries into heritage language learning: The Indian diaspora. Paper presented at the Third Heritage Language Summer Institute. Urbana, IL. Retrieved [October 2009] from http://www.international.ucla.edu/languages/nhlrc/2009summer/presentations/Bhatt.pptGoogle Scholar
Bourdieu, P. (1977). Outline of a theory of practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Bourdieu, P. (1991). Language and symbolic power. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Brinton, D., & Kagan, O. (Eds.). (2008). Heritage language acquisition: A new field emerging. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Bucholtz, M., & Hall, K. (2004). Language and identity. In Duranti, A. (Ed.), A companion to linguistic anthropology (pp. 369394). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Byon, A. (2003). Language socialization and Korean as a heritage language: A study of Hawaiian classrooms. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 16, 269283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Campbell, R. N., & Christian, D. (Eds.). (2003). Directions in research: Intergenerational transmission of heritage languages. Heritage Language Journal, 1, 144. Retrieved [October 2009] from http://www.heritagelanguages.orgGoogle Scholar
Carreira, M. (2009, June). Assessment and differentiation in mixed ability classes. Paper presented at the Third Heritage Language Summer Institute, Urbana, IL.Google Scholar
Chen, Y., & He, A. W. (2001). Dui bu dui as a pragmatic marker: Evidence from Chinese classroom discourse. Journal of Pragmatics, 33, 14411465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chinen, K., & Tucker, G. R. (2005). Heritage language development: Understanding the role of ethnic identity and Saturday school participation. Heritage Language Journal, 3, 2759. Retrieved [October 2009] from http://www.heritagelanguages.orgGoogle Scholar
Cho, G. (2000). The role of heritage language in social interactions and relationships: Reflections from a language minority group. Bilingual Research Journal, 24, 369384.Google Scholar
Creeze, A., & Martin, P. (Eds.). (2006). Interaction in complementary school contexts [Special issue]. Language and Education, 20 (1).Google Scholar
Cummins, J. (2005). A proposal for action: Strategies for recognizing HL competence as a learning resource within the mainstream classroom. Modern Language Journal, 89, 585592.Google Scholar
Dai, J. E., & Zhang, L. (2008). What are the learners inheriting? Habitus of the learners. In He, A. W. & Xiao, Y. (Eds.), Chinese as a heritage language (pp. 351). Honolulu, HI: National Foreign Language Resource Center/University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
de Bot, K. (2008). Introduction: Second language development as a dynamic process. Modern Language Journal, 92, 166178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fishman, J. A. (1991). Reversing language shift. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Fishman, J. A. (2001). 300-plus years of heritage language education in the United States. In Peyton, J. K., Ranard, D. A., & McGinnis, S. (Eds.), Heritage languages in America. Preserving a national resource (pp. 8189). McHenry, IL: Center for Applied Linguistics.Google Scholar
Feuerverger, G. (1991). University students’ perceptions of heritage language learning and ethnic identity maintenance. Canadian Modern Language Review, 47, 660677.Google Scholar
Garfinkel, H. (1967). Studies in ethnomethodology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
Garrett, P. B., & Baquedano-López, P. (2002). Language socialization: Reproduction and continuity, transformation and change. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31, 339361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gibbons, J., & Ramirez, E. (2004). Maintaining a minority language: A case study of Hispanic teenagers. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Hall, S. (1990). Cultural identity and diaspora. In Woodward, K. (Ed.), Identity and difference (pp. 5159). London: Sage.Google Scholar
He, A. W. (2000). Grammatical and sequential organization of teachers’ directives. Linguistics and Education, 11, 119140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
He, A. W. (2001). The language of ambiguity: Practices in Chinese heritage language classes. Discourse Studies, 3, 7596.Google Scholar
He, A. W. (2003). Novices and their speech roles in Chinese heritage language classes. In Bayley, R. & Schecter, S. (Eds.), Language socialization in bilingual and multilingual societies (pp. 128146). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
He, A. W. (2004). Identity construction in Chinese heritage language classes. Pragmatics, 14, 199216.Google Scholar
He, A. W. (2005). Discipline, directives, and deletions: Grammar and interaction in Chinese heritage language classes. In Holten, C. & Frodesen, J. (Eds.), The power of context in language teaching and learning: A festschrift for Marianne Celce-Murcia (pp. 115126). Boston, MA: Thomson Heinle.Google Scholar
He, A. W. (2006). Toward an identity theory of the development of Chinese as a heritage language. Heritage Language Journal, 4, 128. Retrieved [October 2009] from http://www.heritagelanguages.orgGoogle Scholar
He, A. W. (2009a). Sequences, scripts, and subject pronouns in the construction of Chinese heritage identity. In Reyes, A. & Lo, A. (Eds.), Beyond yellow English: Toward a linguistic anthropology of Asian Pacific America (pp. 366384). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
He, A. W. (2009b, July). Heritage language across the life span. Lecture presented at the Third National Heritage Language Summer Research Institute. Urbana, Illinois.Google Scholar
He, A. W., & Xiao, Y. (Eds.). (2008). Chinese as a heritage language: Fostering rooted world citizenry. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
Hornberger, N. (1997). Literacy, language maintenance, and linguistic human rights: Three telling cases. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 127, 87103.Google Scholar
Jeon, M. (2008). Korean heritage language maintenance and language ideology. Heritage Language Journal, 6. Retrieved [October 2009] from http://www.heritagelanguages.orgCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jia, G. (2008). Heritage language development, maintenance, and attrition among recent Chinese immigrants in New York City. In He, A. W. & Xiao, Y. (Eds.), Chinese as a heritage language (pp. 189203). Honolulu, HI: National Foreign Language Resource Center/University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
Jia, L. & Bayley, R. (2008). Perfective aspect marking by learners. In He, A. W. & Xiao, Y. (Eds.), Chinese as a heritage language (pp. 205222). Honolulu, HI: National Foreign Language Resource Center/University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
Jo, H. (2001). Heritage language learning and ethnic identity: Korean Americans’ struggle with language authorities. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 14, 2641.Google Scholar
Kaufman, D. (2005). Acquisition, attrition, and revitalization of Hebrew in immigrant children. In Ravid, D. & Bat-Zeev Shyldkrot, H. (Eds.), Perspectives on Language and Language Development (pp. 407418). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.Google Scholar
King, K. A. (2000). Language ideologies and heritage language education. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 3, 167184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, B. (2006). World heritage and cultural economics. In Buntinx, G., Rassool, C., Kratz, C., Szwaja, L., Ybarra-Frausto, T., Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, B., & Karp, I. (Eds.), Museum frictions: Public cultures/global transformations (pp. 161202). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
Koda, K., Zhang, Y., & Yang, C-L. (2008). Literacy development in Chinese as a heritage language. In He, A. W. & Xiao, Y. (Eds.), Chinese as a heritage language (pp.137149). Honolulu, HI: National Foreign Language Resource Center/University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
Kondo-Brown, K. (2005). Differences in language skills: Heritage language learner subgroups and foreign language learners? The Modern Language Journal, 89, 563581.Google Scholar
Kondo-Brown, K. (Ed.). (2006). Heritage language development: Focus on East Asian immigrants. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Kramsch, C. (Ed.). (2002). Language acquisition and language socialization. New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
Lam, W. S. E. (2008). Language socialization in online communities. In Duff, P. & Hornberger, N. H. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of language and education: Vol. 4. Language socialization (pp. 301312). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
Lantolf, J. P. (Ed.). (2000). Sociocultural theory and second language learning. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Lantolf, J. P. (2006). Sociocultural theory and L2: State of the art. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28, 67109.Google Scholar
Lantolf, J. P., & Thorne, S. L. (2007). Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second language development. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Laroche, M., Kim, C., Hui, M., & Tomiuk, M. (1998). Test of a nonlinear relationship between linguistic acculturation and ethnic identification. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 29, 418433.Google Scholar
Larsen-Freeman, D., & Cameron, L. (2008). Complex systems and applied linguistics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Lee, J. S. (2002). The Korean language in America: The role of cultural identity and heritage language. Language, Culture, and Curriculum, 15, 117133.Google Scholar
Lee, J. S. (2006). Exploring the relationship between electronic literacy and heritage language maintenance. Language Learning and Technology, 10, 93113.Google Scholar
Lemke, J. (2002). Language development and identity: Multiple timescales in the social ecology of learning. In Kramsch, C. (ed.), Language acquisition and language socialization (pp. 6887). New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
Li, W. (1994). Three generations, two languages, one family. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Lo, A. (2004). Evidentiality and morality in a Korean heritage language school. Pragmatics, 14, 235256.Google Scholar
Lu, X., & Li, G. (2008). Motivation and achievement in Chinese language learning. In He, A. W. & Xiao, Y. (Eds.), Chinese as a heritage language: Fostering rooted world citizenry (pp. 89108). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
Markee, N. (2008). Toward a learning behavior tracking methodology for CA-for-SLA. Applied Linguistics, 29 (3), 404427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Norton, B. (2000). Identity and language learning: Gender, ethnicity, and educational change. Essex, England: Longman.Google Scholar
Ochs, E. (1990). Indexicality and socialization. In Stigler, J. W., Shweder, R., and Herdt, G. (Eds.), Cultural psychology: Essays on comparative human development (pp. 287308). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Ochs, E. (1993). Constructing social identity. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 26, 287306.Google Scholar
Ochs, E. (1996). Linguistic resources for socializing humanity. In Gumperz, J. J. & Levinson, S. L. (Eds.), Rethinking linguistic relativity (pp. 407437). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Ochs, E., & Jacoby, S. (Eds.). (1995). Co-construction [Special issue]. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 28 (3).Google Scholar
Ochs, E., & Schieffelin, B. (1995). The impact of language socialization on grammatical development. In Fletcher, P. & MacWhinney, B. (Eds.), The handbook of child language (pp. 7394). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Park, E. (2008). Intergenerational transmission of cultural values in Korean American families: An analysis of the verb suffix –ta. Heritage Language Journal, 6. Retrieved [October 2009] from http://www.heritagelanguages.orgGoogle Scholar
Polinsky, M., & Kagan, O. (2007). Heritage languages: In the “wild” and in the classroom. Languages and Linguistics Compass, 1, 368395.Google Scholar
Rampton, B. (1995). Crossing language and ethnicity among adolescents. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
Roca, A., & Colombi, M. C. (Eds.). (2003). Mi lengua: Spanish as a heritage language in the United States. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
Rothman, J. (2007). Heritage speaker competence differences, language change and input type: Inflected infinitives in heritage Brazilian Portuguese. International Journal of Bilingualism, 11, 359389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schieffelin, B., & Ochs, E. (Eds.). (1986). Language socialization across cultures. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Schieffelin, B. & Ochs, E. (1996). The microgenesis of competence. In Slobin, D., Gerhardt, J., Kyratzis, A., & Guo, J. (Eds.), Social interaction, social context, and language (pp. 251264). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Schutz, A. (1967). Phenomenology of the social world. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.Google Scholar
Shin, S. J. (2005). Developing in two languages: Korean children in America. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Stalikas, A., & Gavaki, E. (1995).The importance of ethnic identity: Self-esteem and academic achievement of second -generation Greeks in secondary school. The Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 11, 19.Google Scholar
Tannenbaum, M., & Howie, P. (2002). The association between language maintenance and family relations: Chinese immigrant children in Australia. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23, 408424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tse, L. (2000). The effects of ethnic identity formation on bilingual maintenance and development: An analysis of Asian American narratives. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 3, 185200.Google Scholar
Valdés, G. (1997). The teaching of Spanish to bilingual Spanish-speaking students: Outstanding issues and unanswered questions. In Colombi, M. C. & Alarcón, F. X. (Eds.), La ensenanza del espanñol a hispanohablantes: Praxis y teoria [Teaching Spanish to Spanish speakers: practice and theory] (pp. 93101). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
Valdés, G. (2001). Heritage language students: Profiles and possibilities. In Peyton, J. K., Ranard, D. A., & McGinnis, S. (eds.), Heritage languages in America. Preserving a national resource (pp. 3780). McHenry, IL: Center for Applied Linguistics.Google Scholar
Van Deusen-Scholl, N. (2003). Toward a definition of heritage language: sociopolitical and pedagogical considerations. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 2, 211230.Google Scholar
van Lier, L. (2004). The ecology and semiotics of language learning: A sociocultural perspective. Boston: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind and society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Watson-Gegeo, K. A. (2004). Mind, language, and epistemology: Toward a language socialization paradigm for SLA. The Modern Language Journal, 88 (3), 331350.Google Scholar
Wiley, T. G. (2001). On defining heritage languages and their speakers. In Peyton, J. K., Ranard, D. A., & McGinnis, S. (Eds.), Heritage languages in America: Preserving a national resource (pp. 2936). McHenry, IL: Center for Applied Linguistics.Google Scholar
Wiley, T., & Valdés, G. (2000). Heritage language instruction in the United States: A time for renewal. Bilingual Research Journal, 24, iv. Retrieved [October 2009] from http://brj.asu.edu/archive.htmlGoogle Scholar
Wong Fillmore, L. (1991). When learning a second language means losing the first. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 6, 323346.Google Scholar
Wong Fillmore, L. (2000). Loss of family languages: Should educators be concerned? Theory into Practice, 39, 203210.Google Scholar
Wortham, S. (2005). Socialization beyond the speech event. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 15, 95112.Google Scholar
Xiao, Y. (2008). Home literacy environment in development. In He, A. W. & Xiao, Y. (Eds.), Chinese as a heritage language: Fostering rooted world citizenry (pp. 151166). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
Young, R., & He, A. W. (Eds.). (1998). Talking and testing: Discourse approaches to the assessment of oral language proficiency. Philadelphia: Benjamins.Google Scholar
Zentella, A. (1997). Growing up bilingual. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar