Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-768ffcd9cc-b9rrs Total loading time: 1.61 Render date: 2022-12-05T06:10:03.461Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Sorcellerie et Modernité. Les enjeux des nouveaux procès de sorcellerie au cameroun approches anthropologiques et historiques

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 July 2017

Peter Geschiere*
Affiliation:
Université de Leyde

Extract

Vers 1980, les tribunaux de la Province de l'Est du Cameroun commencèrent assez brutalement à condamner des « sorciers ». C'était un renversement dramatique de la jurisprudence antérieure. Jusqu'alors des gens accusés de sorcellerie ne pouvaient être condamnés — conformément à la jurisprudence coloniale — que s'il y avait des « preuves tangibles » d'agression physique. Mais à partir de 1980, les tribunaux de cette province se mirent à condamner de prétendus sorciers à de lourdes peines (jusqu'à dix ans d'emprisonnement et à des amendes relativement élevées) sur la base de « preuves » qu'on ne peut guère considérer comme « tangibles ». Souvent la preuve principale semble être la déclaration d'un nganga (guérisseur « traditionnel ») qui aurait « vu » l'accusé commettre des actes de sorcellerie. Apparemment — et c'est une autre déviation frappante de la jurisprudence coloniale — les juges sont maintenant prêts à accepter ces nganga comme des témoins-experts.

Summary

Summary

Since 1980, State courts in the East Province of Cameroon began to convict “witches ”, mostly on the basis of the testimonies of “witch-doctors ”, whose “expertise” thus receives official recognition. Such direct interventions by the State in witchcraft affairs are not exceptional in post-colonial Africa; they reflect a general obsession with a supposed proliferation of “witchcraft”. Striking is that “witchcraft” becomes an overriding issue precisely in the more modem sectors of society. A comparison with historical studies of witchcraft trials in early Modem Europe is of interest because in these studies as well the relation between “witchcraft” and “modernity” is a central, albeit highly differently interpreted, issue. Of special relevance is Michel de Certeau's insistence that the witches, as much as the magistrates who convict them, are part and parcel of the modem changes. In Africa as well, witchcraft is not to be studied as a relict of a tradition that will disappear with “modernization”. It is rather modernity itself its dreams and practices, that seems to reproduce the witchcraft imaginary on an unprecedented scale. Witchcraft trials offer a concrete setting to locate the intermediaries that play a key role in this. The African examples, like the Italian “micro-historians”, emphasize the role of seemingly subaltern actors in the crystallization of the modem changes: the nganga (witch-doctors) — more than the State and its representatives —figure as key actors in this modem reproduction of witchcraft discourses.

Type
Violence et Sorcellerie Anthropologie et Histoire
Copyright
Copyright © Les Éditions de l’EHESS 1998

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Bibliographie

Appadurai, Arjun, 1996, Modernity at Large, Cultural Dimensions of Globalization, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
Asad, Talal, 1972, « Market Model, Class Structure and Consent: A Reconsideration of Swat Political Organization », Man, 7, pp. 7495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ashforth, Adam, 1997, « Of Secrecy and Commonplace: Witchcraft in Soweto », Social Research, 63 (4): 1183-234.Google Scholar
Austen, Ralph, 1993, « The Moral Economy of Witchcraft: An Essay in Comparative History », dans Jean et John Comaroff (éds), pp. 89110. Google Scholar
Barry, Jonathan, 1996, «Introduction. Keith Thomas and the Problem of Witchcraft», dans Barry, J., Hester, M., Roberts, G. (éds), pp. 149. Google Scholar
Barry, J., Hester, M., Roberts, G. (éds), 1996, Witchcraft in Early Modem Europe, Studies in Culture and Belief Past & Présent Publications, Cambridge University Press. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bastian, Misty L., 1993, « Bloodhounds Who Hâve No Friends: Witchcraft and Locality in the Nigérian Popular Press », dans Jean et Comaroff, John (éds), pp. 129166. Google Scholar
Bayart, Jean-François, 1979, L'État au Cameroun, Paris, Fondation nationale des sciences politiques. Google Scholar
Bayart, Jean-François, 1989, L'Etat en Afrique, la politique du ventre, Paris, Fayard.Google Scholar
Bayart, Jean-François, 1996, L'illusion identitaire, Paris, Fayard.Google Scholar
Bayart, Jean-François, 1997, « Le concept de gouvernementalité et l'analyse de l'historicité du politique », Colloque sur « Pratiques Politiques et Usages de Michel Foucault », Paris, novembre 1997.Google Scholar
De Boeck, Filip. s. p., « Domesticating Diamonds and Dollars: Consumption, Accumulation and Identity in Southwestern Zaire », dans Meyer, B., Geschiere, P. (éds).Google Scholar
Boyer, P., Nissenbaum, S., 1974, Salem Possessed, The Social Origins of Witchcraft, Cambridge, Ma., Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Briggs, Robin, 1996, Witches and Neighbours — The Social and Cultural Context of European Witchcraft, Londres, Harper Collins.Google Scholar
De Certeau, Michel, 1970, La possession de Loudun, Paris, Julliard.Google Scholar
De Certeau, Michel, 1973, L'absent de l'histoire, Paris, Maison Marne.Google Scholar
De Certeau, Michel, 1980, La culture au pluriel, Paris, Christian Bourgois. Google Scholar
De Certeau, Michel, 1987, La faiblesse de croire, Paris, Le Seuil. Google Scholar
Chatterjee, Partha, 1993, The Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Historiés, Princeton, Princeton University Press. Google Scholar
Cohn, Norman, 1976, Europe's Inner Démons, Londres, Palladin.Google Scholar
Comaroff, Jean, 1985, Body of Power, Spirit of Résistance: The Culture and History of a South African People, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar
Comaroff, Jean et John, (éds), 1993, Modernity and Its Malcontents: Ritual and Power in Postcolonial Africa, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar
Comaroff, Jean et John, (à paraître), « Occult Economies and the Violence of Abstraction: Notes from the South African Postcolony », The Max Gluckman Mémorial Lecture 1998, American Ethnologist. Google Scholar
Copet-Rougier, Elizabeth, 1986, « Le “ Mal Court ” : Visible and Invisible Violence in an Acephalous Society — Mkako of Cameroon », dans RICHES, E. (éd.), pp. 5069. Google Scholar
Devisch, René, 1995, « Frenzy, Violence and Ethical Renewal in Kinshasa », Public Culture, 7, pp. 593629. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Douglas, Mary, 1963, The Lele of the Kasai, Londres, LAI.Google Scholar
Douglas, Mary (éd.), 1970, Witchcraft Confessions and Accusations, Londres, Tavistock.Google Scholar
Dupré, Georges, 1982, Un ordre et sa destruction, Paris, ORSTOM.Google Scholar
Evans-Pritchard, E. E., 1937, Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic among the Azande, Oxford, Clarendon Press. Google Scholar
Favret-Saada, Jeanne, 1977, Les mots, la mort, les sorts. La sorcellerie dans le bocage, Paris, Gallimard.Google Scholar
Fields, Karen, 1982, « Political Contingencies of Witchcraft in Colonial Central Africa: Culture and the State in Marxist Theory », Canadian Journal of African Studies 16 (3), pp. 567593. Google Scholar
Fisiy, Cyprian F., 1990, Palm Tree Justice in the Bertoua Court of Appeal: The Witchcraft Cases, Leyde, Centre d'études africaines. Google Scholar
Fisiy, Cyprian F., Geschiere, Peter, 1990, « Judges and Witches, or How is the State to Deal with Witchcraft ? Examples from Southeastern Cameroon », Cahiers d'Études africaines, 118, pp. 135156. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fisiy, Cyprian F., Geschiere, Peter, 1993, « Sorcellerie et accumulation, variations régionales », dans Peter Geschiere, Piet Konings (éds), pp. 99131. Google Scholar
Fisiy, Cyprian F., Geschiere, Peter, 1995, « Witchcraft, Violence and Identity: Différent Trajectories in Postcolonial Cameroon », dans Richard Werbner, Terence Ranger (éds), pp. 193221. Google Scholar
Foucault, Michel, 1989, De la gouvernementalité, Paris, Le Seuil. Google Scholar
Geschiere, Peter, 1982, Village Communities and The State: Changing Relations among The Maka of Southeastern Cameroon, Londres, Kegan Paul. Google Scholar
Geschiere, Peter, 1988, « Sorcery and the State, Popular Modes of Political Action among the Maka of Southeast Cameroon », Critique of Anthropology, 8 (1), pp. 3563. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Geschiere, Peter, 1995, Sorcellerie et politique en Afrique. La viande des autres, Paris, Karthala. Google Scholar
Geschiere, Peter, 1997, The Modernity of Witchcraft, Politics and the Occult in Postcolonial Africa, Charlotsville, University of Virginia Press.Google Scholar
Geschiere, Peter (à paraître), « Of Witch-Doctors and Spin-Doctors: The Rôle of “ Experts ” in African and American Politics », dans Meyer, B., Pels, P. (éds), Magic and Modernity, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Geschiere, Peter, Konings, Piet (éds), 1993, Les itinéraires de l'accumulation au Cameroun. Pathways to Accumulation in Cameroon, Paris, Karthala.Google Scholar
Ginzburg, Carlo, 1966, I Beneddanti, Stregoneria e culti agari tra cinquecento e seicento, Turin, Einaudi (traduction française : Lagrasse (Aude) Verdier, 1980). Google Scholar
Ginzburg, Carlo, 1976, Il fromaggio e i vermi, Il cosmo di un mugnaio del'500, Turin, Einaudi (traduction française : Paris, Gallimard, 1980). Google Scholar
Ginzburg, Carlo, 1989, Storia notturna, Une decifrazione del sabba, Turin, Einaudi (traduction française : Paris, Gallimard, 1992). Google Scholar
Kriedtke, P., 1987, « Die Hexen und ihre Anklàger. Zu den lokalen Voraussetzungen der Hexenverfolgungen in der friihen Neuzeit, Ein Forschungsbericht », Zeitschrift fur historische Forschung, 14 (1), pp. 4771.Google Scholar
Larner, C, 1985, Witchcraft and Religion. The Politics of Popular Belief, Oxford, Blackwell.Google Scholar
Levi, Giovanni, 1989, Le pouvoir au village. Histoire d'un exorciste dans le Piémont du XVIIe siècle, Paris, Gallimard (édition italienne, 1985). Google Scholar
Macfarlane, Alan, 1970, Witchcraft in Tudor and Smart England, Londres, Routledge & Kegan Paul.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mallart, Guimera, Louis, , 1981, Ni dos, ni ventre, Paris, Société d'ethnographie.Google Scholar
Mandrou, Robert, 1968, Magistrats et sorciers en France au XVIIe siècle, Paris, Pion.Google Scholar
Marwick, Max, 1965, Sorcery in Its Social Setting: A Study of the Northern Rhodesian Cewa, Manchester, Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
Mbembe, Achille, 1992, « Provisional Notes on the Postcolony », Africa, 62 (1), pp. 338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meyer, Birgit (à paraître), Translating the Devil: Religion and Society in Ghana, Londres, IAI.Google Scholar
Meyer, Birgit, Peter, Geschiere (éds) (à paraître), Globalization and the Construction of Communal Identifie, Oxford, Blackwell.Google Scholar
Mitchell, J. Clyde, 1956, The Yao Village: A Study in the Social Structure of a Nyassaland Tribe, Manchester, Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
Monter, E. W., 1976, Witchcraft in France and Switzerland, Ithaca, Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Muchembled, Robert, 1978a, Culture populaire et culture des élites dans la France : XVe- XVIIIe siècles, Paris, Flammarion.Google Scholar
Muchembled, Robert, 1978b, « Avant-propos » et « Sorcières du Cambrésis », dans M. S. Dupont-Bouchat, W. Frijhoff, R. Muchembled (éds), Prophètes et sorciers dans les Pays-Bas, XVIe-XVIIIe siècle, Paris, Hachette, 1978, pp. 13-41 et 155-263.Google Scholar
Muchembled, Robert, 1981, Les derniers bûchers, un village de Flandre et ses sorcières sous Louis XIV, Paris, Ramsay.Google Scholar
Muchembled, Robert, 1993, Le roi et la sorcière : L'Europe des bûchers (XVe-XVIIIe siècle), Paris, Desclée.Google Scholar
Niehaus, Isaac A., 1993, « Witch-Hunting and Political Legitimacy: Continuity and Change in Green Valley, Lebowa, 1930-1991 », Africa, 63 (4), pp. 498-529.Google Scholar
Pels, Peter, 1998, A Politics of Présence: Contacts between Missionaries and Waluguru in Late Colonial Tangayika, Chur/Reading, Harwood Académie Publishers.Google Scholar
Purkiss, Diane, The Witch in History, Early Modem and Twentieth-Century Présentations, Londres, Routledge.Google Scholar
Revel, Jacques (éd.), 1996, Jeux d'échelles, Paris, Gallimard-Le Seuil.Google Scholar
Rey, Pierre-Philippe, 1971, Colonialisme, néo-colonialisme et transition au capitalisme, Paris, Maspero.Google Scholar
Rey, Pierre-Philippe, 1973, Les alliances de classes, Paris, Maspero.Google Scholar
Roper, Lyndal, 1996, « Witchcraft and Fantasy in Early Modem Germany », dans BARRY, J., M.|Hester, G.|Roberts (éds), pp. 207237.Google Scholar
De Rosny, Eric, 1981, Les yeux de ma chèvre : sur les pas des maîtres de la nuit en pays douala, Paris, Pion.Google Scholar
De Rosny, Eric, 1992, L'Afrique des guérisons, Paris, Karthala.Google Scholar
Rowlands, Michael, Warnier, Jean-Pierre, 1988, « Sorcery, Power and the Modem State in Cameroon », (N. S), Man, 23, pp. 118-132.Google Scholar
Russel, J. B., 1972, Witchcraft in the Middle Ages, Ithaca, Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Salmon, J. H. M., 1989, « History without Anthropology: A New Witchcraft Synthesis », Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 19 (3), pp. 481486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanders, Andrew, 1995, A Deed Without a Name. The Witch in Society and History, Oxford, Berg.Google Scholar
Séraphin, Gilles, 1997, « Le crash du “ Nyong ” comme révélateur des tensions politiques et de l'imaginaire », Politique africaine, 66, pp. 121126.Google Scholar
Shaw, Rosalind, The Dangers of Temne Divination: Ritual Memories of the Slave Trade in West Africa, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Taussig, Michael, 1987, Shamanism, Colonialism and the Wild Man, A Study of Terror and Healing, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Taussig, Michael, 1997, The Magic of the State, Londres, Routledge.Google Scholar
Thoden Van Velzen, H. U. E., 1973, « Robinson Crusoë and Friday: Strength and Weakness of the Big Man Paradigm », Man, 8, pp. 592612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thomas, Keith, 1971, Religion and the Décline of Magic: Studies in Popular Beliefs in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth Century England, Londres, Weidenfeld & Nicolson.Google Scholar
Trevor-Roper, H. R., 1969, The European Witch-Craze of the 16th and 17th Centuries, Harmondsworth, Penguin.Google Scholar
Turner, Victor W., 1954, Schism and Continuity in an African Society: A Study of Ndembu Village Life, Manchester, Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
Van Binsbergen, Wim, 1981, Religious Change in Zambia, Londres, Kegan Paul Int.Google Scholar
Vansina, Jan., 1990, Paths in the Rainforests, Toward a History of Political Tradition in Equatorial Africa, Madison, The University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
Werbner, Richard, Ranger, Terence (éds), 1995, Postcolonial Indentities in Africa, Londres, Zed Books.Google Scholar
4
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Sorcellerie et Modernité. Les enjeux des nouveaux procès de sorcellerie au cameroun approches anthropologiques et historiques
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Sorcellerie et Modernité. Les enjeux des nouveaux procès de sorcellerie au cameroun approches anthropologiques et historiques
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Sorcellerie et Modernité. Les enjeux des nouveaux procès de sorcellerie au cameroun approches anthropologiques et historiques
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *