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Since Faltings proved Mordell’s conjecture in [16] in 1983, we have known that the sets of rational points on curves of genus at least $2$ are finite. Determining these sets in individual cases is still an unsolved problem. Chabauty’s method (1941) [10] is to intersect, for a prime number p, in the p-adic Lie group of p-adic points of the Jacobian, the closure of the Mordell–Weil group with the p-adic points of the curve. Under the condition that the Mordell–Weil rank is less than the genus, Chabauty’s method, in combination with other methods such as the Mordell–Weil sieve, has been applied successfully to determine all rational points in many cases.
Minhyong Kim’s nonabelian Chabauty programme aims to remove the condition on the rank. The simplest case, called quadratic Chabauty, was developed by Balakrishnan, Besser, Dogra, Müller, Tuitman and Vonk, and applied in a tour de force to the so-called cursed curve (rank and genus both $3$).
This article aims to make the quadratic Chabauty method small and geometric again, by describing it in terms of only ‘simple algebraic geometry’ (line bundles over the Jacobian and models over the integers).
Let $X$ be a normal and geometrically integral projective variety over a global field $K$ and let $\bar {D}$ be an adelic ${\mathbb {R}}$-Cartier divisor on $X$. We prove a conjecture of Chen, showing that the essential minimum $\zeta _{\mathrm {ess}}(\bar {D})$ of $\bar {D}$ equals its asymptotic maximal slope under mild positivity assumptions. As an application, we see that $\zeta _{\mathrm {ess}}(\bar {D})$ can be read on the Okounkov body of the underlying divisor $D$ via the Boucksom–Chen concave transform. This gives a new interpretation of Zhang's inequalities on successive minima and a criterion for equality generalizing to arbitrary projective varieties a result of Burgos Gil, Philippon and Sombra concerning toric metrized divisors on toric varieties. When applied to a projective space $X = {\mathbb {P}}_K^{d}$, our main result has several applications to the study of successive minima of hermitian vector spaces. We obtain an absolute transference theorem with a linear upper bound, answering a question raised by Gaudron. We also give new comparisons between successive slopes and absolute minima, extending results of Gaudron and Rémond.
We prove a necessary and sufficient condition for isogenous elliptic curves based on the algebraic dependence of p-adic elliptic functions. As a consequence, we give a short proof of the p-adic analogue of Schneider’s theorem on the linear independence of p-adic elliptic logarithms of algebraic points on two nonisogenous elliptic curves defined over the field of algebraic numbers.
We consider the reduction of an elliptic curve defined over the rational numbers modulo primes in a given arithmetic progression and investigate how often the subgroup of rational points of this reduced curve is cyclic.
In this note, we will apply the results of Gross–Zagier, Gross–Kohnen–Zagier and their generalizations to give a short proof that the differences of singular moduli are not units. As a consequence, we obtain a result on isogenies between reductions of CM elliptic curves.
We consider the problem of defining an action of Hecke operators on the coherent cohomology of certain integral models of Shimura varieties. We formulate a general conjecture describing which Hecke operators should act integrally and solve the conjecture in certain cases. As a consequence, we obtain p-adic estimates of Satake parameters of certain nonregular self-dual automorphic representations of
$\mathrm {GL}_n$.
We prove the strong Suslin reciprocity law conjectured by A. Goncharov. The Suslin reciprocity law is a generalization of the Weil reciprocity law to higher Milnor $K$-theory. The Milnor $K$-groups can be identified with the top cohomology groups of the polylogarithmic motivic complexes; Goncharov's conjecture predicts the existence of a contracting homotopy underlying Suslin reciprocity. The main ingredient of the proof is a homotopy invariance theorem for the cohomology of the polylogarithmic motivic complexes in the ‘next to Milnor’ degree. We apply these results to the theory of scissors congruences of hyperbolic polytopes. For every triple of rational functions on a compact projective curve over $\mathbb {C}$ we construct a hyperbolic polytope (defined up to scissors congruence). The hyperbolic volume and the Dehn invariant of this polytope can be computed directly from the triple of rational functions on the curve.
We prove that the special-value conjecture for the zeta function of a proper, regular, flat arithmetic surface formulated in [6] at $s=1$ is equivalent to the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture for the Jacobian of the generic fibre. There are two key results in the proof. The first is the triviality of the correction factor of [6, Conjecture 5.12], which we show for arbitrary regular proper arithmetic schemes. In the proof we need to develop some results for the eh-topology on schemes over finite fields which might be of independent interest. The second result is a different proof of a formula due to Geisser, relating the cardinalities of the Brauer and the Tate–Shafarevich group, which applies to arbitrary rather than only totally imaginary base fields.
We prove a quantitative partial result in support of the dynamical Mordell–Lang conjecture (also known as the DML conjecture) in positive characteristic. More precisely, we show the following: given a field K of characteristic p, a semiabelian variety X defined over a finite subfield of K and endowed with a regular self-map $\Phi :X{\longrightarrow } X$ defined over K, a point $\alpha \in X(K)$ and a subvariety $V\subseteq X$, then the set of all nonnegative integers n such that $\Phi ^n(\alpha )\in V(K)$ is a union of finitely many arithmetic progressions along with a subset S with the property that there exists a positive real number A (depending only on X, $\Phi $, $\alpha $ and V) such that for each positive integer M,
We provide an easy method for the construction of characteristic polynomials of simple ordinary abelian varieties
${{\mathcal A}}$ of dimension g over a finite field
${{\mathbb F}}_q$, when
$q\ge 4$ and
$2g=\rho ^{b-1}(\rho -1)$, for some prime
$\rho \ge 5$ with
$b\ge 1$. Moreover, we show that
${{\mathcal A}}$ is absolutely simple if
$b=1$ and g is prime, but
${{\mathcal A}}$ is not absolutely simple for any prime
$\rho \ge 5$ with
$b>1$.
For $R(z, w)\in \mathbb {C}(z, w)$ of degree at least 2 in w, we show that the number of rational functions $f(z)\in \mathbb {C}(z)$ solving the difference equation $f(z+1)=R(z, f(z))$ is finite and bounded just in terms of the degrees of R in the two variables. This complements a result of Yanagihara, who showed that any finite-order meromorphic solution to this sort of difference equation must be a rational function. We prove a similar result for the differential equation $f'(z)=R(z, f(z))$, building on a result of Eremenko.
A key ingredient in the Taylor–Wiles proof of Fermat’s last theorem is the classical Ihara lemma, which is used to raise the modularity property between some congruent Galois representations. In their work on Sato and Tate, Clozel, Harris and Taylor proposed a generalisation of the Ihara lemma in higher dimension for some similitude groups. The main aim of this paper is to prove some new instances of this generalised Ihara lemma by considering some particular non-pseudo-Eisenstein maximal ideals of unramified Hecke algebras. As a consequence, we prove a level-raising statement.
We study the l-adic cohomology of unramified Rapoport–Zink spaces of EL-type. These spaces were used in Harris and Taylor's proof of the local Langlands correspondence for
$\mathrm {GL_n}$ and to show local–global compatibilities of the Langlands correspondence. In this paper we consider certain morphisms
$\mathrm {Mant}_{b, \mu }$ of Grothendieck groups of representations constructed from the cohomology of these spaces, as studied by Harris and Taylor, Mantovan, Fargues, Shin and others. Due to earlier work of Fargues and Shin we have a description of
$\mathrm {Mant}_{b, \mu }(\rho )$ for
$\rho $ a supercuspidal representation. In this paper, we give a conjectural formula for
$\mathrm {Mant}_{b, \mu }(\rho )$ for
$\rho $ an admissible representation and prove it when
$\rho $ is essentially square-integrable. Our proof works for general
$\rho $ conditionally on a conjecture appearing in Shin's work. We show that our description agrees with a conjecture of Harris in the case of parabolic inductions of supercuspidal representations of a Levi subgroup.
We define két abelian schemes, két 1-motives and két log 1-motives and formulate duality theory for these objects. Then we show that tamely ramified strict 1-motives over a discrete valuation field can be extended uniquely to két log 1-motives over the corresponding discrete valuation ring. As an application, we present a proof to a result of Kato stated in [12, §4.3] without proof. To a tamely ramified strict 1-motive over a discrete valuation field, we associate a monodromy pairing and compare it with Raynaud’s geometric monodromy.
We give applications of integral canonical models of orthogonal Shimura varieties and the Kuga-Satake morphism to the arithmetic of
$K3$ surfaces over finite fields. We prove that every
$K3$ surface of finite height over a finite field admits a characteristic
$0$ lifting whose generic fibre is a
$K3$ surface with complex multiplication. Combined with the results of Mukai and Buskin, we prove the Tate conjecture for the square of a
$K3$ surface over a finite field. To obtain these results, we construct an analogue of Kisin’s algebraic group for a
$K3$ surface of finite height and construct characteristic
$0$ liftings of the
$K3$ surface preserving the action of tori in the algebraic group. We obtain these results for
$K3$ surfaces over finite fields of any characteristics, including those of characteristic
$2$ or
$3$.
We develop methods for constructing explicit generators, modulo torsion, of the $K_3$-groups of imaginary quadratic number fields. These methods are based on either tessellations of hyperbolic $3$-space or on direct calculations in suitable pre-Bloch groups and lead to the very first proven examples of explicit generators, modulo torsion, of any infinite $K_3$-group of a number field. As part of this approach, we make several improvements to the theory of Bloch groups for $ K_3 $ of any field, predict the precise power of $2$ that should occur in the Lichtenbaum conjecture at $ -1 $ and prove that this prediction is valid for all abelian number fields.
In this article we establish the effective Shafarevich conjecture for abelian varieties over ${\mathbb Q}$ of ${\text {GL}_2}$-type. The proof combines Faltings’ method with Serre’s modularity conjecture, isogeny estimates and results from Arakelov theory. Our result opens the way for the effective study of integral points on certain higher dimensional moduli schemes such as, for example, Hilbert modular varieties.
Let $\mathcal {A} \rightarrow S$ be an abelian scheme over an irreducible variety over $\mathbb {C}$ of relative dimension $g$. For any simply-connected subset $\Delta$ of $S^{\mathrm {an}}$ one can define the Betti map from $\mathcal {A}_{\Delta }$ to $\mathbb {T}^{2g}$, the real torus of dimension $2g$, by identifying each closed fiber of $\mathcal {A}_{\Delta } \rightarrow \Delta$ with $\mathbb {T}^{2g}$ via the Betti homology. Computing the generic rank of the Betti map restricted to a subvariety $X$ of $\mathcal {A}$ is useful to study Diophantine problems, e.g. proving the geometric Bogomolov conjecture over char $0$ and studying the relative Manin–Mumford conjecture. In this paper we give a geometric criterion to detect this rank. As an application we show that it is maximal after taking a large fibered power (if $X$ satisfies some conditions); it is an important step to prove the bound for the number of rational points on curves (Dimitrov et al., Uniformity in Mordell–Lang for Curves, Preprint (2020), arXiv:2001.10276). Another application is to answer a question of André, Corvaja and Zannier and improve a result of Voisin. We also systematically study its link with the relative Manin–Mumford conjecture, reducing the latter to a simpler conjecture. Our tools are functional transcendence and unlikely intersections for mixed Shimura varieties.
In this article we establish the arithmetic purity of strong approximation for certain semisimple simply connected linear algebraic groups and their homogeneous spaces over a number field $k$. For instance, for any such group $G$ and for any open subset $U$ of $G$ with ${\mathrm {codim}}(G\setminus U, G)\geqslant 2$, we prove that (i) if $G$ is $k$-simple and $k$-isotropic, then $U$ satisfies strong approximation off any finite number of places; and (ii) if $G$ is the spin group of a non-degenerate quadratic form which is not compact over archimedean places, then $U$ satisfies strong approximation off all archimedean places. As a consequence, we prove that the same property holds for affine quadratic hypersurfaces. Our approach combines a fibration method with subgroup actions developed for induction on the codimension of $G\setminus U$, and an affine linear sieve which allows us to produce integral points with almost-prime polynomial values.
Let K be an algebraic number field. We investigate the K-rational distance problem and prove that there are infinitely many nonisomorphic cubic number fields and a number field of degree n for every
$n\geq 2$
in which there is a point in the plane of a unit square at K-rational distances from the four vertices of the square.