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The k-gonal models of random groups are defined as the quotients of free groups on n generators by cyclically reduced words of length k. As k tends to infinity, this model approaches the Gromov density model. In this paper, we show that for any fixed
$d_0 \in (0, 1)$
, if positive k-gonal random groups satisfy Property (T) with overwhelming probability for densities
$d >d_0$
, then so do jk-gonal random groups, for any
$j \in \mathbb{N}$
. In particular, this shows that for densities above 1/3, groups in 3k-gonal models satisfy Property (T) with probability 1 as n approaches infinity.
Let $K$ be a subgroup of a finite group $G$. The probability that an element of $G$ commutes with an element of $K$ is denoted by $Pr(K,G)$. Assume that $Pr(K,G)\geq \epsilon$ for some fixed $\epsilon >0$. We show that there is a normal subgroup $T\leq G$ and a subgroup $B\leq K$ such that the indices $[G:T]$ and $[K:B]$ and the order of the commutator subgroup $[T,B]$ are $\epsilon$-bounded. This extends the well-known theorem, due to P. M. Neumann, that covers the case where $K=G$. We deduce a number of corollaries of this result. A typical application is that if $K$ is the generalized Fitting subgroup $F^{*}(G)$ then $G$ has a class-2-nilpotent normal subgroup $R$ such that both the index $[G:R]$ and the order of the commutator subgroup $[R,R]$ are $\epsilon$-bounded. In the same spirit we consider the cases where $K$ is a term of the lower central series of $G$, or a Sylow subgroup, etc.
For any (Hausdorff) compact group G, denote by
$\mathrm{cp}(G)$
the probability that a randomly chosen pair of elements of G commute. We prove that there exists a finite group H such that
$\mathrm{cp}(G)= {\mathrm{cp}(H)}/{|G:F|^2}$
, where F is the FC-centre of G and H is isoclinic to F with
$\mathrm{cp}(F)=\mathrm{cp}(H)$
whenever
$\mathrm{cp}(G)>0$
. In addition, we prove that a compact group G with
$\mathrm{cp}(G)>\tfrac {3}{40}$
is either solvable or isomorphic to
$A_5 \times Z(G)$
, where
$A_5$
denotes the alternating group of degree five and the centre
$Z(G)$
of G contains the identity component of G.
The problem of finding the number of ordered commuting tuples of elements in a finite group is equivalent to finding the size of the solution set of the system of equations determined by the commutator relations that impose commutativity among any pair of elements from an ordered tuple. We consider this type of systems for the case of ordered triples and express the size of the solution set in terms of the irreducible characters of the group. The obtained formulas are natural extensions of Frobenius’ character formula that calculates the number of ways a group element is a commutator of an ordered pair of elements in a finite group. We discuss how our formulas can be used to study the probability distributions afforded by these systems of equations, and we show explicit calculations for dihedral groups.
This is the first of a series of two papers dealing with local limit theorems in relatively hyperbolic groups. In this first paper, we prove rough estimates for the Green function. Along the way, we introduce the notion of relative automaticity which will be useful in both papers and we show that relatively hyperbolic groups are relatively automatic. We also define the notion of spectral positive recurrence for random walks on relatively hyperbolic groups. We then use our estimates for the Green function to prove that
$p_n\asymp R^{-n}n^{-3/2}$
for spectrally positive-recurrent random walks, where
$p_n$
is the probability of going back to the origin at time n and where R is the inverse of the spectral radius of the random walk.
We develop the concept of character level for the complex irreducible characters of finite, general or special, linear and unitary groups. We give characterizations of the level of a character in terms of its Lusztig label and in terms of its degree. Then we prove explicit upper bounds for character values at elements with not-too-large centralizers and derive upper bounds on the covering number and mixing time of random walks corresponding to these conjugacy classes. We also characterize the level of the character in terms of certain dual pairs and prove explicit exponential character bounds for the character values, provided that the level is not too large. Several further applications are also provided. Related results for other finite classical groups are obtained in the sequel [Guralnick et al. ‘Character levels and character bounds for finite classical groups’, Preprint, 2019, arXiv:1904.08070] by different methods.
We extend classical density theorems of Borel and Dani–Shalom on lattices in semisimple, respectively solvable algebraic groups over local fields to approximate lattices. Our proofs are based on the observation that Zariski closures of approximate subgroups are close to algebraic subgroups. Our main tools are stationary joinings between the hull dynamical systems of discrete approximate subgroups and their Zariski closures.
In this paper, we study the probability distribution of the word map $w(x_{1},x_{2},\ldots ,x_{k})=x_{1}^{n_{1}}x_{2}^{n_{2}}\cdots x_{k}^{n_{k}}$ in a compact Lie group. We show that the probability distribution can be represented as an infinite series. Moreover, in the case of the Lie group $\text{SU}(2)$, our computations give a nice convergent series for the probability distribution.
In this paper we introduce and study the conjugacy ratio of a finitely generated group, which is the limit at infinity of the quotient of the conjugacy and standard growth functions. We conjecture that the conjugacy ratio is 0 for all groups except the virtually abelian ones, and confirm this conjecture for certain residually finite groups of subexponential growth, hyperbolic groups, right-angled Artin groups and the lamplighter group.
Let $G$ be a finite almost simple group. It is well known that $G$ can be generated by three elements, and in previous work we showed that 6 generators suffice for all maximal subgroups of $G$. In this paper, we consider subgroups at the next level of the subgroup lattice—the so-called second maximal subgroups. We prove that with the possible exception of some families of rank 1 groups of Lie type, the number of generators of every second maximal subgroup of $G$ is bounded by an absolute constant. We also show that such a bound holds without any exceptions if and only if there are only finitely many primes $r$ for which there is a prime power $q$ such that $(q^{r}-1)/(q-1)$ is prime. The latter statement is a formidable open problem in Number Theory. Applications to random generation and polynomial growth are also given.
The generating graph $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6E4}(H)$ of a finite group $H$ is the graph defined on the elements of $H$, with an edge between two vertices if and only if they generate $H$. We show that if $H$ is a sufficiently large simple group with $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6E4}(G)\cong \unicode[STIX]{x1D6E4}(H)$ for a finite group $G$, then $G\cong H$. We also prove that the generating graph of a symmetric group determines the group.
Let $G$ be a finite group acting transitively on a set $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FA}$. We study what it means for this action to be quasirandom, thereby generalizing Gowers’ study of quasirandomness in groups. We connect this notion of quasirandomness to an upper bound for the convolution of functions associated with the action of $G$ on $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FA}$. This convolution bound allows us to give sufficient conditions such that sets $S\subseteq G$ and $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6E5}_{1},\unicode[STIX]{x1D6E5}_{2}\subseteq \unicode[STIX]{x1D6FA}$ contain elements $s\in S,\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}_{1}\in \unicode[STIX]{x1D6E5}_{1},\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}_{2}\in \unicode[STIX]{x1D6E5}_{2}$ such that $s(\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}_{1})=\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}_{2}$. Other consequences include an analogue of ‘the Gowers trick’ of Nikolov and Pyber for general group actions, a sum-product type theorem for large subsets of a finite field, as well as applications to expanders and to the study of the diameter and width of a finite simple group.
We show that the proportion of permutations $g$ in $S_{\!n}$ or $A_{n}$ such that $g$ has even order and $g^{|g|/2}$ is an involution with support of cardinality at most $\lceil n^{{\it\varepsilon}}\rceil$ is at least a constant multiple of ${\it\varepsilon}$. Using this result, we obtain the same conclusion for elements in a classical group of natural dimension $n$ in odd characteristic that have even order and power up to an involution with $(-1)$-eigenspace of dimension at most $\lceil n^{{\it\varepsilon}}\rceil$ for a linear or unitary group, or $2\lceil \lfloor n/2\rfloor ^{{\it\varepsilon}}\rceil$ for a symplectic or orthogonal group.
We discuss some questions related to the generation of supersoluble groups. First we prove that the number of elements needed to generate a finite supersoluble group G with good probability can be quite a lot larger than the smallest cardinality d(G) of a generating set of G. Indeed, if G is the free prosupersoluble group of rank d ⩾ 2 and dP(G) is the minimum integer k such that the probability of generating G with k elements is positive, then dP(G) = 2d + 1. In contrast to this, if k – d(G) ⩾ 3, then the distribution of the first component in a k-tuple chosen uniformly in the set of all the k-tuples generating G is not too far from the uniform distribution.
Let $G$ be a finite group. We denote by ${\it\nu}(G)$ the probability that two randomly chosen elements of $G$ generate a nilpotent subgroup and by $\text{Nil}_{G}(x)$ the set of elements $y\in G$ such that $\langle x,y\rangle$ is a nilpotent subgroup. A group $G$ is called an ${\mathcal{N}}$-group if $\text{Nil}_{G}(x)$ is a subgroup of $G$ for all $x\in G$. We prove that if $G$ is an ${\mathcal{N}}$-group with ${\it\nu}(G)>\frac{1}{12}$, then $G$ is soluble. Also, we classify semisimple ${\mathcal{N}}$-groups with ${\it\nu}(G)=\frac{1}{12}$.
The subgroup commutativity degree of a group $G$ is the probability that two subgroups of $G$ commute, or equivalently that the product of two subgroups is again a subgroup. For the dihedral, quasi-dihedral and generalised quaternion groups (all of 2-power cardinality), the subgroup commutativity degree tends to 0 as the size of the group tends to infinity. This also holds for the family of projective special linear groups over fields of even characteristic and for the family of the simple Suzuki groups. In this short note, we show that the family of finite $P$-groups also has this property.
We present the results of computer experiments suggesting that the probability that a random multiword in a free group is virtually geometric decays to zero exponentially quickly in the length of the multiword. We also prove this fact.
Efficient methods for computing with matrices over finite fields often involve randomised algorithms, where matrices with a certain property are sought via repeated random selection. Complexity analyses for such algorithms require knowledge of the proportion of relevant matrices in the ambient group or algebra. We introduce a method for estimating proportions of families $N$ of elements in the algebra of all $d\times d$ matrices over a field of order $q$, where membership of a matrix in $N$ depends only on its ‘invertible part’. The method is based on the availability of estimates for proportions of certain non-singular matrices depending on $N$, so that existing estimation techniques for non-singular matrices can be used to deal with families containing singular matrices. As an application, we investigate primary cyclic matrices, which are used in the Holt–Rees MEATAXE algorithm for testing irreducibility of matrix algebras.