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We prove that, although the map is singular, its square preserves the Lebesgue measure and is strongly mixing, thus ergodic, with respect to it. We discuss the extension of the results to more general erasing maps.
Random walks on graphs are an essential primitive for many randomised algorithms and stochastic processes. It is natural to ask how much can be gained by running
$k$
multiple random walks independently and in parallel. Although the cover time of multiple walks has been investigated for many natural networks, the problem of finding a general characterisation of multiple cover times for worst-case start vertices (posed by Alon, Avin, Koucký, Kozma, Lotker and Tuttle in 2008) remains an open problem. First, we improve and tighten various bounds on the stationary cover time when
$k$
random walks start from vertices sampled from the stationary distribution. For example, we prove an unconditional lower bound of
$\Omega ((n/k) \log n)$
on the stationary cover time, holding for any
$n$
-vertex graph
$G$
and any
$1 \leq k =o(n\log n )$
. Secondly, we establish the stationary cover times of multiple walks on several fundamental networks up to constant factors. Thirdly, we present a framework characterising worst-case cover times in terms of stationary cover times and a novel, relaxed notion of mixing time for multiple walks called the partial mixing time. Roughly speaking, the partial mixing time only requires a specific portion of all random walks to be mixed. Using these new concepts, we can establish (or recover) the worst-case cover times for many networks including expanders, preferential attachment graphs, grids, binary trees and hypercubes.
Let
$A \subseteq \{0,1\}^n$
be a set of size
$2^{n-1}$
, and let
$\phi \,:\, \{0,1\}^{n-1} \to A$
be a bijection. We define the average stretch of
$\phi$
as
where the expectation is taken over uniformly random
$x,x' \in \{0,1\}^{n-1}$
that differ in exactly one coordinate.
In this paper, we continue the line of research studying mappings on the discrete hypercube with small average stretch. We prove the following results.
For any set
$A \subseteq \{0,1\}^n$
of density
$1/2$
there exists a bijection
$\phi _A \,:\, \{0,1\}^{n-1} \to A$
such that
${\sf avgStretch}(\phi _A) = O\left(\sqrt{n}\right)$
.
For
$n = 3^k$
let
${A_{\textsf{rec-maj}}} = \{x \in \{0,1\}^n \,:\,{\textsf{rec-maj}}(x) = 1\}$
, where
${\textsf{rec-maj}} \,:\, \{0,1\}^n \to \{0,1\}$
is the function recursive majority of 3’s. There exists a bijection
$\phi _{{\textsf{rec-maj}}} \,:\, \{0,1\}^{n-1} \to{A_{\textsf{rec-maj}}}$
such that
${\sf avgStretch}(\phi _{{\textsf{rec-maj}}}) = O(1)$
.
Let
${A_{{\sf tribes}}} = \{x \in \{0,1\}^n \,:\,{\sf tribes}(x) = 1\}$
. There exists a bijection
$\phi _{{\sf tribes}} \,:\, \{0,1\}^{n-1} \to{A_{{\sf tribes}}}$
such that
${\sf avgStretch}(\phi _{{\sf tribes}}) = O(\!\log (n))$
.
These results answer the questions raised by Benjamini, Cohen, and Shinkar (Isr. J. Math 2016).
The random-cluster model is a unifying framework for studying random graphs, spin systems and electrical networks that plays a fundamental role in designing efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling algorithms for the classical ferromagnetic Ising and Potts models. In this paper, we study a natural non-local Markov chain known as the Chayes–Machta (CM) dynamics for the mean-field case of the random-cluster model, where the underlying graph is the complete graph on n vertices. The random-cluster model is parametrised by an edge probability p and a cluster weight q. Our focus is on the critical regime:
$p = p_c(q)$
and
$q \in (1,2)$
, where
$p_c(q)$
is the threshold corresponding to the order–disorder phase transition of the model. We show that the mixing time of the CM dynamics is
$O({\log}\ n \cdot \log \log n)$
in this parameter regime, which reveals that the dynamics does not undergo an exponential slowdown at criticality, a surprising fact that had been predicted (but not proved) by statistical physicists. This also provides a nearly optimal bound (up to the
$\log\log n$
factor) for the mixing time of the mean-field CM dynamics in the only regime of parameters where no non-trivial bound was previously known. Our proof consists of a multi-phased coupling argument that combines several key ingredients, including a new local limit theorem, a precise bound on the maximum of symmetric random walks with varying step sizes and tailored estimates for critical random graphs. In addition, we derive an improved comparison inequality between the mixing time of the CM dynamics and that of the local Glauber dynamics on general graphs; this results in better mixing time bounds for the local dynamics in the mean-field setting.
Given $\beta \in (1,2]$, let $T_{\beta }$ be the $\beta $-transformation on the unit circle $[0,1)$ such that $T_{\beta }(x)=\beta x\pmod 1$. For each $t\in [0,1)$, let $K_{\beta }(t)$ be the survivor set consisting of all $x\in [0,1)$ whose orbit $\{T^{n}_{\beta }(x): n\ge 0\}$ never hits the open interval $(0,t)$. Kalle et al [Ergod. Th. & Dynam. Sys.40(9) (2020) 2482–2514] proved that the Hausdorff dimension function $t\mapsto \dim _{H} K_{\beta }(t)$ is a non-increasing Devil’s staircase. So there exists a critical value $\tau (\beta )$ such that $\dim _{H} K_{\beta }(t)>0$ if and only if $t<\tau (\beta )$. In this paper, we determine the critical value $\tau (\beta )$ for all $\beta \in (1,2]$, answering a question of Kalle et al (2020). For example, we find that for the Komornik–Loreti constant$\beta \approx 1.78723$, we have $\tau (\beta )=(2-\beta )/(\beta -1)$. Furthermore, we show that (i) the function $\tau : \beta \mapsto \tau (\beta )$ is left continuous on $(1,2]$ with right-hand limits everywhere, but has countably infinitely many discontinuities; (ii) $\tau $ has no downward jumps, with $\tau (1+)=0$ and $\tau (2)=1/2$; and (iii) there exists an open set $O\subset (1,2]$, whose complement $(1,2]\setminus O$ has zero Hausdorff dimension, such that $\tau $ is real-analytic, convex, and strictly decreasing on each connected component of O. Consequently, the dimension $\dim _{H} K_{\beta }(t)$ is not jointly continuous in $\beta $ and t. Our strategy to find the critical value $\tau (\beta )$ depends on certain substitutions of Farey words and a renormalization scheme from dynamical systems.
We consider a subshift of finite type on q symbols with a union of t cylinders based at words of identical length p as the hole. We explore the relationship between the escape rate into the hole and a rational function,
$r(z)$
, of correlations between forbidden words in the subshift with the hole. In particular, we prove that there exists a constant
$D(t,p)$
such that if
$q>D(t,p)$
, then the escape rate is faster into the hole when the value of the corresponding rational function
$r(z)$
evaluated at
$D(t,p)$
is larger. Further, we consider holes which are unions of cylinders based at words of identical length, having zero cross-correlations, and prove that the escape rate is faster into the hole with larger Poincaré recurrence time. Our results are more general than the existing ones known for maps conjugate to a full shift with a single cylinder as the hole.
The Thue–Morse sequence is a prototypical automatic sequence found in diverse areas of mathematics, and in computer science. We study occurrences of factors w within this sequence, or more precisely, the sequence of gaps between consecutive occurrences. This gap sequence is morphic; we prove that it is not automatic as soon as the length of w is at least
$2$
, thereby answering a question by J. Shallit in the affirmative. We give an explicit method to compute the discrepancy of the number of occurrences of the block
$\mathtt {01}$
in the Thue–Morse sequence. We prove that the sequence of discrepancies is the sequence of output sums of a certain base-
$2$
transducer.
Combinatorial samplers are algorithmic schemes devised for the approximate- and exact-size generation of large random combinatorial structures, such as context-free words, various tree-like data structures, maps, tilings, RNA molecules. They can be adapted to combinatorial specifications with additional parameters, allowing for a more flexible control over the output profile of parametrised combinatorial patterns. One can control, for instance, the number of leaves, profile of node degrees in trees or the number of certain sub-patterns in generated strings. However, such a flexible control requires an additional and nontrivial tuning procedure. Using techniques of convex optimisation, we present an efficient tuning algorithm for multi-parametric combinatorial specifications. Our algorithm works in polynomial time in the system description length, the number of tuning parameters, the number of combinatorial classes in the specification, and the logarithm of the total target size. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on a series of practical examples, including rational, algebraic, and so-called Pólya specifications. We show how our method can be adapted to a broad range of less typical combinatorial constructions, including symmetric polynomials, labelled sets and cycles with cardinality lower bounds, simple increasing trees or substitutions. Finally, we discuss some practical aspects of our prototype tuner implementation and provide its benchmark results.
In the localization game on a graph, the goal is to find a fixed but unknown target node
$v^\star$
with the least number of distance queries possible. In the jth step of the game, the player queries a single node
$v_j$
and receives, as an answer to their query, the distance between the nodes
$v_j$
and
$v^\star$
. The sequential metric dimension (SMD) is the minimal number of queries that the player needs to guess the target with absolute certainty, no matter where the target is.
The term SMD originates from the related notion of metric dimension (MD), which can be defined the same way as the SMD except that the player’s queries are non-adaptive. In this work we extend the results of Bollobás, Mitsche, and Prałat [4] on the MD of Erdős–Rényi graphs to the SMD. We find that, in connected Erdős–Rényi graphs, the MD and the SMD are a constant factor apart. For the lower bound we present a clean analysis by combining tools developed for the MD and a novel coupling argument. For the upper bound we show that a strategy that greedily minimizes the number of candidate targets in each step uses asymptotically optimal queries in Erdős–Rényi graphs. Connections with source localization, binary search on graphs, and the birthday problem are discussed.
We prove concentration inequality results for geometric graph properties of an instance of the Cooper–Frieze [5] preferential attachment model with edge-steps. More precisely, we investigate a random graph model that at each time
$t\in \mathbb{N}$
, with probability p adds a new vertex to the graph (a vertex-step occurs) or with probability
$1-p$
an edge connecting two existent vertices is added (an edge-step occurs). We prove concentration results for the global clustering coefficient as well as the clique number. More formally, we prove that the global clustering, with high probability, decays as
$t^{-\gamma(p)}$
for a positive function
$\gamma$
of p, whereas the clique number of these graphs is, up to subpolynomially small factors, of order
$t^{(1-p)/(2-p)}$
.
For a prime number p and a free profinite group S on the basis X, let
$S_{\left (n,p\right )}$
,
$n=1,2,\dotsc ,$
be the p-Zassenhaus filtration of S. For
$p>n$
, we give a word-combinatorial description of the cohomology group
$H^2\left (S/S_{\left (n,p\right )},\mathbb {Z}/p\right )$
in terms of the shuffle algebra on X. We give a natural linear basis for this cohomology group, which is constructed by means of unitriangular representations arising from Lyndon words.
Dendric shifts are defined by combinatorial restrictions of the extensions of the words in their languages. This family generalizes well-known families of shifts such as Sturmian shifts, Arnoux–Rauzy shifts and codings of interval exchange transformations. It is known that any minimal dendric shift has a primitive
$\mathcal {S}$
-adic representation where the morphisms in
$\mathcal {S}$
are positive tame automorphisms of the free group generated by the alphabet. In this paper, we investigate those
$\mathcal {S}$
-adic representations, heading towards an
$\mathcal {S}$
-adic characterization of this family. We obtain such a characterization in the ternary case, involving a directed graph with two vertices.
In this paper we analyse the limiting conditional distribution (Yaglom limit) for stochastic fluid models (SFMs), a key class of models in the theory of matrix-analytic methods. So far, only transient and stationary analyses of SFMs have been considered in the literature. The limiting conditional distribution gives useful insights into what happens when the process has been evolving for a long time, given that its busy period has not ended yet. We derive expressions for the Yaglom limit in terms of the singularity˜$s^*$ such that the key matrix of the SFM, ${\boldsymbol{\Psi}}(s)$, is finite (exists) for all $s\geq s^*$ and infinite for $s<s^*$. We show the uniqueness of the Yaglom limit and illustrate the application of the theory with simple examples.
We present a new manifestation of Gödel’s second incompleteness theorem and discuss its foundational significance, in particular with respect to Hilbert’s program. Specifically, we consider a proper extension of Peano arithmetic (
$\mathbf {PA}$
) by a mathematically meaningful axiom scheme that consists of
$\Sigma ^0_2$
-sentences. These sentences assert that each computably enumerable (
$\Sigma ^0_1$
-definable without parameters) property of finite binary trees has a finite basis. Since this fact entails the existence of polynomial time algorithms, it is relevant for computer science. On a technical level, our axiom scheme is a variant of an independence result due to Harvey Friedman. At the same time, the meta-mathematical properties of our axiom scheme distinguish it from most known independence results: Due to its logical complexity, our axiom scheme does not add computational strength. The only known method to establish its independence relies on Gödel’s second incompleteness theorem. In contrast, Gödel’s theorem is not needed for typical examples of
$\Pi ^0_2$
-independence (such as the Paris–Harrington principle), since computational strength provides an extensional invariant on the level of
$\Pi ^0_2$
-sentences.
We apply the power-of-two-choices paradigm to a random walk on a graph: rather than moving to a uniform random neighbour at each step, a controller is allowed to choose from two independent uniform random neighbours. We prove that this allows the controller to significantly accelerate the hitting and cover times in several natural graph classes. In particular, we show that the cover time becomes linear in the number n of vertices on discrete tori and bounded degree trees, of order $${\mathcal O}(n\log \log n)$$ on bounded degree expanders, and of order $${\mathcal O}(n{(\log \log n)^2})$$ on the Erdős–Rényi random graph in a certain sparsely connected regime. We also consider the algorithmic question of computing an optimal strategy and prove a dichotomy in efficiency between computing strategies for hitting and cover times.
We bound the number of distinct minimal subsystems of a given transitive subshift of linear complexity, continuing work of Ormes and Pavlov [On the complexity function for sequences which are not uniformly recurrent. Dynamical Systems and Random Processes (Contemporary Mathematics, 736). American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 2019, pp. 125--137]. We also bound the number of generic measures such a subshift can support based on its complexity function. Our measure-theoretic bounds generalize those of Boshernitzan [A unique ergodicity of minimal symbolic flows with linear block growth. J. Anal. Math.44(1) (1984), 77–96] and are closely related to those of Cyr and Kra [Counting generic measures for a subshift of linear growth. J. Eur. Math. Soc.21(2) (2019), 355–380].
A connected graph G is
$\mathcal {CF}$
-connected if there is a path between every pair of vertices with no crossing on its edges for each optimal drawing of G. We conjecture that a complete bipartite graph
$K_{m,n}$
is
$\mathcal {CF}$
-connected if and only if it does not contain a subgraph of
$K_{3,6}$
or
$K_{4,4}$
. We establish the validity of this conjecture for all complete bipartite graphs
$K_{m,n}$
for any
$m,n$
with
$\min \{m,n\}\leq 6$
, and conditionally for
$m,n\geq 7$
on the assumption of Zarankiewicz’s conjecture that
$\mathrm {cr}(K_{m,n})=\big \lfloor \frac {m}{2} \big \rfloor \big \lfloor \frac {m-1}{2} \big \rfloor \big \lfloor \frac {n}{2} \big \rfloor \big \lfloor \frac {n-1}{2} \big \rfloor $
.
We answer four questions from a recent paper of Rao and Shinkar [17] on Lipschitz bijections between functions from {0, 1}n to {0, 1}. (1) We show that there is no O(1)-bi-Lipschitz bijection from Dictator to XOR such that each output bit depends on O(1) input bits. (2) We give a construction for a mapping from XOR to Majority which has average stretch
$O(\sqrt{n})$
, matching a previously known lower bound. (3) We give a 3-Lipschitz embedding
$\phi \colon \{0,1\}^n \to \{0,1\}^{2n+1}$
such that
$${\rm{XOR }}(x) = {\rm{ Majority }}(\phi (x))$$
for all
$x \in \{0,1\}^n$
. (4) We show that with high probability there is an O(1)-bi-Lipschitz mapping from Dictator to a uniformly random balanced function.
The aim of this paper is to shed light on our understanding of large scale properties of infinite strings. We say that one string
$\alpha $
has weaker large scale geometry than that of
$\beta $
if there is color preserving bi-Lipschitz map from
$\alpha $
into
$\beta $
with small distortion. This definition allows us to define a partially ordered set of large scale geometries on the classes of all infinite strings. This partial order compares large scale geometries of infinite strings. As such, it presents an algebraic tool for classification of global patterns. We study properties of this partial order. We prove, for instance, that this partial order has a greatest element and also possess infinite chains and antichains. We also investigate the sets of large scale geometries of strings accepted by finite state machines such as Büchi automata. We provide an algorithm that describes large scale geometries of strings accepted by Büchi automata. This connects the work with the complexity theory. We also prove that the quasi-isometry problem is a
$\Sigma _2^0$
-complete set, thus providing a bridge with computability theory. Finally, we build algebraic structures that are invariants of large scale geometries. We invoke asymptotic cones, a key concept in geometric group theory, defined via model-theoretic notion of ultra-product. Partly, we study asymptotic cones of algorithmically random strings, thus connecting the topic with algorithmic randomness.
A k-permutation family on n vertices is a set-system consisting of the intervals of k permutations of the integers 1 to n. The discrepancy of a set-system is the minimum over all red–blue vertex colourings of the maximum difference between the number of red and blue vertices in any set in the system. In 2011, Newman and Nikolov disproved a conjecture of Beck that the discrepancy of any 3-permutation family is at most a constant independent of n. Here we give a simpler proof that Newman and Nikolov’s sequence of 3-permutation families has discrepancy $\Omega (\log \,n)$. We also exhibit a sequence of 6-permutation families with root-mean-squared discrepancy $\Omega (\sqrt {\log \,n} )$; that is, in any red–blue vertex colouring, the square root of the expected squared difference between the number of red and blue vertices in an interval of the system is $\Omega (\sqrt {\log \,n} )$.