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We construct a calculus of functors in the spirit of orthogonal calculus, which is designed to study ‘functors with reality’ such as the Real classifying space functor,
$\BU_\Bbb{R}(-)$
. The calculus produces a Taylor tower, the n-th layer of which is classified by a spectrum with an action of
$C_2 \ltimes \U(n)$
. We further give model categorical considerations, producing a zigzag of Quillen equivalences between spectra with an action of
$C_2 \ltimes \U(n)$
and a model structure on the category of input functors which captures the homotopy theory of the n-th layer of the Taylor tower.
This study presents functional limit theorems for the Euler characteristic of Vietoris–Rips complexes. The points are drawn from a nonhomogeneous Poisson process on
$\mathbb{R}^d$
, and the connectivity radius governing the formation of simplices is taken as a function of the time parameter t, which allows us to treat the Euler characteristic as a stochastic process. The setting in which this takes place is that of the critical regime, in which the simplicial complexes are highly connected and have nontrivial topology. We establish two ‘functional-level’ limit theorems, a strong law of large numbers and a central limit theorem, for the appropriately normalized Euler characteristic process.
We introduce a general definition for coloured cyclic operads over a symmetric monoidal ground category, which has several appealing features. The forgetful functor from coloured cyclic operads to coloured operads has both adjoints, each of which is relatively simple. Explicit formulae for these adjoints allow us to lift the Cisinski–Moerdijk model structure on the category of coloured operads enriched in simplicial sets to the category of coloured cyclic operads enriched in simplicial sets.
A directed space is a topological space $X$ together with a subspace $\vec {P}(X)\subset X^I$ of directed paths on $X$. A symmetry of a directed space should therefore respect both the topology of the underlying space and the topology of the associated spaces $\vec {P}(X)_-^+$ of directed paths between a source ($-$) and a target ($+$)—up to homotopy. If it is, moreover, homotopic to the identity map—in a directed sense—such a symmetry will be called an inessential d-map, and the paper explores the algebra and topology of inessential d-maps. Comparing two d-spaces $X$ and $Y$ ‘up to symmetry’ yields the notion of a directed homotopy equivalence between them. Under appropriate conditions, all directed homotopy equivalences are shown to satisfy a 2-out-of-3 property. Our notion of directed homotopy equivalence does not agree completely with the one defined in Goubault (2017, arxiv:1709:05702v2) and Goubault, Farber and Sagnier (2020, J. Appl. Comput. Topol. 4, 11–27); the deviation is motivated by examples. Nevertheless, directed topological complexity, introduced in Goubault, Farber and Sagnier (2020) is shown to be invariant under our notion of directed homotopy equivalence. Finally, we show that directed homotopy equivalences result in isomorphisms on the pair component categories of directed spaces introduced in Goubault, Farber and Sagnier (2020).
We give explicit formulae for differential graded Lie algebra (DGLA) models of 3-cells. In particular, for a cube and an n-faceted banana-shaped 3-cell with two vertices, n edges each joining those two vertices, and n bi-gon 2-cells, we construct a model symmetric under the geometric symmetries of the cell fixing two antipodal vertices. The cube model is to be used in forthcoming work for discrete analogues of differential geometry on cubulated manifolds.
We give a geometric interpretation of sheaf cohomology for higher degrees
$n\geq 1$
in terms of torsors on the member of degree
$d=n-1$
in hypercoverings of type
$r=n-2$
, endowed with an additional datum, the so-called rigidification. This generalizes the fact that cohomology in degree one is the group of isomorphism classes of torsors, where the rigidification becomes vacuous, and that cohomology in degree two can be expressed in terms of bundle gerbes, where the rigidification becomes an associativity constraint.
The objective of this study is to examine the asymptotic behavior of Betti numbers of Čech complexes treated as stochastic processes and formed from random points in the d-dimensional Euclidean space
${\mathbb{R}}^d$
. We consider the case where the points of the Čech complex are generated by a Poisson process with intensity nf for a probability density f. We look at the cases where the behavior of the connectivity radius of the Čech complex causes simplices of dimension greater than
$k+1$
to vanish in probability, the so-called sparse regime, as well when the connectivity radius is of the order of
$n^{-1/d}$
, the critical regime. We establish limit theorems in the aforementioned regimes: central limit theorems for the sparse and critical regimes, and a Poisson limit theorem for the sparse regime. When the connectivity radius of the Čech complex is
$o(n^{-1/d})$
, i.e. the sparse regime, we can decompose the limiting processes into a time-changed Brownian motion or a time-changed homogeneous Poisson process respectively. In the critical regime, the limiting process is a centered Gaussian process but has a much more complicated representation, because the Čech complex becomes highly connected with many topological holes of any dimension.
Component graphs
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D6E4}_{0}(F)$
are defined for arrays of sets
$F$
, and, in particular, for arrays of path components for Vietoris–Rips complexes and Lesnick complexes. The path components of
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D6E4}_{0}(F)$
are the stable components of the array
$F$
. The stable components for the system of Lesnick complexes
$\{L_{s,k}(X)\}$
for a finite data set
$X$
decompose into layers, which are themselves path components of a graph. Combinatorial scoring functions are defined for layers and stable components.
We explore the constraints imposed by Poincaré duality on the resonance varieties of a graded algebra. For a three-dimensional Poincaré duality algebra A, we obtain a fairly precise geometric description of the resonance varieties ${\cal R}^i_k(A)$.
We prove a $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6E4}$-equivariant version of the algebraic index theorem, where $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6E4}$ is a discrete group of automorphisms of a formal deformation of a symplectic manifold. The particular cases of this result are the algebraic version of the transversal index theorem related to the theorem of A. Connes and H. Moscovici for hypo-elliptic operators and the index theorem for the extension of the algebra of pseudodifferential operators by a group of diffeomorphisms of the underlying manifold due to A. Savin, B. Sternin, E. Schrohe and D. Perrot.
We introduce what is meant by an AC-Gorenstein ring. It is a generalized notion of Gorenstein ring that is compatible with the Gorenstein AC-injective and Gorenstein AC-projective modules of Bravo–Gillespie–Hovey. It is also compatible with the notion of $n$-coherent rings introduced by Bravo–Perez. So a $0$-coherent AC-Gorenstein ring is precisely a usual Gorenstein ring in the sense of Iwanaga, while a $1$-coherent AC-Gorenstein ring is precisely a Ding–Chen ring. We show that any AC-Gorenstein ring admits a stable module category that is compactly generated and is the homotopy category of two Quillen equivalent abelian model category structures. One is projective with cofibrant objects that are Gorenstein AC-projective modules while the other is an injective model structure with fibrant objects that are Gorenstein AC-injectives.
This paper sets up the foundations for derived algebraic geometry, Goerss–Hopkins obstruction theory, and the construction of commutative ring spectra in the abstract setting of operadic algebras in symmetric spectra in an (essentially) arbitrary model category. We show that one can do derived algebraic geometry a la Toën–Vezzosi in an abstract category of spectra. We also answer in the affirmative a question of Goerss and Hopkins by showing that the obstruction theory for operadic algebras in spectra can be done in the generality of spectra in an (essentially) arbitrary model category. We construct strictly commutative simplicial ring spectra representing a given cohomology theory and illustrate this with a strictly commutative motivic ring spectrum representing higher order products on Deligne cohomology. These results are obtained by first establishing Smith’s stable positive model structure for abstract spectra and then showing that this category of spectra possesses excellent model-theoretic properties: we show that all colored symmetric operads in symmetric spectra valued in a symmetric monoidal model category are admissible, i.e., algebras over such operads carry a model structure. This generalizes the known model structures on commutative ring spectra and $\text{E}_{\infty }$-ring spectra in simplicial sets or motivic spaces. We also show that any weak equivalence of operads in spectra gives rise to a Quillen equivalence of their categories of algebras. For example, this extends the familiar strictification of $\text{E}_{\infty }$-rings to commutative rings in a broad class of spectra, including motivic spectra. We finally show that operadic algebras in Quillen equivalent categories of spectra are again Quillen equivalent. This paper is also available at arXiv:1410.5699v2.
A natural composition ⊙ on all pages of the lower central series spectral sequence for spheres is defined. Moreover, it is defined for the p-lower central series spectral sequence of a simplicial group. It is proved that the rth differential satisfies a ‘Leibniz rule with suspension’: dr(a ⊙ σ b) = ±dra ⊙ b + a ⊙ dr σ b, where σ is the suspension homomorphism.
We consider smooth, complex quasiprojective varieties $U$ that admit a compactification with a boundary, which is an arrangement of smooth algebraic hypersurfaces. If the hypersurfaces intersect locally like hyperplanes, and the relative interiors of the hypersurfaces are Stein manifolds, we prove that the cohomology of certain local systems on $U$ vanishes. As an application, we show that complements of linear, toric, and elliptic arrangements are both duality and abelian duality spaces.
We consider a time varying analogue of the Erdős–Rényi graph and study the topological variations of its associated clique complex. The dynamics of the graph are stationary and are determined by the edges, which evolve independently as continuous-time Markov chains. Our main result is that when the edge inclusion probability is of the form p=nα, where n is the number of vertices and α∈(-1/k, -1/(k + 1)), then the process of the normalised kth Betti number of these dynamic clique complexes converges weakly to the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process as n→∞.
In this paper, we show that the known models for (∞, 1)-categories can all be extended to equivariant versions for any discrete group G. We show that in two of the models we can also consider actions of any simplicial group G.