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We study the variations of mixed Hodge structures (VMHS) associated with a pencil ${\mathcal{X}}$ of equisingular hypersurfaces of degree $d$ in $\mathbb{P}^{4}$ with only ordinary double points as singularities, as well as the variations of Hodge structures (VHS) associated with the desingularization of this family $\widetilde{{\mathcal{X}}}$. The notion of a set of singular points being in homologically good position is introduced, and, by requiring that the subset of nodes in (algebraic) general position is also in homologically good position, we can extend Griffiths’ description of the $F^{2}$-term of the Hodge filtration of the desingularization to this case, where we can also determine the possible limiting mixed Hodge structures (LMHS). The particular pencil ${\mathcal{X}}$ of quintic hypersurfaces with 100 singular double points with 86 of them in (algebraic) general position that served as the starting point for this paper is treated with particular attention.
We introduce a notion of complexity of diagrams (and, in particular, of objects and morphisms) in an arbitrary category, as well as a notion of complexity of functors between categories equipped with complexity functions. We discuss several examples of this new definition in categories of wide common interest such as finite sets, Boolean functions, topological spaces, vector spaces, semilinear and semialgebraic sets, graded algebras, affine and projective varieties and schemes, and modules over polynomial rings. We show that on one hand categorical complexity recovers in several settings classical notions of nonuniform computational complexity (such as circuit complexity), while on the other hand it has features that make it mathematically more natural. We also postulate that studying functor complexity is the categorical analog of classical questions in complexity theory about separating different complexity classes.
We study solutions of difference equations in the rings of sequences and, more generally, solutions of equations with a monoid action in the ring of sequences indexed by the monoid. This framework includes, for example, difference equations on grids (for example, standard difference schemes) and difference equations in functions on words. On the universality side, we prove a version of strong Nullstellensatz for such difference equations under the assumption that the cardinality of the ground field is greater than the cardinality of the monoid and construct an example showing that this assumption cannot be omitted. On the undecidability side, we show that the following problems are undecidable:
We give a bound on the primes dividing the denominators of invariants of Picard curves of genus 3 with complex multiplication. Unlike earlier bounds in genus 2 and 3, our bound is based, not on bad reduction of curves, but on a very explicit type of good reduction. This approach simultaneously yields a simplification of the proof and much sharper bounds. In fact, unlike all previous bounds for genus 3, our bound is sharp enough for use in explicit constructions of Picard curves.
Let $Y$ be a complex Enriques surface whose universal cover $X$ is birational to a general quartic Hessian surface. Using the result on the automorphism group of $X$ due to Dolgachev and Keum, we obtain a finite presentation of the automorphism group of $Y$. The list of elliptic fibrations on $Y$ and the list of combinations of rational double points that can appear on a surface birational to $Y$ are presented. As an application, a set of generators of the automorphism group of the generic Enriques surface is calculated explicitly.
The signature of a parametric curve is a sequence of tensors whose entries are iterated integrals. This construction is central to the theory of rough paths in stochastic analysis. It is examined here through the lens of algebraic geometry. We introduce varieties of signature tensors for both deterministic paths and random paths. For the former, we focus on piecewise linear paths, on polynomial paths, and on varieties derived from free nilpotent Lie groups. For the latter, we focus on Brownian motion and its mixtures.
Inspired by methods of N. P. Smart, we describe an algorithm to determine all Picard curves over $\mathbb{Q}$ with good reduction away from 3, up to $\mathbb{Q}$-isomorphism. A correspondence between the isomorphism classes of such curves and certain quintic binary forms possessing a rational linear factor is established. An exhaustive list of integral models is determined and an application to a question of Ihara is discussed.
We prove that the canonical ring of a canonical variety in the sense of de Fernex and Hacon is finitely generated. We prove that canonical varieties are Kawamata log terminal (klt) if and only if is finitely generated. We introduce a notion of nefness for non-ℚ-Gorenstein varieties and study some of its properties. We then focus on these properties for non-ℚ-Gorenstein toric varieties.
The jaggedness of an order ideal $I$ in a poset $P$ is the number of maximal elements in $I$ plus the number of minimal elements of $P$ not in $I$. A probability distribution on the set of order ideals of $P$ is toggle-symmetric if for every $p\in P$, the probability that $p$ is maximal in $I$ equals the probability that $p$ is minimal not in $I$. In this paper, we prove a formula for the expected jaggedness of an order ideal of $P$ under any toggle-symmetric probability distribution when $P$ is the poset of boxes in a skew Young diagram. Our result extends the main combinatorial theorem of Chan–López–Pflueger–Teixidor [Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., forthcoming. 2015, arXiv:1506.00516], who used an expected jaggedness computation as a key ingredient to prove an algebro-geometric formula; and it has applications to homomesies, in the sense of Propp–Roby, of the antichain cardinality statistic for order ideals in partially ordered sets.
We describe the construction of a database of genus-$2$ curves of small discriminant that includes geometric and arithmetic invariants of each curve, its Jacobian, and the associated $L$-function. This data has been incorporated into the $L$-Functions and Modular Forms Database (LMFDB).
Given a sextic CM field $K$, we give an explicit method for finding all genus-$3$ hyperelliptic curves defined over $\mathbb{C}$ whose Jacobians are simple and have complex multiplication by the maximal order of this field, via an approximation of their Rosenhain invariants. Building on the work of Weng [J. Ramanujan Math. Soc. 16 (2001) no. 4, 339–372], we give an algorithm which works in complete generality, for any CM sextic field $K$, and computes minimal polynomials of the Rosenhain invariants for any period matrix of the Jacobian. This algorithm can be used to generate genus-3 hyperelliptic curves over a finite field $\mathbb{F}_{p}$ with a given zeta function by finding roots of the Rosenhain minimal polynomials modulo $p$.
We study cup products in the integral cohomology of the Hilbert scheme of $n$ points on a K3 surface and present a computer program for this purpose. In particular, we deal with the question of which classes can be represented by products of lower degrees.
If $S$ is a quintic surface in $\mathbb{P}^{3}$ with singular set 15 3-divisible ordinary cusps, then there is a Galois triple cover ${\it\phi}:X\rightarrow S$ branched only at the cusps such that $p_{g}(X)=4$, $q(X)=0$, $K_{X}^{2}=15$ and ${\it\phi}$ is the canonical map of $X$. We use computer algebra to search for such quintics having a free action of $\mathbb{Z}_{5}$, so that $X/\mathbb{Z}_{5}$ is a smooth minimal surface of general type with $p_{g}=0$ and $K^{2}=3$. We find two different quintics, one of which is the van der Geer–Zagier quintic; the other is new.
We also construct a quintic threefold passing through the 15 singular lines of the Igusa quartic, with 15 cuspidal lines there. By taking tangent hyperplane sections, we compute quintic surfaces with singular sets $17\mathsf{A}_{2}$, $16\mathsf{A}_{2}$, $15\mathsf{A}_{2}+\mathsf{A}_{3}$ and $15\mathsf{A}_{2}+\mathsf{D}_{4}$.
In this paper, we investigate examples of good and optimal Drinfeld modular towers of function fields. Surprisingly, the optimality of these towers has not been investigated in full detail in the literature. We also give an algorithmic approach for obtaining explicit defining equations for some of these towers and, in particular, give a new explicit example of an optimal tower over a quadratic finite field.
Mori dream spaces form a large example class of algebraic varieties, comprising the well-known toric varieties. We provide a first software package for the explicit treatment of Mori dream spaces and demonstrate its use by presenting basic sample computations. The software package is accompanied by a Cox ring database which delivers defining data for Cox rings and Mori dream spaces in a suitable format. As an application of the package, we determine the common Cox ring for the symplectic resolutions of a certain quotient singularity investigated by Bellamy–Schedler and Donten-Bury–Wiśniewski.
We show how to efficiently evaluate functions on Jacobian varieties and their quotients. We deduce an algorithm to compute $(l,l)$ isogenies between Jacobians of genus two curves in quasi-linear time in the degree $l^{2}$.
We compute the global log canonical thresholds of quasi-smooth well-formed complete intersection log del Pezzo surfaces of amplitude 1 in weighted projective spaces. As a corollary we show the existence of orbifold Kähler—Einstein metrics on many of them.
We consider higher secant varieties to Veronese varieties. Most points on the rth secant variety are represented by a finite scheme of length r contained in the Veronese variety – in fact, for a general point, the scheme is just a union of r distinct points. A modern way to phrase it is: the smoothable rank is equal to the border rank for most polynomials. This property is very useful for studying secant varieties, especially, whenever the smoothable rank is equal to the border rank for all points of the secant variety in question. In this note, we investigate those special points for which the smoothable rank is not equal to the border rank. In particular, we show an explicit example of a cubic in five variables with border rank 5 and smoothable rank 6. We also prove that all cubics in at most four variables have the smoothable rank equal to the border rank.
We exhibit a numerical method to compute three-point branched covers of the complex projective line. We develop algorithms for working explicitly with Fuchsian triangle groups and their finite-index subgroups, and we use these algorithms to compute power series expansions of modular forms on these groups.