Spaces of power series solutions
$y(\mathrm {t})$
in one variable
$\mathrm {t}$
of systems of polynomial, algebraic, analytic or formal equations
$f(\mathrm {t},\mathrm {y})=0$
can be viewed as ‘infinite-dimensional’ varieties over the ground field
$\mathbf {k}$
as well as ‘finite-dimensional’ schemes over the power series ring
$\mathbf {k}[[\mathrm {t}]]$
. We propose to call these solution spaces arquile varieties, as an enhancement of the concept of arc spaces. It will be proven that arquile varieties admit a natural stratification
${\mathcal Y}=\bigsqcup {\mathcal Y}_d$
,
$d\in {\mathbb N}$
, such that each stratum
${\mathcal Y}_d$
is isomorphic to a Cartesian product
${\mathcal Z}_d\times \mathbb A^{\infty }_{\mathbf {k}}$
of a finite-dimensional, possibly singular variety
${\mathcal Z}_d$
over
$\mathbf {k}$
with an affine space
$\mathbb A^{\infty }_{\mathbf {k}}$
of infinite dimension. This shows that the singularities of the solution space of
$f(\mathrm {t},\mathrm {y})=0$
are confined, up to the stratification, to the finite-dimensional part.
Our results are established simultaneously for algebraic, convergent and formal power series, as well as convergent power series with prescribed radius of convergence. The key technical tool is a linearisation theorem, already used implicitly by Greenberg and Artin, showing that analytic maps between power series spaces can be essentially linearised by automorphisms of the source space.
Instead of stratifying arquile varieties, one may alternatively consider formal neighbourhoods of their regular points and reprove with similar methods the Grinberg–Kazhdan–Drinfeld factorisation theorem for arc spaces in the classical setting and in the more general setting.