Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Cited by 4
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: May 2015

7 - Bottom-up and top-down interactions in coastal interface systems

from Part II - Ecosystems


General introduction of rocky intertidal and salt marsh systems

The land–sea margin encompasses a variety of hard and soft-bottom habitats where organisms are exposed to a dynamic range of aquatic and atmospheric conditions dependent on a rhythm set by the tides. In this chapter, we focus on rocky intertidal and salt marsh ecosystems, which have been extensively studied on many continents. Both rocky shore and salt marsh communities exhibit strong and consistent patterns of intertidal zonation over relatively compressed spatial scales, making them excellent systems for understanding the context-dependency of species interactions. Hard-bottomed rocky intertidal communities are dominated by marine macroalgae and sessile marine invertebrates extending their reach to the furthest edge of the influence of sea spray, while soft-bottomed salt marsh communities are anchored by terrestrial plants with adaptations or tolerance to inundation by salty and brackish waters. Rocky shore communities may be battered by the full force of large ocean waves or gently lapped with seawater on more protected shorelines. In contrast, salt marshes are restricted to quiet waters where sediment accretion by plants is the main mechanism for habitat creation. Both communities may experience very large tidal excursions or only minimal ones, depending on the local dynamics of the tides, with corresponding consequences for the spatial extent of these communities across the shoreline. The steep environmental gradients and distinctive biological zonation patterns that characterize both rocky shore and salt marsh ecosystems (Fig. 7.1) have provided ecologists with accessible and highly tractable ecosystems for investigating the role of bottom-up and top-down factors along environmental gradients.

Bottom-up and top-down interactions in rocky intertidal systems

Introduction to rocky intertidal systems

Rocky intertidal communities have been the subject of intensive study world-wide, especially at temperate latitudes. The typically broad tidal range and relatively moderate atmospheric conditions create a wide zone of intertidal habitat that is generally hospitable to rocky intertidal species, while also readily accessible to investigators for hours at a time during periods of low tide and calm sea state.

Abraham, K. F., Jefferies, R. L. and Alisauskas, R. T. (2005). The dynamics of landscape change and snow geese in mid-continent North America. Global Change Biology, 11, 841–855.
Adam, P. (2002). Saltmarshes in a time of change. Environmental Conservation, 29, 39–61.
Alberti, J., Escapa, M., Iribarne, O., Silliman, B. and Bertness, M. (2008). Crab herbivory regulates plant facilitative and competitive processes in Argentinean marshes. Ecology, 89, 155–164.
Alberti, J., Escapa, M., Daleo, P., Méndez Casariego, A. and Iribarne, O. (2010a). Crab bioturbation and herbivory reduce pre- and post-germination success of Sarcocornia perennis in bare patches of SW Atlantic salt marshes. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 400, 55–61.
Alberti, J., Méndez Casariego, A., Daleo, P., et al. (2010b). Abiotic stress mediates top-down and bottom-up control in a Southwestern Atlantic salt marsh. Oecologia, 163, 181–191.
Alberti, J., Canepuccia, A., Pascual, J., Pérez, C. and Iribarne, O. (2011). Joint control by rodent herbivory and nutrient availability of plant diversity in a salt marsh-salty steppe transition zone. Journal of Vegetation Science, 22, 216–224.
Altieri, A. H., Bertness, M. D., Coverdale, T. C., Herrmann, N. C. and Angelini, C. (2012). A trophic cascade triggers collapse of a salt marsh ecosystem with intensive recreational fishing. Ecology, 93, 1402–1410.
Aquilino, K. M., Bracken, M. E., Faubel, M. N. and Stachowicz, J. J. (2009). Local-scale nutrient regeneration facilitates seaweed growth on wave-exposed rocky shores in an upwelling system. Limnology and Oceanography, 54, 309–317.
Bakker, J. P., de Leeuw, J., Dijkema, K. S., et al. (1993). Salt marshes along the coast of The Netherlands. Hydrobiologia, 265, 73–95.
Bakker, J. P., Bunje, J., Dijkema, K. S., et al. (2005a). Salt marshes. In Wadden Sea Quality Status Report 2004. Wadden Sea Ecosystem No 19, ed. Essink, K., Dettmann, C., Farke, H., Lüerssen, G., Marencic, H., and Wiersinga, W.. Wilhelmshaven, Germany: Trilateral Monitoring and Assessment Group, Common Wadden Sea Secretariat, pp. 163–179.
Bakker, J. P., Bouma, T. J. and Van Wijnen, H. J. (2005b). Interactions between microorganisms and intertidal plant communities. In Interactions Between Macro- and Microorganisms in Marine Sediments: Coastal and Estuarine Studies 60, ed. Kristensen, K., Kostka, J. E. and Haese, R. R.. Washington: American Geophysical Union, pp. 179–198.
Bakker, J. P., Kuijper, D. P. J. and Stahl, J. (2009). Community ecology and management of salt marshes. In Community Ecology Processes, Models and Applications, ed. Verhoef, H. A. and Morin, P. J.. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 131–147.
Berlow, E. L. (1997). From canalization to contingency: historical effects in a successional rocky intertidal community. Ecological Monographs, 67, 435–460.
Bertness, M. D. (1985). Fiddler crab regulation of Spartina alterniflora production on a New England salt marsh. Ecology, 66, 1042–1055.
Bertness, M. D., Leonard, G. H., Levine, J. M. and Bruno, J. F. (1999). Climate-driven interactions among rocky intertidal organisms caught between a rock and a hot place. Oecologia, 120, 446–450.
Bertness, M. D., Crain, C. M., Silliman, B. R., et al. (2006). The community structure of western Atlantic Patagonian rocky shores. Ecological Monographs, 76, 439–460.
Bertness, M. D., Crain, C., Holdredge, C. and Sala, N. (2008). Eutrophication and consumer control of New England salt marsh primary productivity. Conservation Biology, 22, 131–139.
Bertness, M. D., Holdredge, C. and Altieri, A. H. (2009). Substrate mediates consumer control of salt marsh cordgrass on Cape Cod, New England. Ecology, 90, 2108–2117.
Bertness, M. D., Bruno, J. F., Silliman, B. R. and Stachowicz, J. J. (2014). A short history of marine community ecology. In Marine Community Ecology and Conservation, ed. Bertness, M. D., Bruno, J. F., Silliman, B. R. and Stachowicz, J. J.. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, pp. 2–8.
Bortolus, A. and Iribarne, O. (1999). Effects of the SW Atlantic burrowing crab Chasmagnathus granulata on a Spartina salt marsh. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 178, 79–88.
Bos, D., Bakker, J. P., De Vries, Y. and Van Lieshout, S. (2002). Long-term vegetation changes in experimentally grazed and ungrazed back-barrier marshes in the Wadden Sea. Applied Vegetation Science, 5, 45–54.
Bos, D., Van De Koppel, J. and Weissing, F. J. (2004). Dark-bellied Brent geese aggregate to cope with increased levels of primary production. Oikos, 107, 485–496.
Bos, D., Loonen, M., Stock, M., et al. (2005). Utilisation of Wadden Sea salt marshes by geese in relation to livestock grazing. Journal for Nature Conservation, 15, 1–15.
Bosman, A. L. and Hockey, P. A. R. (1986). Seabird guano as a determinant of rocky intertidal community structure. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 32, 247–257.
Bosman, A. L., Hockey, P. A. R. and Siegfried, W. R. (1987). The influence of coastal upwelling on the functional structure of rocky intertidal communities. Oecologia, 72, 226–232.
Bracken, M. E. and Nielsen, K. J. (2004). Diversity of intertidal macroalgae increases with nitrogen loading by invertebrates. Ecology, 85, 2828–2836.
Bracken, M. E., Jones, E. and Williams, S. L. (2011). Herbivores, tidal elevation, and species richness simultaneously mediate nitrate uptake by seaweed assemblages. Ecology, 92, 1083–1093.
Broitman, B. R. and Kinlan, B. P. (2006). Spatial scales of benthic and pelagic producer biomass in a coastal upwelling ecosystem. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 327, 15–25.
Broitman, B. R., Navarrete, S. A., Smith, F. and Gaines, S. D. (2001). Geographic variation of southeastern Pacific intertidal communities. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 224, 21–34.
Broitman, B. R., Blanchette, C. A., Menge, B. A., et al. (2008). Spatial and temporal patterns of invertebrate recruitment along the west coast of the United States. Ecological Monographs, 78, 403–421.
Bromberg Gedan, K., Crain, C. M. and Bertness, M. D. (2009a). Small-mammal herbivore control of secondary succession in New England tidal marshes. Ecology, 90, 430–440.
Bromberg Gedan, K., Silliman, B. R. and Bertness, M. D. (2009b). Centuries of human-driven change in salt marsh ecosystems. Annual Review of Marine Science, 1, 117–141.
Bruno, J. F. (2000). Facilitation of cobble beach plant communities through habitat modification by Spartina alterniflora. Ecology, 81, 1179–1192.
Burdick, D. M. and Mendelssohn, I. A. (1987). Waterlogging responses in dune, swale and marsh populations of Spartina patens under field conditions. Oecologia, 74, 321–329.
Burnaford, J. L. (2004). Habitat modification and refuge from sublethal stress drive a marine plant-herbivore association. Ecology, 85, 2837–2849.
Bustamante, R. H., Branch, G. M. and Eekhout, S. (1995). Maintenance of an exceptional intertidal grazer biomass in South Africa: subsidy by subtidal kelps. Ecology, 76, 2314–2329.
Canepuccia, A. D., Fanjul, M. S., Fanjul, E., Botto, F. and Iribarne, O. O. (2008). The intertidal burrowing crab Neohelice (= Chasmagnathus) granulata positively affects foraging of rodents in south western Atlantic salt marshes. Estuaries and Coasts, 31, 920–930.
Canepuccia, A. D., Alberti, J., Daleo, P., Farina, J. L. and Iribarne, O. O. (2010a). Ecosystem engineering by burrowing crabs increases cordgrass mortality caused by stem-boring insects. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 404, 151–159.
Canepuccia, A. D., Alberti, J., Pascual, J., et al. (2010b). ENSO episodes modify plant/terrestrial-herbivore interactions in a southwestern Atlantic salt marsh. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 396, 42–47.
Castilla, J. C. and Duran, L. R. (1985). Human exclusion from the rocky intertidal zone of central Chile: the effects on Concholepas concholepas (Gastropoda). Oikos, 45, 391–399.
Castillo, J. M., Fernández-Baco, L., Castellanos, E. M., et al. (2000). Lower limits of Spartina densiflora and S. maritima in a Mediterranean salt marsh determined by different ecophysiological tolerances. Journal of Ecology, 88, 801–812.
Colman, J. (1933). The nature of the intertidal zonation of plants and animals. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 18, 435–476.
Connell, J. H. (1961). The influence of interspecific competition and other factors on the distribution of the barnacle Chthamalus stellatus. Ecology, 42, 710–723.
Connolly, S. R. and Roughgarden, J. (1998). A latitudinal gradient in northeast Pacific intertidal community structure: evidence for an oceanographically based synthesis of marine community theory. The American Naturalist, 151, 311–326.
Connolly, S. R., Menge, B. A. and Roughgarden, J. (2001). A latitudinal gradient in recruitment of intertidal invertebrates in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Ecology, 82, 1799–1813.
Crain, C. M., Silliman, B. R., Bertness, S. L. and Bertness, M. D. (2004). Physical and biotic drivers of plant distribution across estuarine salinity gradients. Ecology, 85, 2539–2549.
Cubit, J. D. (1984). Herbivory and the seasonal abundance of algae on a high intertidal rocky shore. Ecology, 65, 1904–1917.
Daleo, P. and Iribarne, O. (2009). Beyond competition: the stress-gradient hypothesis tested in plant–herbivore interactions. Ecology, 90, 2368–2374.
Daleo, P., Fanjul, E., Méndez Casariego, A., et al. (2007). Ecosystem engineers activate mycorrhizal mutualism in salt marshes. Ecology Letters, 10, 902–908.
Daleo, P., Alberti, J. and Iribarne, O. (2011). Crab herbivory regulates re-colonization of disturbed patches in a southwestern Atlantic salt marsh. Oikos, 120, 842–847.
Daleo, P., Alberti, J., Pascual, J., Canepuccia, A. and Iribarne, O. (2014). Asexual reproduction, herbivory and disturbance recovery of SW Atlantic salt marsh plant communities. Oecologia, 175, 335–343.
Davy, A. J., Bakker, J. P. and Figueroa, M. E. (2009). Human modification of European salt marshes. In Human Impacts on Salt Marshes: A Global Perspective, ed. Silliman, B. R., Bertness, M. D. and Strong, D.. California: University of California Press.
Davy, A., Brown, M. J. H., Mossman, H. L. and Grant, A. (2011). Colonization of a newly developing salt marsh: disentangling independent effects of elevation and redox potential on halophytes. Journal of Ecology, 99, 1350–1357.
Dayton, P. K. (1975). Experimental evaluation of ecological dominance in a rocky intertidal algal community. Ecological Monographs, 45, 137–159.
De Leeuw, J., De Munck, W., Olff, H. and Bakker, J. P. (1993). Does zonation reflect the succession of salt marsh vegetation? A comparison of an estuarine and a coastal bar island marsh in the Netherlands. Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 42, 435–445.
Deegan, L. A., Johnson, D. S., Warren, R. S., et al. (2012). Coastal eutrophication as a driver of salt marsh loss. Nature, 490, 388–392.
Denny, M. W. and Paine, R. T. (1998). Celestial mechanics, sea-level changes, and intertidal ecology. The Biological Bulletin, 194, 108–115.
Dethier, M. N. and Duggins, D. O. (1984). An “indirect commensalism” between marine herbivores and the importance of competitive hierarchies. The American Naturalist, 124, 205–219.
Díaz-Tapia, P., Bárbara, I. and Díez, I. (2013). Multi-scale spatial variability in intertidal benthic assemblages: differences between sand-free and sand-covered rocky habitats. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 133, 97–108.
Dugan, J. E., Hubbard, D. M., McCrary, M. D. and Pierson, M. O. (2003). The response of macrofauna communities and shorebirds to macrophyte wrack subsidies on exposed sandy beaches of southern California. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 58, 25–40.
Dugdale, R. C., Wilkerson, F. P. and Morel, A. (1990). Realization of new production in coastal upwelling areas: a means to compare relative performance. Limnology and Oceanography, 35, 822–829.
Duggins, D. O. and Dethier, M. N. (1985). Experimental studies of herbivory and algal competition in a low intertidal habitat. Oecologia, 67, 183–191.
Duran, L. R. and Castilla, J. C. (1989). Variation and persistence of the middle rocky intertidal community of central Chile, with and without human harvesting. MarineBiology, 103, 555–562.
Ellis, J. C., Shulman, M. J., Wood, M., Witman, J. D. and Lozyniak, S. (2007). Regulation of intertidal food webs by avian predators on New England rocky shores. Ecology, 88, 853–863.
Elton, C. S. (1927). Animal Ecology. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Emery, N. C., Ewanchuk, P. J. and Bertness, M. D. (2001). Competition and salt-marsh plant zonation: stress tolerators may be dominant competitors. Ecology, 82, 2471–2485.
Esselink, P., Helder, G. J. F., Aerts, B. A. and Gerdes, K. (1997). The impact of grubbing greylag geese Anser anser on vegetation dynamics of a tidal marsh. Aquatic Botany, 55, 261–279.
Fa, D. A. (2008). Effects of tidal amplitude on intertidal resource availability and dispersal pressure in prehistoric human coastal populations: the Mediterranean–Atlantic transition. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27, 2194–2209.
Fishlyn, D. A. and Phillips, D. W. (1980). Chemical camouflaging and behavioral defenses against a predatory seastar by three species of gastropods from the surfgrass Phyllospadix community. The Biological Bulletin, 158, 34–48.
Freidenburg, T. L., Menge, B. A., Halpin, P., Webster, M. A. and Sutton-Grier, A. (2007). Cross-scale variation in top-down and bottom-up control of algal abundance. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 347, 8–29.
Fretwell, S. D. (1987). Food chain dynamics: the central theory of ecology?Oikos, 50, 291–301.
Gaines, S. and Roughgarden, J. (1985). Larval settlement rate: a leading determinant of structure in an ecological community of the marine intertidal zone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 82, 3707–3711.
Gaines, S. D., White, C., Carr, M. H. and Palumbi, S. R. (2010). Designing marine reserve networks for both conservation and fisheries management. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 107, 18286–18293.
Galst, C. A. and Anderson, T. W. (2008). Fish–habitat associations and the role of disturbance in surfgrass beds. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 365, 177–186.
Guerry, A. D., Menge, B. A. and Dunmore, R. A. (2009). Effects of consumers and enrichment on abundance and diversity of benthic algae in a rocky intertidal community. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 369, 155–164.
Hacker, S. D. and Bertness, M. D. (1995a). A herbivore paradox: why salt marsh aphids live on poor-quality plants. American Naturalist, 145, 192–210.
Hacker, S. D. and Bertness, M. D. (1995b). Morphological and physiological consequences of a positive plant interaction. Ecology, 76, 2165–2175.
Hacker, S. D. and Bertness, M. D. (1996). Trophic consequences of a positive plant interaction. The American Naturalist, 148, 559–575.
Hacker, S. D. and Gaines, S. D. (1997). Some implications of direct positive interactions for community species diversity. Ecology, 78, 1990–2003.
Hairston, N. G., Smith, F. E. and Slobodkin, L. B. (1960). Community structure, population control, and competition. The American Naturalist, 100, 421–425.
Hall, S. J. G. (2008). A comparative analysis of the habitat of the extinct aurochs and other prehistoric mammals in Britain. Ecography, 31, 187–190.
Hanski, I. and Gilpin, M. (1991). Metapopulation Dynamics: Empirical and Theoretical Investigations. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Hockey, P. A. R. (1994). Man as a component of the littoral predator spectrum: a conceptual overview. In Rocky Shores: Exploitation in Chile and South Africa, ed. Siegfried, W. R.. Berlin: Springer, pp. 17–31.
Holbrook, S. J., Reed, D. C., Hansen, K. and Blanchette, C. A. (2000). Spatial and temporal patterns of predation on seeds of the surfgrass Phyllospadix torreyi. Marine Biology, 136, 739–747.
Hunter, M. D. and Price, P. W. (1992). Playing chutes and ladders: heterogeneity and the relative roles of bottom-up and top-down forces in natural communities. Ecology, 73, 723–732.
Hurd, C. L. (2000). Water motion, marine macroalgal physiology, and production. Journal of Phycology, 36, 453–472.
Isacch, J. P., Costa, C. S. B., Rodríguez-Gallego, L., et al. (2006). Distribution of salt marsh plant communities associated with environmental factors along a latitudinal gradient on the South-West Atlantic coast. Journal of Biogeography, 33, 888–900.
Kavanaugh, M. T., Nielsen, K. J., Chan, F. T., et al. (2009). Experimental assessment of the effects of shade on an intertidal kelp: do phytoplankton blooms inhibit growth of open-coast macroalgae?Limnology and Oceanography, 54, 276–288.
Kiehl, K., Esselink, P. and Bakker, J. P. (1997). Nutrient limitation and plant species composition in temperate salt marshes. Oecologia, 111, 325–330.
Kinlan, B. P. and Gaines, S. D. (2003). Propagule dispersal in marine and terrestrial environments: a community perspective. Ecology, 84, 2007–2020.
Kolb, G. S., Ekholm, J.and Hambäck, P. A. (2010). Effects of seabird nesting colonies on algae and aquatic invertebrates in coastal waters. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 417, 287–300.
Kraufvelin, P., Salovius, S., Christie, H., et al. (2006). Eutrophication-induced changes in benthic algae affect the behaviour and fitness of the marine amphipod Gammarus locusta. Aquatic Botany, 84, 199–209.
Kuijper, D. P. J. and Bakker, J. P. (2005). Top-down control of small herbivores on salt-marsh vegetation along a productivity gradient. Ecology, 86, 914–923.
Kuijper, D. P. J. and Bakker, J. P. (2008). Unpreferred plants affect patch choice and spatial distribution of brown hares. Acta Oecologica, 4, 339–344.
Kuijper, D. P. J. and Bakker, J. P. (2012). Vertebrate below- and above-ground herbivory and abiotic factors alternate in shaping salt-marsh plant communities. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 432–433, 17–28.
Kuijper, D. P. J., Nijhoff, D. J. and Bakker, J. P. (2004). Herbivory and competition slow down invasion of a tall grass along a productivity gradient. Oecologia, 141, 452–459.
Kuijper, D. P. J., Beek, P., Van Wieren, S. E. and Bakker, J. P. (2008). Time-scale effects in the interaction between a large and a small herbivore. Basic and Applied Ecology, 9, 126–134.
Leendertse, P. C., Roozen, A. J. M. and Rozema, J. (1997). Long-term changes (1953–1990) in the salt marsh vegetation at the Boschplaat on Terschelling in relation to sedimentation and flooding. Plant Ecology, 132, 49–58.
Leroux, S. J. and Loreau, M. (2008).Subsidy hypothesis and strength of trophic cascades across ecosystems. Ecology Letters, 11, 1147–1156.
Lester, S. E., Gaines, S. D. and Kinlan, B. P. (2007). Reproduction on the edge: large-scale patterns of individual performance in a marine invertebrate. Ecology, 88, 2229–2239.
Levine, J. M., Hacker, S. D., Harley, C. D. G. and Bertness, M. D. (1998). Nitrogen effects on an interaction chain in a salt marsh community. Oecologia, 117, 266–272.
Lewis, J. R. (1964). The Ecology of Rocky Shores. London, UK: English University Press.
Lindeman, R. L. (1942). The trophic-dynamic aspect of ecology. Ecology, 23, 399–417.
Linthurst, R. A. and Seneca, E. D. (1981). Aeration, nitrogen and salinity as determinants of Spartina alterniflora Loisel growth response. Estuaries, 4, 53–63.
Loreau, M., Mouquet, N. and Holt, R. D. (2003). Meta-ecosystems: a theoretical framework for a spatial ecosystem ecology. Ecology Letters, 6, 673–679.
Lotka, A. J. (1925). Elements of Physical Biology. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.
Lubchenco, J. (1978). Plant species diversity in a marine intertidal community: importance of herbivore food preference and algal competitive abilities. The American Naturalist, 112, 23–39.
Marsh, C. P. (1986). Rocky intertidal community organization: the impact of avian predators on mussel recruitment. Ecology, 67, 771–786.
McLeod, K. and Leslie, H. (eds.). (2009). Ecosystem-Based Management for the Oceans. Washington: Island Press, pp. 3–6.
Menge, B. A. (1976). Organization of the New England rocky intertidal community: role of predation, competition, and environmental heterogeneity. Ecological Monographs, 46, 355–393.
Menge, B. A. (1991). Relative importance of recruitment and other causes of variation in rocky intertidal community structure. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 146, 69–100.
Menge, B. A. (1992). Community regulation: under what conditions are bottom-up factors important on rocky shores? Ecology, 73, 755–765.
Menge, B. A. (1995). Indirect effects in marine rocky intertidal interaction webs: patterns and importance. Ecological Monographs, 65, 21–74.
Menge, B. A. (2000). Top-down and bottom-up community regulation in marine rocky intertidal habitats. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 250, 257–289.
Menge, B. A. and Lubchenco, J. (1981). Community organization in temperate and tropical rocky intertidal habitats: prey refuges in relation to consumer pressure gradients. Ecological Monographs, 51, 429–450.
Menge, B. A. and Menge, D. N. L. (2013). Dynamics of coastal meta-ecosystems: the intermittent upwelling hypothesis and a test in rocky intertidal regions. Ecological Monographs, 83, 283–310.
Menge, B. A. and Olson, A. M. (1990).Role of scale and environmental factors in regulation of community structure. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 5, 52–57.
Menge, B. A. and Sutherland, J. P. (1976). Species diversity gradients: synthesis of the roles of predation, competition, and temporal heterogeneity. The American Naturalist, 110, 351–369.
Menge, B. A. and Sutherland, J. P. (1987). Community regulation: variation in disturbance, competition, and predation in relation to environmental stress and recruitment. The American Naturalist, 130, 730–757.
Menge, B. A., Berlow, E. L., Blanchette, C. A., Navarrete, S. A. and Yamada, S. B. (1994). The keystone species concept: variation in interaction strength in a rocky intertidal habitat. Ecological Monographs, 64, 249–286.
Menge, B. A., Daley, B. A., Wheeler, P. A., et al. (1997). Benthic–pelagic links and rocky intertidal communities: bottom-up effects on top-down control? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 94, 14530–14535.
Menge, B. A., Lubchenco, J., Bracken, M. E. S., et al. (2003). Coastal oceanography sets the pace of rocky intertidal community dynamics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 100, 12229–12234.
Menge, B. A., Gouhier, T. C., Hacker, S. D., et al. (in press). Are meta-ecosystems organized hierarchically? A model and test in rocky intertidal habitats. Ecological Monographs.
Milligan, K. L. D. (1998). Effects of wave-exposure on an intertidal kelp speciesHedophyllum sessile (Agardh, C.) Setchell: demographics and biomechanics. PhD dissertation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Moreno, C. A. (2001). Community patterns generated by human harvesting on Chilean shores: a review. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 11, 19–30.
Morgan, S. G. and Fisher, J. L. (2010). Larval behavior regulates nearshore retention and offshore migration in an upwelling shadow and along the open coast. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 404, 109–126.
Moulton, O. M. and Hacker, S. D. (2011). Congeneric variation in surfgrasses and ocean conditions influence macroinvertebrate community structure. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 433, 53–63.
Navarrete, S. A. and Castilla, J. C. (2003). Experimental determination of predation intensity in an intertidal predator guild: dominant versus subordinate prey. Oikos, 100, 251–262.
Navarrete, S. A. and Menge, B. A. (1996). Keystone predation and interaction strength: interactive effects of predators on their main prey. Ecological Monographs, 66, 409–429.
Nielsen, K. J. (2001). Bottom-up and top-down forces in tide pools: test of a food chain model in an intertidal community. Ecological Monographs, 71, 187–217.
Nielsen, K. J. (2003). Nutrient loading and consumers: agents of change in open-coast macrophyte assemblages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 100, 7660–7665.
Nielsen, K. J. and Navarrete, S. A. (2004). Mesoscale regulation comes from the bottom-up: intertidal interactions between consumers and upwelling. Ecology Letters, 7, 31–41.
Odum, W. E. (1988). Comparative ecology of tidal freshwater and salt marshes. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 19, 147–176.
Ojeda, F. P. and Muñoz, A. A. (1999). Feeding selectivity of the herbivorous fish Scartichthys viridis: effects on macroalgal community structure in a temperate rocky intertidal coastal zone. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 184, 219–229.
Oksanen, L. and Oksanen, T. (2000). The logic and realism of the hypothesis of exploitation ecosystems. The American Naturalist, 155, 703–723.
Oksanen, L., Fretwell, S. D., Arruda, J. and Niemela, P. (1981). Exploitation ecosystems in gradients of primary productivity. The American Naturalist, 118, 240–261.
Olff, H., De Leeuw, J., Bakker, J. P., et al. (1997). Vegetation succession and herbivory on a salt marsh: changes induced by sea level rise and silt deposition along an elevational gradient. Journal of Ecology, 85, 799–814.
Paine, R. T. (1966). Food web complexity and species diversity. The American Naturalist, 100, 65–75.
Paine, R. T. (1974). Intertidal community structure: experimental studies on the relationship between a dominant competitor and its principal predator. Oecologia, 15, 93–120.
Paine, R. T. (1979). Disaster, catastrophe, and local persistence of the sea palm Postelsia palmaeformis. Science, 205, 685–687.
Paine, R. T. (1992). Food-web analysis through field measurement of per capita interaction strength. Nature, 355, 73–75.
Paine, R. T. and Levin, S. A. (1981). Intertidal landscapes: disturbance and the dynamics of pattern. Ecological Monographs, 51, 145–178.
Paine, R. T. and Palmer, A. R. (1978). Sicyases sanguineus: a unique trophic generalist from the Chilean intertidal zone. Copeia, 1978, 75–81.
Paine, R. T. and Vadas, R. L. (1969). The effects of grazing by sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus spp., on benthic algal populations. Limnology and Oceanography, 14, 710–719.
Pather, S., Pfister, C. A., Post, D. M. and Altabet, M. A. (2014). Ammonium cycling in the rocky intertidal: remineralization, removal, and retention. Limnography and Oceanography 59, 361–372.
Pennings, S. C. and Bertness, M. D. (2001). Salt marsh communities. In Marine Community Ecology, ed. Bertness, M. D., Gaines, S. D. and Hay, M.. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, pp. 289–316.
Pennings, S. C., Grant, M. B. and Bertness, M. D. (2005). Plant zonation in low-latitude salt marshes: disentangling the roles of flooding, salinity and competition. Journal of Ecology, 93, 159–167.
Polis, G. A., Anderson, W. B. and Holt, R. D. (1997). Toward an integration of landscape and food web ecology: the dynamics of spatially subsidized food webs. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 28, 289–316.
Poore, A. G., Campbell, A. H., Coleman, R. A., et al. (2012). Global patterns in the impact of marine herbivores on benthic primary producers. Ecology Letters, 15, 912–922.
Raimondi, P. T., Forde, S. E., Delph, L. F. and Lively, C. M. (2000). Processes structuring communities: evidence for trait-mediated indirect effects through induced polymorphisms. Oikos, 91, 353–361.
Robles, C. and Desharnais, R. (2002). History and current development of a paradigm of predation in rocky intertidal communities. Ecology, 83, 1521–1536.
Robles, C., Sherwood-Stephens, R. and Alvarado, M. (1995). Responses of a key intertidal predator to varying recruitment of its prey. Ecology, 76, 565–579.
Roy, K., Collins, A. G., Becker, B. J., Begovic, E. and Engle, J. M. (2003). Anthropogenic impacts and historical decline in body size of rocky intertidal gastropods in southern California. Ecology Letters, 6, 205–211.
Salomon, A. K., Tanape Sr, N. M. and Huntington, H. P. (2007). Serial depletion of marine invertebrates leads to the decline of a strongly interacting grazer. Ecological Applications, 17, 1752–1770.
Sanford, E. and Menge, B. A. (2007). Reproductive output and consistency of source populations in the sea star Pisaster ochraceus. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 349, 1–12.
Schrama, M., Berg, M. P. and Olff, H. (2012). Ecosystem assembly rules: the interplay of green and brown webs during salt marsh succession. Ecology, 93, 2353–2364.
Schrama, M., Jouta, J., Berg, M. P. and Olff, H. (2013a). Food web assembly at the landscape scale: using stable isotopes to reveal changes in trophic structure during succession. Ecosystems, 16, 627–638.
Schrama, M. J. J., Heijing, P., Van Wijnen, H. J., et al. (2013b). Herbivore trampling as an alternative pathway for explaining differences in nitrogen mineralization in moist grasslands. Oecologia, 172, 231–243.
Scrosati, R.and Heaven, C. (2007). Spatial trends in community richness, diversity, and evenness across rocky intertidal environmental stress gradients in eastern Canada. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 342, 1–14.
Shanks, A. L. (2009). Pelagic larval duration and dispersal distance revisited. The Biological Bulletin, 216, 373–385.
Short, F., Carruthers, T., Dennison, W. and Waycott, M. (2007). Global seagrass distribution and diversity: a bioregional model. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 350, 3–20.
Silliman, B. R. and Bertness, M. D. (2002). A trophic cascade regulates salt marsh primary production. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 99, 10500–10505.
Silliman, B. R. and Bertness, M. D. (2004). Shoreline development drives invasion of Phragmites australis and the loss of plant diversity on New England salt marshes. Conservation Biology, 18, 1424–1434.
Silliman, B. R. and Zieman, J. C. (2001). Top-down control of Spartina alterniflora production by periwinkle grazing in a Virginia salt marsh. Ecology, 82, 2830–2845.
Silliman, B. R., Layman, C. A., Geyer, K. and Zieman, J. C. (2004). Predation by the black-clawed mud crab, Panopeus herbstii, in Mid-Atlantic salt marshes: further evidence for top-down control of marsh grass production. Estuaries, 27, 188–196.
Silliman, B. R., Van De Koppel, J., Bertness, M. D., Stanton, L. E. and Mendelssohn, I. A. (2005). Drought, snails and large-scale die-off of Southern U.S. salt marshes. Science, 310, 1803–1806.
Silliman, B. R., McCoy, M. W., Angelini, C., et al. (2013). Consumer fronts, global change, and runaway collapse in ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 44, 503–538.
Stahl, J., Bos, D. and Loonen, M. J. J. E. (2002). Foraging along a salinity gradient – the effect of tidal inundation on site choice by Brent and barnacle geese. Ardea, 90, 201–212
Stephenson, T. A. and Stephenson, A. (1949). The universal features of zonation between tide-marks on rocky coasts. The Journal of Ecology, 37, 289–305.
Suchrow, S., Pohlman, M., Stock, M. and Jensen, K. (2012). Long-term surface elevation change in German North Sea salt marshes. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 98, 75–83.
Taylor, D. I. and Schiel, D. R. (2010). Algal populations controlled by fish herbivory across a wave exposure gradient on southern temperate shores. Ecology, 91, 201–211.
Taylor, K. L. and Grace, J. B. (1995). The effects of vertebrate herbivory on plant community structure in the coastal marshes of the Pearl River, Louisiana, USA. Wetlands, 15, 68–73.
Terrados, J. and Williams, S. L. (1997). Leaf versus root nitrogen uptake by the surfgrass Phyllospadix torreyi. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 149, 267–277
Thompson, S. A., Knoll, H., Blanchette, C. A. and Nielsen, K. J. (2010). Population consequences of biomass loss due to commercial collection of the wild seaweed Postelsia palmaeformis. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 413, 17–31.
Trussell, G. C., Ewanchuk, P. J. and Bertness, M. D. (2002). Field evidence of trait-mediated indirect interactions in a rocky intertidal food web. Ecology Letters, 5, 241–245.
Trussell, G. C., Ewanchuk, P. J., Bertness, M. D. and Silliman, B. R. (2004). Trophic cascades in rocky shore tide pools: distinguishing lethal and nonlethal effects. Oecologia, 139, 427–432.
Turner, R. E., Swenson, E. M. and Milan, C. S. (2002). Organic and inorganic contributions to vertical accretion in salt marsh sediments. In Concepts and Controversies in Tidal Marsh Ecology, ed. Weinstein, M. P. and Kreeger, D. A.. New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 583–594
Turner, T. (1983). Facilitation as a successional mechanism in a rocky intertidal community. The American Naturalist, 121, 729–738.
Valiela, I., Teal, J. M. and Deuser, W. G. (1978). The nature of growth forms in the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora. The American Naturalist, 112, 461–470.
Valiela, I., Cole, M. L., McClelland, J., et al. (2002). Role of salt marshes as part of coastal landscapes. In Concepts and Controversies in Tidal Marsh Ecology, ed. Weinstein, M. P. and Kreeger, D. A.. New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 23–36.
Van De Koppel, J., Huisman, J., Van Der Wal, R. and Olff, H. (1996). Patterns of herbivory along a productivity gradient: an empirical and theoretical investigation. Ecology, 77, 736–745.
Van Der Graaf, A. J., Coehoorn, P. and Stahl, J. (2006). Sward height and bite size affect the functional response of Branta leucopsis. Journal of Ornithology, 147, 479–484.
Van Der Wal, R., Van De Koppel, J. and Sagel, M. (1998). On the relation between herbivore foraging efficiency and plant standing crop: an experiment with barnacle geese. Oikos, 82, 123–130.
Van Der Wal, R., Van Lieshout, S., Bos, D. and Drent, R. H. (2000a). Are spring staging Brent geese evicted by vegetation succession? Ecography, 23, 60–69.
Van Der Wal, R., Van Wieren, S. E., Van Wijnen, H. J., Beucher, O. and Bos, D. (2000b). On facilitation between herbivores: how Brent geese profit from brown hares. Ecology, 81, 969–980.
Van Wesenbeeck, B. K., Van De Koppel, J., Herman, P. M. J., Bakker, J. P. and Bouma, T. J. (2007). Biomechanical warfare in ecology: negative interactions between species by habitat modification. Oikos, 116, 742–750.
Van Wijnen, H. J. and Bakker, J. P. (1999). Nitrogen and phosphorus limitation in a coastal barrier salt marsh: the implications for vegetation succession. Journal of Ecology, 87, 265–272.
Vandermeer, J. H. (1972). Niche theory. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 3, 107–132.
Veeneklaas, R. M., Dijkema, K. S., Hecker, N. and Bakker, J. P. (2013). Spatio-temporal dynamics of the invasive salt-marsh plant species Elytrigia atherica on natural salt marshes. Applied Vegetation Science, 16, 205–216.
Vince, S. W., Valiela, I. and Teal, J. M. (1981). An experimental study of the structure of herbivorous insect communities in a salt marsh. Ecology, 62, 1662–1678.
Vinueza, L., Post, A., Guarderas, P., Smith, F. and Idrovo, F. (2014). Ecosystem-based management for rocky shores of the Galapagos Islands. In The Galapagos Marine Reserve: A Dynamic Social-Ecological System, ed. Denkinger, J. and Vinueza, L.. New York, NY: Springer International Publishing, pp. 81–107.
Volterra, V. (1926). Fluctuations in the abundance of a species considered mathematically. Nature, 118, 558–560.
Wethey, D. S. (1985). Catastrophe, extinction, and species diversity: a rocky intertidal example. Ecology, 66, 445–456.
Wieters, E. A., Gaines, S. D., Navarrete, S. A., Blanchette, C. A. and Menge, B. A. (2008). Scales of dispersal and the biogeography of marine predator–prey interactions. The American Naturalist, 171, 405–417.
Wolters, M., Bakker, J. P., Bertness, M., Jefferies, R. L. and Möller, I. (2005). Salt marsh erosion and restoration in south-east England: squeezing the evidence requires realignment. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42, 844–851.
Wood, M. (2008). Reproductive output of a keystone predator and its preferred prey: the differential influence of oceanographic regime and local habitat. MS thesis, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA.
Wootton, J. T. (1991). Direct and indirect effects of nutrients on intertidal community structure: variable consequences of seabird guano. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 151, 139–153.
Wootton, J. T. (1993). Indirect effects and habitat use in an intertidal community: interaction chains and interaction modifications. The American Naturalist, 141, 71–89.
Wootton, J. T. (1997). Estimates and tests of per capita interaction strength: diet, abundance, and impact of intertidally foraging birds. Ecological Monographs, 67, 45–64.
Wootton, J. T., Power, M. E., Paine, R. T. and Pfister, C. A. (1996). Effects of productivity, consumers, competitors and El Niño events on food chain patterns in a rocky intertidal community. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 93, 13855–13858.
Worm, B., Lotze, H. and Sommer, U. (2000). Coastal food web structure, carbon storage, and nitrogen retention regulated by consumer pressure and nutrient loading. Limnology and Oceanography, 45, 339–349.