Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2012
  • Online publication date: August 2012

9 - Utility of biomarkersfor diagnosis and prognosis of traumatic brain injury

from Section 1 - Traumatic Brain Injury

Related content

Powered by UNSILO


1. Hoffman SW , Shesko K , Harrison CR . Enhanced neurorehabilitation techniques in the DVBIC Assisted Living Pilot Project. NeuroRehabilitation 2010;26(3):257–69.
2. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) . Sports-related recurrent brain injuries – United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1997 Mar 14;46(10):224–7.
3. Jager TE , Weiss HB , Coben JH , Pepe PE . Traumatic brain injuries evaluated in U.S. emergency departments, 1992–1994. Acad Emerg Med 2000;7 (2):134–40.
4.TBI State Demonstration Grants. J Head Trauma Rehabil 2000;15(1):750–60.
5. Saatman KE , Duhaime AC , Bullock R , et al. Classification of traumatic brain injury for targeted therapies. Workshop Scientific Team and Advisory Panel Members. J Neurotrauma 2008;25(7):719–38.
6. Wang KKW , Ottens AK , Liu M C , et al. Proteomic identification of biomarkers of traumatic brain injury. Exp Rev Proteomics 2005;2:603–14.
7. Jenkins LW , Peters GW , Dixon CE , et al. Conventional and functional proteomics using large format two-dimensional gel electrophoresis 24 hours after controlled cortical impact in postnatal day 17 rats. J Neurotrauma 2002;19(6):715–40.
8. Denslow N , Michel ME , Temple MD , et al. Application of proteomics technology to the field of neurotrauma. J Neurotrauma 2003;20(5):401–7. Review.
9. Kobeissy FH , Ottens AK , Zhang ZQ , et al. Differential proteomic analysis of traumatic brain injury biomarker study using CAX-PAGE/RPLC-MSMS method. Mo Cell Proteomics (2006) Octs;5(10):1887–98.
10. Papa L , Robinson GMW , Oli MW , et al. Use of biomarkers for diagnosis and management of traumatic brain injury patients. Expert Opin Med Diagnostics 2008;2(8):1–9.
11. Chan D , Ng LL . Biomarkers in acute myocardial infarction. BMC Med 2010;8:34.
12. Levi L , Guilburd JN , Lemberger A , Soustiel JF , Feinsod M . Diffuse axonal injury: analysis of 100 patients with radiological signs. Neurosurgery 1990; 27:429–32.
13. Schaller B , Evangelopoulos DS , Müller C , et al. Do we really need 24-h observation for patients with minimal brain injury and small intracranial bleeding? The Bernese Trauma Unit Protocol. Emerg Med J 2010;27(7):537–9.
14. Sherer M , Struchen MA , Yablon SA , Wang Y , Nick TG . Comparison of indices of traumatic brain injury severity: Glasgow Coma Scale, length of coma and post-traumatic amnesia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2008;79(6):678–85.
15. Kesler SR , Adams HF , Bigler ED . SPECT, MR and quantitative MR imaging: correlates with neuropsychological outcome in traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury 2000;14:851–7.
16. Dula K , Mini R , van der Stelt PF , et al. Hypothetical mortality risk associated with spiral computed tomography of the maxilla and mandible. Eur J Oral Sci 1996;104:503–10.
17. Servadei F , Murray GD , Penny K , et al. The value of the “worst” computed tomographic scan in clinical studies of moderate and severe head injury. European Brain Injury Consortium. Neurosurgery 2000;46:70–5; discussion 75–7.
18. Scaife ER , Rollins MD . Managing radiation risk in the evaluation of the pediatric trauma patient. Semin Pediatr Surg 2010;19(4):252–6. Review.
19. Manley GT , Diaz-Arrastia R , Brophy M , et al. Common data elements for traumatic brain injury: recommendations from the biospecimens and biomarkers working group. Arch Phys Med Rehab 2010;91(11):1667–72.
20. Hellewell SC , Yan EB , Agyapomaa DA , Bye N , Morganti-Kossmann MC . Post-traumatic hypoxia exacerbates brain tissue damage: analysis of axonal injury and glial responses. J Neurotrauma 2010;27(11):1997–2010.
21. Stein DM , Kufera JA , Lindell A , et al. Association of CSF biomarkers and secondary insults following severe traumatic brain injury. Neurocrit Care 2011;14(2):200–7.
22. Stocchetti N , Pagan F , Calappi E , et al. Inaccurate early assessment of neurological severity in head injury. J Neurotrauma 2004;21(9):1131–40.
23. Marion DW , Carlier PM . Problems with initial Glasgow Coma Scale assessment caused by prehospital treatment of patients with head injuries: results of a national survey. J Trauma 1994;36(1):89–95.
24. Livingston BM , Mackenzie SJ , MacKirdy FN , Howie JC . Should the pre-sedation Glasgow Coma Scale value be used when calculating Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation scores for sedated patients? Scottish Intensive Care Society Audit Group. Crit Care Med 2000;28(2):389–94.
25. Corrigan JD . Substance abuse as a mediating factor in outcome from traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehab 1995;76(4):302–9. Review.
26. Vollmer DG , Dacey RG , Jr. The management of mild and moderate head injuries. Neurosurg Clin N Am 1991;2(2):437–55.
27. Yealy DM , Hogan DE . Imaging after head trauma. Who needs what? Emerg Med Clin North Am 1991;9(4):707–17.
28. Lindenbaum GA , Carroll SF , Daskal I , Kapusnick R . Patterns of alcohol and drug abuse in an urban trauma center: the increasing role of cocaine abuse. J Trauma 1989;29(12):1654–8.
29. Kennedy RE , Livingston L , Marwitz JH , et al. Complicated mild traumatic brain injury on the inpatient rehabilitation unit: a multicenter analysis. J Head Trauma Rehabil 2006;21(3):260–71.
30. Gautschi OP , Frey SP , Zellweger R . [Diagnosis and management of patients with mild traumatic brain injury – an update with recommendations and future perspectives]. Praxis 2007;96(3):53–8.
31. Foley N , Marshall S , Pikul J , Salter K , Teasell R . Hypermetabolism following moderate to severe traumatic acute brain injury: a systematic review. J Neurotrauma 2008;25(12):1415–31. Review.
32. Missler U , Wiesmann M , Friedrich C , Kaps M . S-100 protein and neuron-specific enolase concentrations in blood as indicators of infarction volume and prognosis in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 1997;28:1956–60.
33. Ross SA , Cunningham RT , Johnston CF , Rowlands BJ . Neuron-specific enolase as an aid to outcome prediction in head injury. Brit J Neurosurg 1996;10:471–6.
34. Yamazaki Y , Yada K , Morii S , Kitahara T , Ohwada T . Diagnostic significance of serum neuron-specific enolase and myelin basic protein assay in patients with acute head injury. Surg Neurol 1995;43:267–70.
35. Raabe A , Grolms C , Seifert V . Serum markers of brain damage and outcome prediction in patients after severe head injury. Brit J Neurosurg 1999;13:56–9.
36. Romner B , Ingebrigtsen T , Kongstad P , Borgesen SE . Traumatic brain damage: serum S-100 protein measurements related to neuroradiological findings. J Neurotrauma 2000;17:641–7.
37. Pelinka LE , Kroepfl A , Schmidhammer R , et al. Glial fibrillary acidic protein in serum after traumatic brain injury and multiple trauma. J Trauma 2004;57:1006–12.
38. Pelinka LE , Kroepfl A , Leixnering M , et al. GFAP versus S100B in serum after traumatic brain injury: relationship to brain damage and outcome. J Neurotrauma 2004;21:1553–61.
39. Vos PE , Lamers KJ , Hendriks JC , et al. Glial and neuronal proteins in serum predict outcome after severe traumatic brain injury. Neurology 2004;62:1303–10.
40. Lumpkins KM , Bochicchio GV , Keledjian K , et al. Glial fibrillary acidic protein is highly correlated with brain injury. J Trauma 2008;65:778–84.
41. Johnsson P , Blomquist S , Lührs C , et al. Neuron-specific enolase increases in plasma during and immediately after extracorporeal circulation. Ann Thorac Surg 2000;69:750–4.
42. Pelinka LE , Szalay L , Jafarmadar M , et al. Circulating S100B is increased after bilateral femur fracture without brain injury in the rat. Brit J Anaesth 2003;91:595–7.
43. Pelinka LE , Harada N , Szalay L , et al. Release of S100B differs during ischemia and reperfusion of the liver, the gut, and the kidney in rats. Shock 2004;21:72–6.
44. Pelinka LE , Hertz H , Mauritz W , et al. Nonspecific increase of systemic neuron-specific enolase after trauma: clinical and experimental findings. Shock 2005;24(2):119–23.
45. Berger RP , Adelson PD , Pierce MC , et al. Serum neuron-specific enolase, S100B, and myelin basic protein concentrations after inflicted and noninflicted traumatic brain injury in children. J Neurosurg 2005;103(1 Suppl):61–8.
46. Berger RP , Beers SR , Richichi R , Wiesman D , Adelson PD . Serum biomarker concentrations and outcome after pediatric traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma 2007;24:1793–801.
47. Siman R , Noszek JC . Excitatory amino acids activate calpain I and induce structural protein breakdown in vivo. Neuron 1988;1(4):279–87.
48. Pike BR , Flint J , Dutta S , et al. Accumulation of non-erythroid αII-spectrin and calpain-cleaved αII-spectrin breakdown products in cerebrospinal fluid after TBI in rats. J Neurochem 2001;8:1297–306.
49. Siman R , McIntosh TK , Soltesz KM , et al. Proteins released from degenerating neurons are surrogate markers for acute brain damage. Neurobiol Dis 2004;16:311–20.
50. Siman R , Zhang C , Roberts VL , Pitts-Kiefer A , Neumar RW . Novel surrogate markers for acute brain damage: cerebrospinal fluid levels corrrelate with severity of ischemic neurodegeneration in the rat. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2005;25:143344.
51. Pineda JA , Lewis SB , Valadka SB , et al. Clinical significance of αII-spectrin breakdown products in CSF after severe TBI. J Neurotrauma 2007;24:354–66.
52. Mondello S , Robicsek SA , Gabrielli A , et al. αII-Spectrin breakdown products (SBDPs): diagnosis and outcome in severe traumatic brain injury patients. J Neurotrauma 2010;27(7):1203–13.
53. Zemlan FP , Jauch EC , Mulchahey JJ , et al. C-tau biomarker of neuronal damage in severe brain injured patients: association with elevated intracranial pressure and clinical outcome. Brain Res 2002;947:131–9.
54. Shaw GJ , Jauch EC , Zemlan FP . Serum cleaved tau protein levels and clinical outcome in adult patients with closed head injury. Ann Emerg Med 2002;39(3):254–7.
55. Dambinova SA , Khounteev GA , Izykenova GA , et al. Blood test detecting autoantibodies to N-methyl-D-aspartate neuroreceptors for evaluation of patients with transient ischemic attack and stroke. Clin Chem 2003;49:1752–62.
56. Petzold A. Neurofilament phosphoforms: surrogate markers for axonal injury, degeneration and loss. J Neurol Sci 2005;233:183–98.
57. Petzold A , Shaw G . Comparison of two ELISA methods for measuring levels of the phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain. J Immunol Methods 2007;319(1–2):34–40.
58. Anderson KJ , Scheff SW , Miller KM , et al. The phosphorylated axonal form of the neurofilament subunit NF-H (pNF-H) as a blood biomarker of traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma 2008;25(9):1079–85.
59. Kobeissy FH , Larner SF , Sadasivan S , et al. Neuroproteomic and systems biology-based discovery of protein biomarkers for traumatic brain injury and clinical validation (review). Proteomics Clin Appl 2008;2(10–11):1467–83.
60. Liu MC , Akle V , Zheng WR , et al. Comparing calpain- and caspase-3-degradation patterns in traumatic brain injury by differential proteome analysis. Biochem J 2006;394:715–25.
61. Yao CP , Williams AJ , Lu M , et al. Detection of protein biomarkers using high-throughput immunoblotting following focal ischemic or penetrating ballistic-like brain injuries in rats. Brain Injury 2008;22(10):723–32.
62. Yao C , Williams AJ , Ottens AK , et al. p43/EMAP-II: a potential biomarker for discriminating traumatic versus ischemic brain injury. J Neurotrauma 2009;26(8):1295–305.
63. Ottens AK , Bustamante L , Golden EC , et al. Neuroproteomics: a biochemical means to discriminate the extent and modality of brain injury. J Neurotrauma 2010;27(10):1837–52.
64. Liu MC , Akinyi L , Larner SF , et al. Ubiquitin-c-terminal hydrolase L1 as a novel biomarker for ischemic and TBI in rats. Eur J Neurosci 2010;31:722–32.
65. Svetlov SI , Prima V , Kirk DR , et al. Morphologic and biochemical characterization of brain injury in a model of controlled blast overpressure exposure. J Trauma 2010;69(4):795–804.
66. Papa L , Akinyi L , Liu MC , et al. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase is a novel biomarker in humans for severe TBI. Crit Care Med 2010;38:138–44.
67. Brophy GM , Mondello S , Papa L , et al. Biokinetic analysis of ubiquitin c-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) in severe traumatic brain injury patient biofluids. J Neurotrauma 2011;28(6):861–70.
68. Siman R , Roberts VL , McNeil E , et al. Biomarker evidence for mild central nervous system injury after surgically-induced circulation arrest. Brain Res 2008;1213:1–11.
69. Siman R , Toraskar N , Dang A , et al. A panel of neuron-enriched proteins as markers for traumatic brain injury in humans. J Neurotrauma 2009;26(11):1867–77.
70. Lewis SB , Wolper R , Chi YY , et al. Identification and preliminary characterization of ubiquitin C terminal hydrolase 1 (UCHL1) as a biomarker of neuronal loss in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosci Res 2010;88(7):1475–84.
71. Allard L , Burkhard PR , Lescuyer P , et al. PARK7 and nucleoside diphosphate kinase A as plasma markers for the early diagnosis of stroke. Clin Chem 2005;51(11):2043–51.
72. Brophy GM , Pineda JA , Pap L , et al. αII-Spectrin breakdown product cerebrospinal fluid kinetics suggest differences in cellular injury mechanisms after severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma 2009;26(4):471–9.
73. Marchi N , Rasmussen P , Kapural M , et al. Peripheral markers of brain damage and blood–brain barrier dysfunction. Restor Neurol Neurosci 2003;21(3–4):109–21.
74. Ringger NC , O’Steen BE , Brabham JG , et al. A novel marker for traumatic brain injury: CSF αII-spectrin breakdown product levels. J Neurotrauma 2004;21(10):1443–56.
75. Maier B , Laurer HL , Rose S , et al. Physiological levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma: a normative study. J Neurotrauma 2005;22(7):822–35.
76. Folkersma H , Brevé JJ , Tilders FJ , et al. Cerebral microdialysis of interleukin (IL)-1 beta and IL-6: extraction efficiency and production in the acute phase after severe traumatic brain injury in rats. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2008;150(12):1277–84.
77. Chiaretti A , Antonelli A , Mastrangelo A , et al. Interleukin-6 and nerve growth factor upregulation correlates with improved outcome in children with severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma 2008;25(3):225–34.
78. Weissman TA , Sanes JR , Lichtman JW , Livet J . Generation and imaging of Brainbow Mice. Cold Spring Harb Protoc 2011;2011:851–6.
79. Pelsers MM , Glatz JF . Detection of brain injury by fatty acidbinding proteins. Clin Chem Lab Med 2005;43(8):802–9.
80. Pelsers MM , Hanhoff T , Van der Voort D , et al. Brain- and heart-type fatty acid-binding proteins in the brain: tissue distribution and clinical utility. Clin Chem 2004;50(9):1568–75.
81. Norgren N , Sundström P , Svenningsson A , et al. Neurofilament and glial fibrillary acidic protein in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2004;63(9):1586–90.