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  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: September 2011

Chapter 24 - Sexual assault

from Section 3 - Special considerations


1. Rape, Abuse, and Incest National Network (RAINN) calculation based on Maston, C., Klaus, P, National Criminal Victimization Survey, 2005. Bureau of Justice Statistics: US Department of Justice, 2006.
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4. Jones J, Dunnuck C, Rossman L, Wynn B, Genco M. Adolescent Foley catheter technique for visualizing hymenal injuries in adolescent sexual assault. Acad Emerg Med 2003;10:1001–4.
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7. Sugar N, Fine D, Eckert L. Physical injury after sexual assault: findings of a large case series. Am J Ob Gyn 2004;190:1.
8. Sommers MS. Using colposcopy in the rape exam: health care, forensic, and criminal justice issues.J Forensic Nurs 2005;1(1):28–34.
9. Negrusz A, Juhascik M, Gaensslen RE. Estimate of the Incidence of Drug-facilitated Sexual assault in the US. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice 2005.
10. Maston C, Klaus P. National Criminal Victimization Survey, 2005. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, 2006.
11. Yeatman DT, Reid K. A study of urinary endogenous gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) levels. J Anal Toxicol 2003;27(1):40–2.
12. Waltzman ML. Flunitrazepam: a review of “roofies.” Pediatr Emerg Care 1999;15(1):59–60.
13. Taha TE, Kumwenda NI, Gibbons A, et al. Short postexposure prophylaxis in newborn babies to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1: NVAZ randomized clinical trial. Lancet 2003;362:1171–7.
14. Roland M. Postexposure prophylaxis after sexual exposure to HIV. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2007;20:39–46.
15. Speight CG MC, Kuria E, Kilonzo N, Onchwari P, Taegtmeyer M. Providing post-exposure prophylaxis as part of comprehensive post-rape care – Thika District Hospital, Kenya. In XV International AIDS Conference. July 11–16, 2004. Bangkok, Thailand, 2004.
16. Roland, M. HIV Post-exposure Prophylaxis Following Non-Occupational Exposures. Background Paper for WHO Expert Consultation for the Development of Policy and Guidelines on Occupational and Non-Occupational HIV Post-Exposure Prophylaxis. Geneva, Switzerland, September 3–5, 2005. Available from
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18. Pullium JK, Adams DR, Jackson E, et al. Pig-tailed macaques infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2GB122 or simian/HIV89.6p express virus in semen during primary infection: new model for genital tract shedding and transmission. J Infect Dis 2001;183(7):1023–30.
19. Hammer S, Kubin C. Antiretroviral agents. In Cohen J, Powderly WG (eds), Infectious Diseases, 2nd edn. Barcelona, Spain: Elsevier Ltd, 2004: pp. 1871–93.
20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Antiretroviral postexposure prophylaxis after sexual, injection drug use, or other non-occupational exposure to HIV in the United States: recommendations from the US Department of Health and Human Services. MMWR Recomm Rep 2005;54:RR-2.
21. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Serious adverse events attributed to nevirapine regimens for postexposure prophylaxis after HIV exposures world wide, 1997–2000. MMWR Recomm Rep 2001;49:1153–6.
22. WHO Task Force on Postovulatory Methods of Fertility Regulation. Randomized controlled trial of levonorgestrel versus the Yuzpe regimen of combined oral contraceptives for emergency contraception. Lancet 1998;352:428–33.
23. Ragan RE, Rock RW, Buck HW. Metoclopramide pretreatment attenuates emergency contraception-associated nausea. Am J Obstetr Gynecol 2003;188(2):330–3.
24. Ellertson C, Evans M, Ferden S, et al. Extending the time limit for starting the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception to 120 hours. Obstetr Gynecol 2003;101:1168–71.
25. Scalzo T. Rape and sexual assault reporting laws. APRI 2007;1(3):1–4.