Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: April 2015

Chapter 18 - Damage control in severe trauma

from Section 2 - Techniques for monitoring, imaging, and pain relief

Related content

Powered by UNSILO


1. Kashuk JL, Moore EE, Sawyer M, et al. Postinjury coagulopathy management: goal-directed resuscitation via POC thromboelastography. Ann Surg 2010; 251: 604–14.
2. Pringle J. Notes on the arrest of hepatic haemorrhage due to trauma. Ann Surg 1908; 48: 541–9.
3. Halsted W. Ligature and suture material: the employment of fine silk in preference to catgut and the advantages of transfixing tissues and vessels in controlling hemorrhage – also an account of the introduction of gloves, gutta-percha tissue and silver foil. JAMA 1913; 60: 1119–26.
4. Stone HH, Strom PR, Mullins RJ. Management of the major coagulopathy with onset during laparotomy. Ann Surg 1983; 197: 532–5.
5. Rotondo MF, Schwab CW, McGonigal MD et al. Damage control: an approach for improved survival in exsanguinating penetrating abdominal injury. J Trauma 1993; 35: 375–83.
6. Ball CG, Kirkpatrick AW. The RAPTOR: resuscitation with angiography, percutaneous techniques and operative repair. Can J Surg 2011; 54: E3–4.
7. Rotondo MF, Zonies DH. Damage control sequence and underlying logic. Surg Clin N Am 1979; 77: 761–77.
8. Slotman G, Jed F, Burchard K. Adverse effects of hypothermia in post-operative patients. Am J Surg 1985; 149: 495.
9. Frank SM, Beattie C, Christopherson R, et al. Unintentional hypothermia is associated with postoperative myocardial ischaemia. Anaesthesiology 1992; 78: 468–76.
10. Patt A, McCroskey BL, Moore EE. Hypothermia-induced coagulopathies in trauma. Surg Clin N Am 1988; 68: 775–85.
11. Shapiro MB, Jenkins DH, Schwab CW, Rotondo MF. Damage control: a collective review. J Trauma 2000; 49: 969–78.
12. Brohi K, Singh J, Heron M, et al. Acute traumatic coagulopathy. J Trauma 2003; 54: 1127–30.
13. Maegele M, Lefering R, Yucel N, et al. Early coagulopathy in multiple injury: an analysis from the German Trauma Registry on 8724 patients. Injury 2007; 38: 298–304.
14. Schoechl H, Nienaber U, Hofer G, et al. Goal-directed coagulation management of major trauma patients using thromboelastometry (ROTEM®)-guided administration of fibrinogen concentrate and prothrombin complex concentrate. Crit Care 2010; 14: R55.
15. Spahn DR, Cerry V, Coats TJ, et al. Management of bleeding following major trauma: a European guideline. Crit Care 2007; 11: R17.
16. Hess JR, Brohi K, Dutton RP, et al. The coagulopathy of trauma: a review of mechanisms. J Trauma 2008; 65: 748–54.
17. Dente CJ, Shaz BH, Nicholas JM, et al. Improvements in early mortality and coagulopathy are sustained better in patients with blunt trauma after institution of a massive transfusion protocol in a civilian level 1 trauma center. J Trauma 2009; 66: 1616–24.
18. Malone DL, Hess JR, Fingerhut A. Massive transfuion practices around the globe and a suggestion for a common massive transfusion protocol. J Trauma 2006; 60: S91–6.
19. Mohan D, Milbrandt EB, Alarcon LH. Black Hawk Down: the evolution of resuscitation strategies in massive traumatic hemorrhage. Crit Care 2008; 12: 305.
20. Schlag G, Redl H. Mediators in trauma. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg 1987; 38: 281–91.
21. Hulka F, Mullins RJ, Frank EH. Blunt brain injury activates the coagulation process. Arch Surg 1996; 131: 923–7.
22. Olsen JD, Kaufmann HH, Moake J, et al. The incidence and significance of haemostatic abnormalities in patients with head injuries. Neurosurgery 1989; 24: 825–32.
23. Hofmann S, Huemer G, Kratochwill C. Pathophysiologie der Fettembolie in der Orthopaedie und Traumatologie. Orthopaede 1995; 24: 84–93.
24. Wetzel RC, Burns RC. Multiple trauma in children: critical care overview. Crit Care Med 2002; 30: 468–77.
25. CRASH-2 collaborators. Effects of tranexamic acid on death, vascular occlusive events, and blood transfusion in trauma patients with significant hemorrhage (CRASH-2): a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2010; 376: 23–32.
26. CRASH-2 collaborators. The importance of early treatment with tranexamic acid in bleeding trauma patients: an exploratory analysis of the CRASH-2 ranomized controlled trial. Lancet 2011; 377: 1096–101,1101.e1–2.
27. Parr MJA, Alabdi T. Damage control surgery and intensive care. Injury 2004; 35: 713–22.
28. Gubler KD, Gentilello LM, Hassantash SA, et al. The impact of hypothermia on dilutional coagulopathy. J Trauma 1994; 36: 847–51.
29. Lynn M, Jeroukhimov I, Klein Y, et al. Updates in the management of severe coagulopathy in trauma patients. Intensive Care Med 2002; 28: 241–7.
30. Reed RL, Bracey AW, Hudson JD, et al. Hypothermia and blood coagulation: dissociation between enzyme activity and clotting factor levels. Circ Shock 1990; 32: 141–52.
31. Rohrer MJ, Natale AM. Effect of hypothermia on the coagulation cascade. Crit Care Med 1992; 20: 1402–5.
32. Enriquez LJ, Shore-Lesseron L. Point-of-care coagulation testing and transfusion algorithms. Br J Anaesth 2009; 103: 14–22.
33. Spahn DR, Ganter MT. Towards early individual goal-directed coagulation management in trauma patients. Br J Anaesth 2010; 105: 103–5.
34. Stinger HK, Spinella PC, Perkins JG, et al. The ratio of fibrinogen to red cells transfused affects survival in casualties receiving massive transfusions at an army combat support hospital. J Trauma 2008; 64 (2 Suppl): S79–85.
35. Pape A, Weber CF, Stein P, et al. ROTEM and multiplate = a suitable tool for POC? ISBT Science Series 2010; 5: 161–8.
36. Morrison JJ, Dubose JJ, Rasmussen TE, et al. Military Application of Tranexamic acid in Trauma Emergency Resuscitation (MATTERs) study. Arch Surg 2012; 147: 113–19.
37. Bedirhan MA, Turna A, Yagan N, et al. Aprotinin reduces postoperative bleeding and the need for blood products in thoracic surgery: results of a randomised double-blind study. Eur J Cardiothoracic Surg 2001; 20: 1122–7.
38. Kenet G, Walden R, Eldad A, et al. Treatment of traumatic bleeding with recombinant factor VIIa. Lancet 1999; 354: 1879.
39. Christensen MC, Parr M, Tortella BJ, et al. Global differences in causes, management, and survival after severe trauma: the recombinant activated Factor VII Phase 3 trauma trial. J Trauma 2010; 69: 344–52.
40. Hauser CJ, Boffard K, Dutton R, et al. Results of the CONTROL trial: efficacy and safety of recombinant activated factor VII in the management of refractory traumatic hemorrhage. J Trauma 2010; 69: 489–500.
41. Boffard KD, Riou B, Warren B, et al. NovoSeven Trauma Study Group. Recombinant factor VIIa as adjunctive therapy for bleeding control in severely injured trauma patients: two parallel randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trials. J Trauma 2005; 59: 8–15.
42. Bernstein DE, Jeffers L, Erhardtsen E, et al. Recombinant factor VIIa corrects prothrombin time in cirrhotic patients: a preliminary study. Gastroenterology 1997; 113: 1930–7.
43. Lynn M, Jeroukhimov I, Jewelewicz D, et al. Early use of recombinant factor VIIa improves mean arterial pressure and may potentially decrease mortality in experimental haemorrhagic shock: a pilot study. J Trauma 2002; 52: 703–7.
44. Martinowitz U, Kenet G, Segal E, et al. Recombinant activated factor VII for adjunctive haemorrhage control in trauma. J Trauma 2001; 51: 431–9.
45. Abramson D, Scalea TM, Hitchcock R, et al. Lactate clearance and survival following injury. J Trauma 1993; 35: 584–9.
46. Davis JW, Parks SN, Kaups KL, et al. Admission base deficit predicts transfusion requirements and risk of complications. J Trauma 1996; 4: 764–74.
47. Mixock BA, Falk JL. Lactic acidosis in critical illness. Crit Care Med 1992; 20: 80–92.
48. Cooper DJ, Walley KR, Wiggs BR, et al. Bicarbonate does not improve hemodynamics in critically ill patients who have lactic acidosis: a prospective, controlled clinical study. Ann Intern Med 1990; 112: 492–8.
49. Mathieu D, Neviere R, Billiard V, et al. Effects of bicarbonate therapy on hemodynamics and tissue oxygenation in patients with lactic acidosis: a prospective, controlled clinical study. Crit Care Med 1991; 19: 1352–6.
50. Britt LD, Weireter LJ, Cole FJ. Newer diagnostic modalities for vascular injuries: The way we were, the way we are. Surg Clin N Am 2001; 81: 1263–97.
51. Kushimoto S, Arai M, Aiboshi J, et al. The role of interventional radiology in patients requiring damage control laparotomy. J Trauma 2003; 54: 171–6.
52. Prior JP, Braslow B, Reilly PM et al. The evolving role of interventional radiology in trauma care. J Trauma 2005; 59: 102–4.
53. Carrillo EH, Spain DA, Wohltmann CD, et al. Interventional techniques are useful adjuncts in non operative management of hepatic injuries. J Trauma 2000; 46: 619–24.
54. Morozumi J, Homma H, Ohta S, et al. Impact of mobile angiography in the emergency department for controlling pelvic fracture hemorrhage with hemodynamic instability. J Trauma 2010; 68: 90–5.
55. Zealley IA, Chakraverty S. The role of interventional radiology in trauma. BMJ 2010; 340: c497.
56. Sclafani SJ, Shaftan GW, Scalea TM, et al. Non-operative salvage of computed tomography-diagnosed splenic injuries: utilisation of angiography for triage and embolisation for haemostasis. J Trauma 1995; 39 (5): 818–25.
57. Shanmuganathan K, Mirvis SE, Boyd-Kranis R. Nonsurgical management of blunt splenic injury: use of CT criteria to select patients for splenic arteriography and potential endovascular therapy. Radiology 2000; 217: 75–82.
58. Ciraulo DL, Luk S, Palter M, et al. Selective hepatic arterial embolization of grade IV and V blunt hepatic injuries: an extension of resuscitation in the non operative management of traumatic hepatic injuries. J Trauma 1998; 45: 353–8.
59. Hagiwara A, Yukioka T, Ohta S, et al. Nonsurgical management of patients with blunt hepatic injury: Efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization. Am J Roentgenol 1997; 169 (4): 1151–6.
60. Braslow B. Damage control in abdominal trauma: how a progressive-step approach and delayed repairs can actually improve outcomes. Contemp Surg 2006; 62 (2): 65–74.
61. White JM, Cannon JW, Stannard A, et al. Direct vascular control results in less physiologic derangement than proximal aortic clamping in a porcine model of non-compressible extrathoracic torso hemorrhage. J Trauma 2011; 71: 1278–86.
62. Kashuk KL, Moore EE, Millikan JS, Moore JB. Major abdominal vascular trauma: a unified approach. J Trauma 1982; 22: 672–9.
63. Feliciano DV. Abdominal vascular injury. In Mattox KL, Feliciano DV, Moore EE, eds., Trauma, 5th edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2004, pp. 755–77.
64. Gupta BK, Khaneja SC, Flores L, et al. The role of intra-aortic balloon occlusion in penetrating abdominal trauma. J Trauma 1989; 29: 861–5.
65. Sugrue M, D’Amours SK, Joshipura M. Damage control surgery and the abdomen. Injury Int J Care Injured 2004; 35: 642–8.
66. Feliciano DV, Mattox KL, Burch JM, et al. Packing for control of hepatic hemorrhage. J Trauma 1986; 26: 738–43.
67. Martinelli T, Thony F, Declety P. Intra-aortic balloon occlusion to salvage patients with life-threatening hemorrhagic shocks from pelvic fractures. J Trauma 2010; 68: 942–8.
68. Kauvar DS, White JM, Johnson CA, et al. Endovascular versus open management of blunt traumatic aortic disruption at two military centers: comparison of in-hospital variables. Military Medicine 2009; 174: 869–73.
69. Propper BW, Alley JB, Gifford SM, et al. Endovascular treatment of blunt aortic injury in Iraq: extension of innovative endovascular capabilities to the modern battlefield. Ann Vasc Surg 2009; 23: 687.e19–22.
70. Balogh Z, McKinley BA, Cocanour CS, et al. Supra-normal trauma resuscitation causes more cases of abdominal compartment syndrome. Arch Surg 2003; 138: 637–43.
71. Balogh Z, McKinley BA, Cox CS, et al. Abdominal compartment syndrome: the cause or effect of post injury organ failure. Shock 2003; 20 (6): 483–92.
72. Balogh Z, McKinley BA, Holcomb JB, et al. Both primary and secondary abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) can be predicted early and are harbingers of multiple organ failure. J Trauma 2003; 54: 848–61.
73. Balogh Z, McKinlay BA, Cocanour CS, et al. Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome: an elusive complication of traumatic shock resuscitation. Am J Surg 2002; 184: 538–43.
74. Biffl WL, Moore EE, Burch JM, et al. Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome is a highly lethal event. Am J Surg 2001; 182: 645–8.
75. Ivy ME, Atweh NA, Palmer J, et al. Intraabdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in burn patients. J Trauma 2000; 49: 387–91.
76. Kopelman T, Harris C, Miller R, et al. Abdominal compartment syndrome inpatients with isolated extraperitoneal injuries. J Trauma 2000; 49: 744–9.
77. Maxwell RA, Fabian TC, Croce MA, et al. Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome: an underappreciated manifestation of severe hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma 1999; 47: 995–9.
78. Kirkpatrick AW, Balogh Z, Ball CG, et al. The secondary abdominal compartment syndrome: Iatrogenic or unavoidable? J Am Coll Surg 2006; 202: 668–79.
79. Malbrain MLNG, Chiumello D, Pelosi P, et al. Incidence and prognosis of intraabdominal hypertension in a mixed population of critically ill patients: a multiple center epidemiological study. Crit Care Med 2005; 33: 315–22.
80. McKinley BA, Valdivia A, Moore FA. Goal orientated-shock resuscitation for major torso trauma: what are we learning? Curr Opin Crit Care 2003; 9: 292–9.
81. Moore FA, McKinley BA, Moore EE. The next generation in shock resuscitation. Lancet 2004; 363: 1988–96.
82. Biffl WL, Smith WR, Moore EE, et al. Evolution of a multidisciplinary clinical pathway for the management of unstable patients with pelvic fractures. Ann Surg 2001; 233: 843–50.
83. Hirshberg A, Dugas M, Banez EI, et al. Minimizing dilutional coagulopathy in exsanguinating hemorrhage: a computerized simulation. J Trauma 2003; 54: 454–63.
84. Harwood PJ, Giannoudis PV, van Griensven M, et al. Alterations in the systemic inflammatory response after early total care and damage control procedures for femoral shaft fracture in severely injured patients. J Trauma 2005; 58: 446–54.
85. Heetveld MJ, Harris I, Schlaphoff G, et al. Guidelines for the management of hemodynamically unstable pelvic fracture patients. ANZ J Surg 2004; 74: 520–9.
86. Hildebrand F, Giannoudis P, Krettek C, et al. Damage control: extremities. Injury Int J Care Injured 2004; 35: 678–89.
87. Taeger G, Ruchholtz S, Waydhas C, et al. Damage control orthopedics in patients with multiple injuries is effective, time saving and safe. J Trauma 2005; 59: 408–15.
88. Suliburk JW, Ware DN, Cocanour CS, et al. Vacuum assisted wound closure provides early fascial closure of open abdomens after severe trauma. J Trauma 2003; 55 (6): 1155–60.
89. Burch JM, Denton JR, Noble RD. Physiologic rationale for damage control surgery. Surg Clin N Am 1997; 77: 779–82.
90. Sauaia A, Moore FA, Moore EE, et al. Epidemiology of trauma deaths: a reassessment. J Trauma 1995; 38: 185–93.
91. Tisherman SA, Barie P, Bokhari F, et al. Clinical Practice Guideline: Endpoints of Resuscitation. Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma, 2003 (, Oct 2006).
92. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network. Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 1301–8.
93. Dellinger EP. Antibiotic prophylaxis in trauma: penetrating abdominal injuries and open fractures. Rev Infect Dis 1991; 13 (Suppl): 847.
94. Dellinger EP, Wertz MJ, Lennard ES, et al. Efficacy of short course antibiotic prophylaxis after penetrating intestinal injury: a prospective randomized trial. Arch Surg 1986; 121: 23–30.
95. Nichols RL, Smith JW, Robertson JD, et al. Prospective alterations in therapy for penetrating abdominal trauma. Arch Surg 1993; 128: 55.
96. Grossman MD, Born C. Tertiary survey of the trauma patient in the intensive care unit. Surg Clin N Am 2000; 80: 805–24.
97. Janjua KJ, Sugrue M, Deane SA. Prospective evaluation of early missed injuries and the role of tertiary trauma survey. J Trauma 1998; 44 (6): 1000–6.