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  • Print publication year: 2021
  • Online publication date: March 2021

Chapter 16 - Genetics and Reproduction

from Section 3 - Genetics and Preimplantation Genetic Testing

Summary

Our genetic information, sometimes described as the “Book of Life,” can be envisaged as a compilation containing two “sets” of information, with one originated from the female and the other from the male. Each set includes 23 “volumes” (chromosomes), and each of these chromosomes contains many “chapters and pages” (clusters of genes). Each gene encodes for a specific message to the cell cytoplasm, where ribosomes translate the codes to specific proteins. The genetic code is made up of combinations of three out of four possible essential nucleotides (A, T, G, and C). These nucleotides are the chemical molecules, components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), creating the genetic information that can be further transcripted and translated by different cell types of machinery to produce the essential cellular proteins. A trinucleotide code (three basic nucleotides), called a codon, encodes a specific amino acid, a basic brick of protein structure.

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