1. , . The biological basis of an antidepressant response to sleep deprivation and relapse: review and hypothesis. Am J Psychiatry. 1990;147:14–21.
2. . Sleep-loss as a possible mediator of diverse causes of mania. Br J Psychiatry. 1991;159:576–8.
3. , , , et al. Sleep loss, a possible factor in augmenting manic episode. Psychiatry Res. 1996;65:121–5.
4. . Mood disorders. In: , , , eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 4th edn. (Saunders, Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2005; 1311–26).
5. , , . Sleep disturbances in affective disorders. In: , , eds. Clinical Pharmacology of Sleep. (Basel: Birkhauser, 2006; 101–24).
6. , , , et al. Latency to rapid eye movement sleep as a predictor of treatment response to fluoxetine and placebo in nonpsychotic depressed outpatients. Psychiatry Res. 1994;52:327–39.
7. , , . Abnormal electroencephalographic sleep profiles in major depression. Association with response to cognitive behavior therapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1996;53:99–108.
8. , , et al. Pretreatment REM sleep and subjective sleep quality distinguish depressed psychotherapy remitters and nonremitters. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;45:205–13.
9. , , . Hypothalamic regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms. Nature. 2005;437:1257–63.
10. . From waking to sleeping: neuronal and chemical substrates. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2005;26:578–86.
11. , . Neurobiological mechanisms for the regulation of mammalian sleep-wake behavior: reinterpretation of historical evidence and inclusion of contemporary cellular and molecular evidence. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2007;31:775–824.
12. , , , . Are corticothalamic ‘up’ states fragments of wakefulness?Trends Neurosci. 2007;30:334–42.
13. . Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, 4th edn. (Washington, DC: APA, 1994).
14. , , . Sleep and depression – results from psychobiological studies: an overview. Biol Psychol. 2001;57:67–103.
15. , , , . Effects of clozapine on sleep in bipolar and schizoaffective disorder. Progr Neuropsychopharm Biol Psychiatry. 2004;28:1065–70.
16. , Sleep research in affective illness: State of the art circa 1987. Sleep. 1987;10:199–215.
17. , : Diagnostic and research applications of electroencephalographic sleep studies in depression: conceptual and methodological issues. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1990;178:405–14.
18. . REM latency: a psychobiological marker for primary depressive disease. Biol Psychiatry. 1976;11:159–74.
19. , , , et al. Sleep and psychiatric disorders. A meta-analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1992;49:651–68.
20. , , , et al. Is there a relationship between eating disorder and affective disorder? New evidence from sleep recordings. Am J Psychiatry. 1984;141:753–9.
21. , , , et al. A comparison of sleep EEGs in patients with primary major depression and major depression secondary to alcoholism. J Affect Disord. 1993;27:39–42.
22. , , , et al. The sleep of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1982;39:1372–7.
23. , , , et al. The sleep of patients with panic disorder. A preliminary report. Psychiatry Res. 1984;12:251–9.
24. , , . The relationship of sleep and anxiety in anxious subjects. Biol Psychol. 1983;16:119–26.
25. , , , et al. Depression in borderline patients: a prospective EEG sleep study. Psychiatry Res. 1985;14:1–15.
26. , , , et al. Neuroendocrine and sleep variables in major depressed inpatients: role of severity. Psychiatry Res. 1996;63:83–92.
27. , , , et al. Does sleep EEG data distinguish between UP, BPI or BPII major depressions? An age and gender controlled study. J Affect Disord. 1998;49:181–7.
28. , , , et al. Shortened REM latency as a psychobiologic marker for psychotic depression? An age, gender and polarity controlled study. Biol Psychiatry. 1998;44:1314–20.
29. , , , et al. Brain glucose metabolism during non-rapid eye movement sleep in major depression. A positron emission tomography study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1996;53:645–52.
30. , , , . Neurobiology of non-REM sleep in depression: further evidence for hypofrontality and thalamic dysregulation. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161:1856–63.
31. , , , et al. Toward a neurobiology of dysfunctional arousal in depression: the relationship between beta EEG power and regional cerebral glucose metabolism during NREM sleep. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 2000;98:71–91.
32. . The corticosteroid receptor hypothesis of depression. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2000;23:477–501.
33. , . Getting closer to affective disorders: the role of the CRH receptor system. Trends Mol Med. 2004;10:409–15.
34. , , . Fewer pigmented locus coeruleus neurons in suicide victims: preliminary results. Biol Psychiatry. 1996;39:112–20.
35. , , , et al. Elevated concentrations of CRF in the locus coeruleus of depressed subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003;28:1328–35.
36. , , , et al. Reduced levels of norepinephrine transporters in the locus coeruleus in major depression. J Neurosci. 1997;17:8451–8.
37. , , , et al. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the locus coeruleus is reduced in depressed non-suicidal patients but normal in depressed suicide patients. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1999;249:212–19.
38. , , , et al. A functional-structural model to understand cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation in affective illness and to elucidate the ANS effects of antidepressive treatment. Eur J Med Res. 2004;9:37–50.
39. , . Heart rate variability in depressive and anxiety disorders. Am Heart J. 2000;140 (4 Suppl):77–83.
40. , , , et al. The dexamethasone suppression test and sleep electroencephalogram in major depressed inpatients: a multivariate analysis. Biol Psychiatry. 1998;43:220–9.
41. , , , et al. Disturbances in hypothalamo pituitary adrenal and thyroid axis identify different sleep EEG patterns in major depressed patients. J Psychiatry Res. 2003;37:1–8.
42. , , , et al. Pronounced and sustained central hypernoradrenergic function in major depression with melancholic features: relation to hypercortisolism and corticotrophin-releasing-hormone. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2000;97:325–30.
43. , , , et al. Corticotropic-releasing hormone and serotonin interact in the human brainstem: behavioural implications. Neuroscience. 1999;91:1343–54.
44. , , . Effects of corticotropin-releasing factor on neuronal activity in the serotoninergic dorsal raphe nucleus. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2000;22:148–62.
45. , , , . Regulation of serotonin 1a, glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor in rat and human hippocampus: implications for the neurobiology of depression. Biol Psychiatry. 1998;43:547–73.
46. , , , et al. Regulation of the rat serotonin-1A receptor gene by corticosteroids. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:1321–6.
47. , . Role of the dorsal raphe nucleus serotonin 5-HT1A receptor in the regulation of sleep. Life Sci. 2000;21:1999–2012.
48. , , , et al. Effects of the selective activation of 5-HT3 receptors on sleep: a ploysomnographic study in healthy volunteers. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2001;11:301–5.
49. , Sleep, sleep deprivation and depression. A hypothesis derived from a model of sleep regulation. Hum Neurobiol. 1982;1:205–10.
50. , Sleep, sleep deprivation and depression. A hypothesis derived from a model of sleep regulation. Hum Neurobiol. 1982;1:205–10.
51. , , , et al. All-night spectral analysis of the sleep EEG in untreated depressives and normal controls. Psychiatry Res. 1984;12:27–33.
52. , , , et al. Applications of an automated REM and slow wave sleep analysis. II. Testing the assumptions of the two-process model of sleep regulation in normal and depressed subjects. Psychiatry Res. 1984;13:335–43.
53. , , . EEG sleep in young depressives: first and second night effect. Biol Psychiatry. 1989;25:87–97.
54. , , , . Delta sleep ratio: a biological correlate of early recurrence in unipolar affective disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1990;47:1100–5.
55. , , , . Slow wave activity in NREM sleep: sex and age effects in depressed outpatients and healthy controls. Psychiatry Res. 2000;95:201–13.
56. , , , et al. Delta sleep EEG in depressed adolescent females and healthy controls. J Affect Disord. 2001;63:139–48.
57. , , , et al. Sleep microstructure around sleep onset differentiates major depressive insomnia from primary insomnia. J Sleep Res. 2003;12:319–30.
58. , , , . Adenosine and sleep–wake regulation. Progr Neurobiol. 2004;73:379–96.
59. , , , et al. Adenosine: a mediator of the sleep-inducing effects of prolonged wakefulness. Science. 1997;276:1265–8.
60. , , , . Blunted adenosine A2a receptor function in platelets in patients with major depression. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2001;11:183–6.
61. , , Dipeptidyl peptidase IV and adenosine deaminase activity decrease in depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1999;24:823–32.
62. , , , et al. Adenosine administration produces an antidepressant-like effect in mice: evidence for the involvement of A1 and A2A receptors. Neurosci Lett. 2004;355:21–4.
63. , , , et al. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists are potential antidepressants: evidence based on pharmacology and A2A receptor knockout mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2001;134:68–77.
64. , . The effect of various centrally active drugs on adenosine uptake by the central nervous system. Comp Biochem Physiol. 1982;72C:179–87.
65. . Potentiation of the action of adenosine on cerebral cortical neurones by the tricyclic antidepressants. Br J Pharmacol. 1984;83:567–75.
66. , , . Differential effects of repeated imipramine on hippocampal responsiveness to adenosine and serotonin. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2002;12:355–60.
67. , , . Sleep and manipulations of the sleep-wake rhythm in depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2003;(suppl 418):83–91.
68. , . Neurotrophins in depression and antidepressant effects. Novartis Found Symp. 2008;289:43–52.
69. , . A neurotrophic model for stress-related mood disorders. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;59:1116–27.
70. , , , , . A causal role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the homeostatic regulation of sleep. J Neurosci. 2008;28:4088–95.
71. , , . Dreaming and the brain: toward a cognitive neuroscience of conscious states. In: , , , , eds. Sleep and Dreaming. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003; 1–50).
72. , , , et al. Increased activation of anterior paralimbic and executive cortex from waking to rapid eye movement sleep in depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61:695–72.
73. , , , . A cholinergic-adrenergic hypothesis of mania and depression. Lancet. 1972;2:632–5.
74. , , , et al. Drug effects on REM sleep and on endogenous depression. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1990;14:49–63.
75. . Reserpine: its effect on the sleep-dream cycle in man. Psychopharmacologia. 1966;9:242.
76. , , , et al. Rapid tryptophan depletion, sleep electroencephalogram, and mood in men with remitted depression on serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998;55:534–9.
77. , , , et al. Effects of rapid tryptophan depletion on sleep electroencephalogram and mood in subjects with partially remitted depression on bupropion. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002;27:1016–26.
78. , , , . Rapid tryptophan depletion reverses phenelzine-induced suppression of REM sleep. J Sleep Res. 2003;12:13–18.
79. , , , et al. Affective state and EEG sleep profile in response to rapid tryptophan depletion in recently recovered nonmedicated depressed individuals. J Affect Disord. 2004;83:253–62.
80. , . Trimipramine, anxiety, depression and sleep. Drugs. 1989;38 Suppl 1:25–31.
81. . Expanding the horizons of depression: beyond the monoamine hypothesis. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2001;16:203–18.
82. , , . Modulation of sleep by trimipramine in man. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1989;37:145–50.
83. , The effects of long-term administration of psychotropic drugs on human sleep. III. The effects of amitriptyline. Psychopharmacologia. 1974;33:185–202.
84. , , Withdrawal of the paradoxical sleep by clomipramine. An electrophysiological, histochemical and biochemical study. Int J Neurol. 1975;10:186–97.
85. , , , et al. Effect of lofepramine on 5-HT function and sleep. J Affect Disord. 1993;29:63–72.
86. , , , et al. EEG sleep changes as predictors in depression. Am J Psychiatry. 1976;133:622–6.
87. , , , et al. The relationship between changes in REM sleep and clinical improvement in depressed patients treated with amitriptyline. Psychopharmacology. 1978;59:267–72.
88. , , . Sleep EEG and amitriptyline treatment in depressed inpatients. Biol Psychiatry. 1991;30:691–702.
89. , , , et al. Initial REM sleep suppression by clomipramine: a prognostic tool for treatment response in patients with major depressive disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 1986;21:1217–20.
90. , , , et al. Clomipramine and EEG sleep in depression. Psychiatry Res. 1989;30:165–80.
91. . Sleep, depression and antidepressants. Br J Psychiatry. 1979;135:385–402.
92. , , , et al. Imipramine and EEG sleep in children with depressive symptoms. Psychopharmacology. 1979;60:117–23.
93. , , et al. Nortriptyline and EEG sleep in depressed patients. Biol Psychiatry. 1982;7:535–46.
94. , , , et al. The effect of trimipramine on sleep in patients with major depressive disorder. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1986;19:198–9.
95. , , , et al. Effects on sleep: a double-blind study comparing trimipramine to imipramine in depressed insomniac patients. Sleep. 1989;12:537–49.
96. , , , et al. Trimipramine: acute and lasting effects on sleep in healthy and major depressive subjects. J Affect Disord. 1992;24:135–46.
97. , . Iprindole: an antidepressant which does not block REM sleep. Nature. 1969;223:750–2.
98. , , , et al. The effects of doxepin HCl on sleep patterns of neurotically depressed patients with sleep disturbances. Sleep Res. 1975;4:90.
99. , , , et al. The effect of doxepin HCl on sleep and depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 1982;43:366–8.
100. , , , et al. Efficacy and safety of doxepin 1 mg, 3 mg, and 6 mg in adults with primary insomnia. Sleep, 2007;30:1555–61.
101. , , , et al. Comparison of effects of desipramine and amitriptyline on EEG sleep of depressed patients. Psychopharmacology. 1985;85:14–22.
102. , , , et al. Fluvoxamine versus desipramine: comparative polysomnographic effects. Biol Psychiatry. 1991;29:23–40.
103. , , . Elective suppression of paradoxal sleep in the cat by monoamine oxidase inhibitors. C R Seances Soc Biol Fil. 1965;159:1595–9.
104. , . Effects of inhibitors of monoamine oxidase on sleep and the electroencephalogram in man. Acta Neurol Psychiatr Belg. 1967;67:658–69.
105. , , , et al.REM sleep suppression induced by selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Psychopharmacology. 1982;78:137–40.
106. , , . Total prolonged drug-induced REM sleep suppression in anxious-depressive patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1971;24:145–55.
107. , . REM sleep and central monoamine oxidase inhibitions. Psychopharmacologia. 1972;27:183–90.
108. , , , et al. Sleep and sleep electroencephalogram in depressed patients treated with phenelzine. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58:268–76.
109. , . Effect of chronic phenelzine treatment on REM sleep: report of three patients. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2001;25:S63–7.
110. , , , et al. Effects of tranylcypromine on the sleep of patients with anergic bipolar depression. Psychopharmacol Bull. 2003;37:118–26.
111. , , . The effects of moclobemide on nocturnal sleep of depressed patients. J Affect Disord. 1990;20:201–8.
112. , , . Effect of moclobemide on the psychophysiology of sleep/wake cycles: a neuroelectrophysiological study of depressed patients administered with moclobemide. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1993;7:181–9.
113. , , . Effects of long-term treatment with the MAO-A inhibitor moclobemide on sleep EEG and nocturnal hormonal secretion in normal men. Neuropsychobiology. 1994;30:101–5.
114. , , , et al. Sleep/wake study of a selective IMAO antidepressant: Toloxatone. Biol Psychiatry. 1991;29:100.
115. , , , . Rapid tryptophan depletion reverses phenelzine-induced suppression of REM sleep. J Sleep Res. 2003;12:13–18.
116. , 5-hydroxytryptamine and noradrenaline uptake inhibitions. Studies on sleep in man. Neuropharmacology. 1986;25:1079–83.
117. , , , et al. Sleep laboratory studies on the single-dose effects of serotonin reuptake inhibitors paroxetine and fluoxetine on human sleep and awakening qualities. Sleep. 1991;14:439–47.
118. , , , . Sleep and daytime sleepiness the next day following single night-time dose of fluvoxamine, dothiepin and placebo in normal volunteers. J Psychopharmacol. 2000;14:378–86.
119. , , , et al. Using sleep to evaluate comparative serotonergic effects of paroxetine and citalopram. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2004;14:367–72.
120. , , , et al. Differential effects of zimelidine on the sleep electroencephalogram of depressed patients. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1984;36:251–9.
121. , , , . Changes in sleep polygraphic variables and clinical state in depressed patients during treatment with citalopram. Psychopharmacology. 1993;113:225–30.
122. , , , et al. Acute, subchronic, and withdrawal sleep EEG changes during treatment with paroxetine and amitriptyline: a double-blind randomized trial in major depression. Sleep. 1995;18:470–7.
123. , , , et al. Fluoxetine in major depression: efficacy, safety and effects on sleep EEG variables. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1990;5:253–60.
124. , , , . Sleep changes during long-term treatment of depression with fluvoxamine – a home-based study. Psychopharmacology. 2000;149:360–5.
125. , , , et al. Randomised controlled study of sleep after nefazodone or paroxetine treatment in out-patients with depression. Br J Psychiatry. 2002;180:528–35.
126. , , , et al. Effects of sertraline on sleep architecture in patients with depression. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2003;23:540–8.
127. , , , et al. Prominent eye movements during NREM sleep and REM sleep behavior disorder associated with fluoxetine treatment of depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Sleep. 1992;15:226–35.
128. , , . Fluoxetine and oculomotor activity during sleep in depressed patients. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1995;12:159–65.
129. , , , et al. Effects of fluoxetine on the polysomnogram in outpatients with major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1999;20:447–59.
130. , , , et al. Fluoxetine and sleep EEG: effects of a single dose, subchronic treatment, and discontinuation in healthy subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002;26:246–58.
131. , , , et al. Viloxazine, sleep and subjective feelings. Psychopharmacology. 1977;55:121–8.
132. , , , . Differential effects of the enantiomers R(–) and S(+) oxaprotiline on major endogenous depression, the sleep EEG and neuroendocrine secretion: studies on depressed patients and normal controls. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 1993;3:117–26.
133. , , , et al. Reboxetine induces similar sleep-EEG changes like SSRIs in patients with depression. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2004;37:193–5.
134. , , . Sleep changes after 4 consecutive days of venlafaxine administration in normal volunteers. J Clin Psychiatry. 1997;58:348–50.
135. , , , et al. Comparative effects of duloxetine and desipramine on sleep EEG in healthy subjects. Psychopharmacology. 2005;177:357–65.
136. , , , et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of the effects of orally administered venlafaxine on sleep in inpatients with major depression. Psychopharm Bull. 1996;32:637–46.
137. , . Subjective and polysomnographic effects of milnacipran on sleep in depressed patients. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2004;19:299–303.
138. , , . Duloxetine increases stage 3 sleep and suppresses rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in patients with major depression. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2007;17:527–31.
139. , , , et al. REM sleep enhancement by bupropion in depressed men. Am J Psychiatry. 1995;152:274–6.
140. , , , et al. Effect of bupropion-SR on REM sleep: relationship to antidepressant response. Psychopharmacology. 2002;165:29–36.
141. , , , et al. Effects of rapid tryptophan depletion on sleep electroencephalogram and mood in subjects with partially remitted depression on bupropion. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002;27:1016–26.
142. , , . Modulation of catecholamine transmission and sleep in man. Neuropharmacology, 1986;25:271–4.
143. , , , et al. Effects of acute and chronic treatment with an atypical antidepressant drug, nomifensine, on the sleep–wake activity in rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1987;335:149–53.
144. , , , . Continuous stimulation of dopaminergic receptors by rotigotine does not interfere with the sleep–wake cycle in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;584:111–17.
145. . Antidepressants. In: , ed. Stahl's Essential Psychopharmacology. Neuroscientific Basis and Practical Applications, 3rd edn. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008; 511–666).
146. , , , . Trazodone enhances sleep in subjective quality but not in objective duration. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1983;16:139–44.
147. , , , et al. Effects of trazodone on the sleep of depressed subjects – a polygraphic study. Psychopharmacology. 1988;95:S37–S43.
148. , . Sleep laboratory evaluation of the effects and efficacy of trazodone in depressed insomniac patients. J Clin Psychiatry. 1990;51 Suppl:13–17.
149. , , . Effects of trazodone on EEG sleep and clinical state in major depression. Psychopharmacology. 1992;107:569–74.
150. , , . The acute effects of nefazodone, trazodone and buspirone on sleep and sleep-related penile tumescence in normal subjects. Sleep. 1994;17:544–50.
151. , , , et al. Insomnia related to dysthymia: polysomnographic and psychometric comparison with normal controls and acute therapeutic trials with trazodone. Neuropsychobiology. 2001;44:139–49.
152. , , , et al. Clinical and polysomnographic effects of trazodone CR in chronic insomnia associated with dysthymia. Psychopharmacology. 1994;116:389–95.
153. , , , . Effects of trazodone and imipramine on the biological rhythm: an analysis of sleep EEG and body core temperature. J Nippon Med Sch. 2002;69:333–41.
154. , , , et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of trazodone in alcohol post-withdrawal syndrome: polysomnographic and clinical evaluations. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2003;23:377–83.
155. , , , et al. Insomnia in somatoform pain disorder: sleep laboratory studies on differences to controls and acute effects of trazodone, evaluated by the Somnolyzer 24 × 7 and the Siesta database. Neuropsychobiology. 2005;51:148–63.
156. , , , et al. Insomnia in depression: differences in objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality to normal controls and acute effects of trazodone. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2002;26:249–60.
157. , , . Nefazodone – a novel antidepressant – may increase REM sleep. Biol Psychiatry. 1992;31:1070–3.
158. , , , et al. Comparative effects of nefazodone and fluoxetine on sleep in outpatients with major depression. Biol Psychiatry. 1998;44:3–14.
159. , , . Nefazodone in primary insomnia: an open pilot study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2004;28:1071–8.
160. , , , et al. The effects of paroxetine and nefazodone on sleep: a placebo controlled trial. Psychopharmacology. 1996;126:50–4.
161. , , , et al. Nefazodone and REM sleep: how do antidepressant drugs decrease REM sleep? Sleep. 1998;21:70–7.
162. , , , et al. Evaluation of sleep architecture and cyclic alternating pattern rates in depressed insomniac patients treated with nefazodone hydrochloride. Am J Ther. 1999;6:77–82.
163. , , , et al. An open-label, 12-week clinical and sleep EEG study of nefazodone in chronic combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;62:789–96.
164. , , , et al. The effect of nefazodone on subjective and objective sleep quality in posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;64:445–50.
165. , , , et al. The effects of nefazodone on women with seasonal affective disorder: clinical and polysomnographic analyses. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2005;30:11–16.
166. , , , . Synergistic action of 5-HT2A antagonists and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003;28:402–12.
167. , , , . Effects of a single dose of mianserin on sleep. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1980;10:525–7.
168. , , , et al. A sleep–endocrine profile of the antidepressant mianserin. Curr Med Res Opin. 1980;6:456–60.
169. , , , et al. Effects of mianserin on human sleep. Neuropsychobiology. 1990–1991;24:198–204.
170. , , . Changes in sleep EEG architecture during the treatment of depressed patients with mianserine. Acta Psychiatrica Scand. 1985; suppl 320:26–9.
171. , , , et al. Effect of the antidepressant Org 3770 on human sleep. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1990;38:551–4.
172. , , . The effects of mirtazapine on sleep: a placebo controlled, double-blind study in young healthy volunteers. Sleep. 2002;25:677–9.
173. , , , et al. Comparative effects of mirtazapine and fluoxetine on sleep physiology measures in patients with major depression and insomnia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;64:1224–9.
174. , , , et al. Changes of sleep architecture, spectral composition of sleep EEG, the nocturnal secretion of cortisol, ACTH, GH, prolactin, melatonin, ghrelin, and leptin, and the DEX-CRH test in depressed patients during treatment with mirtazapine. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;31:832–44.
175. , , , et al. Polysomnographic and symptomatological analyses of major depressive disorder patients treated with mirtazapine. Can J Psychiatry. 2006;51:27–34.
176. , , , et al. Effects of mirtazapine on sleep polygraphic variables in major depression. Neuropsychobiology. 2002;46:197–201.
177. , , , et al. Melatonin and S-20098 increase REM sleep and wake-up propensity without modifying NREM sleep homeostasis. Am J Physiol. 1997;272:R1189–96.
178. , , , et al. Major depressive disorder, sleep EEG and agomelatine: an open-label study. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2007;10:691–6.
179. , , , et al. Brain mapping and psychoactive drugs. In: , , eds. Human Psychopharmacology: Methods and Measures, Vol 3. (New York: Wiley & Sons, 1990; 1–20).
180. , . Effect of a single dose of tianeptine in healthy volunteers on sleep electrophysiological parameters. Eur Psychiatry. 1994;9 (Suppl 1):141.
181. , , , et al. Neuro-electrophysiologic studies in abstinent and depressed alcoholic patients treated with tianeptine. Presse Med. 1991;20:1853–7.
182. , , , et al. State markers of depression in sleep EEG: dependency on drug and gender in patients treated with tianeptine or paroxetine. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003;28:348–58.
183. , , , et al. Dopaminergic control of sleep-wake states. J Neurosci. 2006;26:10577–89.
184. , , , et al. Prominent burst firing of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area during paradoxical sleep. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007;32:1232–41.
185. , . The involvement of dopamine in the modulation of sleep and waking. Sleep Med Rev. 2007;11:113–33.
186. , , . Estimation of time course of slow-wave sleep over the night in depressed patients: effects of clomipramine and clinical response. Br J Psychiatry. 1996;39:171–81.
187. , , . Sleep EEG and amitriptyline treatment in depressed inpatients. Biol Psychiatry. 1991;30:691–702.
188. , , , et al. Sleep in late-life recurrent depression: changes during early continuation therapy with nortriptyline. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1991;5:85–96.
189. , , , et al. Persistent effects of antidepressants: EEG sleep studies in depressed patients during maintenance treatment. Biol Psychiatry. 1994;35:781–93.
190. , , , et al. Maintenance nortriptyline effects on electroencephalographic sleep in elderly patients with recurrent major depression: double-blind, placebo- and plasma-level-controlled evaluation. Biol Psychiatry. 1997;42:560–7.
191. , , , et al. Analysis of sleep EEG microstructure in subchronic paroxetine treatment of healthy subjects. Psychopharmacology. 1997;132:44–7.
192. , , . Changes in EEG power density of NREM sleep in depressed patients during treatment with citalopram. J Sleep Res. 1993;2:156–62.
193. , , , et al. Biphasic effects of dopamine D-2 receptor agonists on sleep and wakefulness in rat. Psychopharmacology. 1988;95:395–400.
194. , , , . Sleep and waking during acute histamine H3 agonist BP 2.94 or H3 antagonist carboperamide (MR 16155) administration in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1996;15:31–5.
195. , , , . Slow wave sleep-inducing effects of first generation H1-antagonists. Biol Pharm Bull. 1999;22:1079–82.
196. , , , et al. Altered sleep-wake characteristics and lack of arousal response to H3 receptor antagonist in histamine H1 receptor knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006;103:4687–92.
197. , , , et al. Effects of methoxamine and alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists, prazosin and yohimbine, on the sleep-wake cycle of the rat. Sleep. 1984;7:365–72.
198. . Effects of the selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor blocker prazosin on EEG sleep and waking stages in the rat. Neuropsychobiology. 1989;21:100–3.
199. , , 5-hydroxytryptamine-2 antagonist increases human slow wave sleep. Brain Res. 1986;378:164–8.
200. , , , et al. Dose-related effects of selective 5-HT2 receptor antagonists on slow wave sleep in humans. Psychopharmacology. 1990;101:568–9.
201. , , , et al. 5-HT2 receptors are partially involved in the relationship between renin release and relative delta power. J Endocrinol Invest. 1996;19:556–62.
202. , , , et al. 5-HT2 receptor antagonism and slow wave sleep in major depression, Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1992;86:133–7.
203. , , 5-HT2A inverse-agonists for the treatment of insomnia. Curr Topics Med Chem. 2008;8:969–76.
204. . Implication of serotonin in the control of vigilance states as revealed by knockout-mouse studies. J Soc Biol. 2004;198:30–6.
205. , , , et al. Meta-chlorophenylpiperazine decreases slow wave sleep in humans. Biol Psychiatry. 1993;33:49–51.
206. , , , et al. Allelic variation in the 5-HT2C receptor (HT2RC) and the increase in slow wave sleep produced by olanzapine. Psychopharmacology. 2001;153:271–2.
207. , , , , . Effect of serotonin receptor 2A gene polymorphism on mirtazapine response in major depression. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2007;37:315–29.
208. , , , et al. Selective publication of antidepressant trials and its influence on apparent efficacy. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:252–60.
209. , Duration of REM sleep latency as predictor of effect of antidepressant therapy. A preliminary report. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1981;64:238–43.
210. , , , et al. Alprazolam vs amitriptyline in depressions with reduced REM latencies. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1985;42:1154–9.
211. , , , et al. Reduced REM latency predicts response to tricyclic medication in depressed outpatients. Biol Psychiatry. 1989;26:61–72.
212. , , , et al. EEG sleep in primary depression. A longitudinal placebo study. J Affect Disord. 1979;1:131–8.
213. , , , et al. Preliminary evidence of an association between increased REM density and poor antidepressant response to partial sleep deprivation. J Affect Disord. 2000;59:77–83.
214. Sleep-wake mechanism and drug discovery. Sleep EEG as a tool for the development of CNS-acting drugs. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2005;7:33–41.
215. , . Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep: an endophenotype for depression. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2007;9:480–5.
216. , . The neurobiological characteristics of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep are candidate endophenotypes of depression, schizophrenia, mental retardation and dementia. Prog Neurobiol. 2007;81:237–50.
217. . HPA axis and sleep: identifying subtypes of major depression. Stress. 2008;11:15–27.