Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: March 2015

Chapter 38 - The uterine corpus

References

1. Hendrickson MR, Kempson RL. Surgical Pathology of the Uterine Corpus. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1980.
2. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. Atlas of Tumor Pathology. Third series. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology; 1992.
3. Zaino RJ. Interpretation of Endometrial Biopsies and Curettings. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven; 1996.
4. Silverberg SG. Problems in the differential diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma. Mod Pathol 2000; 13: 309–327.
5. Crum CP, Hornstein MD, Nucci MR, Mutter GL. Hertig and beyond: a systematic and practical approach to the endometrial biopsy. Adv Anat Pathol 2003; 10: 301–318.
6. Mazur MT, Kurman RJ. Diagnosis of Endometrial Biopsies and Curettings : A Practical Approach, 2nd edn. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag; 2004.
7. Kurman RJ, Ellenson LH, Ronnett BM. Blaustein’s Pathology of the Female Genital Tract, 6th edn. New York, NY: Springer; 2011.
8. Reichert R. Diagnostic Gynecologic and Obstetric Pathology: An Atlas and Text. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011.
9. Honore LH. Menorrhagia, diffuse myometrial hypertrophy and the intrauterine contraceptive device: a report of fourteen cases. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1979; 58: 283–285.
10. Hendrickson MR, Kempson RL. Normal histology of the uterus and fallopian tubes. In: Sternberg SS, ed. Histology for Pathologists, 2nd edn. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1997.
11. Silverberg SG. Surgical Pathology of the Uterus. New York, NY: Wiley; 1977.
12. Buttram VC Jr, Gibbons WE. Mullerian anomalies: a proposed classification. (An analysis of 144 cases.) Fertil Steril 1979; 32: 40–46.
13. Kaufman RH, Adam E, Binder GL, Gerthoffer E. Upper genital tract changes and pregnancy outcome in offspring exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1980; 137: 299–308.
14. Nogales-Ortiz F, Puerta J, Nogales FF Jr. The normal menstrual cycle. Chronology and mechanism of endometrial desquamation. Obstet Gynecol 1978; 51: 259–264.
15. Farrer-Brown G, Beilby JO, Tarbit MH. The blood supply of the uterus. 1. Arterial vasculature. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 1970; 77: 673–681.
16. Toth S, Toth A. Undescribed muscle bundle of the human uterus: fasciculus cervicoangularis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1974; 118: 979–984.
17. Merchant S, Malpica A, Deavers MT, et al. Vessels within vessels in the myometrium. Am J Surg Pathol 2002; 26: 232–236.
18. Toki T, Shimizu M, Takagi Y, Ashida T, Konishi I. CD10 is a marker for normal and neoplastic endometrial stromal cells. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2002; 21: 41–47.
19. McCluggage WG, Oliva E, Herrington CS, McBride H, Young RH. CD10 and calretinin staining of endocervical glandular lesions, endocervical stroma and endometrioid adenocarcinomas of the uterine corpus: CD10 positivity is characteristic of, but not specific for, mesonephric lesions and is not specific for endometrial stroma. Histopathology 2003; 43: 144–150.
20. Silverberg SG. Protocol for the examination of specimens from patients with carcinomas of the endometrium: a basis for checklists. Cancer Committee, College of American Pathologists. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1999; 123: 28–32.
21. Larson DM, Krawisz BR, Johnson KK, Broste SK. Comparison of the Z-sampler and Novak endometrial biopsy instruments for in-office diagnosis of endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 1994; 54: 64–67.
22. Vuento MH, Maatela JI, Tyrkko JE, et al. A longitudinal study of screening for endometrial cancer by endometrial biopsy in diabetic females. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995; 5: 390–395.
23. Tao L-C. Cytopathology of the Endometrium: Direct Intrauterine Sampling. Chicago, IL: ASCP Press; 1993.
24. Dijkhuizen FP, Mol BW, Brolmann HA, Heintz AP. The accuracy of endometrial sampling in the diagnosis of patients with endometrial carcinoma and hyperplasia: a meta-analysis. Cancer 2000; 89: 1765–1772.
25. Huang GS, Gebb JS, Einstein MH, et al. Accuracy of preoperative endometrial sampling for the detection of high-grade endometrial tumors. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007; 196: 243 e1–5.
26. Stock RJ, Kanbour A. Prehysterectomy curettage. Obstet Gynecol 1975; 45: 537–541.
27. Gray JA, Nguyen GK. Cytologic detection of endometrial pathology by Pap smears. Diagn Cytopathol 1999; 20: 181–182.
28. Gomez-Fernandez CR, Ganjei-Azar P, Capote-Dishaw J, Averette HE, Nadji M. Reporting normal endometrial cells in Pap smears: an outcome appraisal. Gynecol Oncol 1999; 74: 381–384.
29. Solomon D, Nayar R. The Bethesda System for Reporting Cervical Cytology: Definitions, Criteria, and Explanatory Notes, 2nd edn. New York, NY: Springer; 2004.
30. van Doom HC, Opmeer BC, Kooi GS, et al. Value of cervical cytology in diagnosing endometrial carcinoma in women with postmenopausal bleeding. Acta Cytol 2009; 53: 277–282.
31. Schorge JO, Hossein Saboorian M, Hynan L, Ashfaq R. ThinPrep detection of cervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma: a retrospective cohort study. Cancer 2002; 96: 338–343.
32. Sams SB, Currens HS, Raab SS. Liquid-based Papanicolaou tests in endometrial carcinoma diagnosis. Performance, error root cause analysis, and quality improvement. Am J Clin Pathol 2012; 137: 248–254.
33. Maksem JA, Meiers I, Robboy SJ. A primer of endometrial cytology with histological correlation. Diagn Cytopathol 2007; 35: 817–844.
34. Remondi C, Sesti F, Bonanno E, Pietropolli A, Piccione E. Diagnostic accuracy of liquid-based endometrial cytology in the evaluation of endometrial pathology in postmenopausal women. Cytopathology 2013; 24: 365–371.
35. Indraccolo U, Bracalenti C, Di Iorio R, Indraccolo SR. Could endometrial cytology be helpful in detecting endometrial malignancies? Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 2012; 33: 60–61.
36. Yang GC, Wan LS. Endometrial biopsy using the Tao Brush method. A study of 50 women in a general gynecologic practice. J Reprod Med 2000; 45: 109–114.
37. Buccoliero AM, Gheri CF, Castiglione F, et al. Liquid-based endometrial cytology: cyto-histological correlation in a population of 917 women. Cytopathology 2007; 18: 241–249.
38. Rivard C, Salhadar A, Kenton K. New challenges in detecting, grading, and staging endometrial cancer after uterine morcellation. J Min Invas Gynecol 2012; 19: 313–316.
39. Schneider A. Recurrence of unclassifiable uterine cancer after modified laparoscopic hysterectomy with morcellation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997; 177: 478–479.
40. Park BJ, Kim YW, Maeng LS, Kim TE. Disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis after hysterectomy: a case report. J Reprod Med 2011; 56: 456–460.
41. Hagemann IS, Hagemann AR, LiVolsi VA, Montone KT, Chu CS. Risk of occult malignancy in morcellated hysterectomy: a case series. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2011; 30: 476–483.
42. Seidman MA, Oduyebo T, Muto MG, et al. Peritoneal dissemination complicating morcellation of uterine mesenchymal neoplasms. PloS ONE 2012; 7: e50058.
43. Reich O, Tamussino K, Haas J, Winter R. Benign mullerian inclusions in pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes. Gynecol Oncol 2000; 78: 242–244.
44. Zinsser KR, Wheeler JE. Endosalpingiosis in the omentum: a study of autopsy and surgical material. Am J Surg Pathol 1982; 6: 109–117.
45. Sidawy MK, Silverberg SG. Endosalpingiosis in female peritoneal washings: a diagnostic pitfall. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1987; 6: 340–346.
46. Farhi DC, Silverberg SG. Pseudometastases in female genital cancer. Pathol Annu 1982; 17(Pt 1): 47–76.
47. Noyes RW, Hertig AT, Rock J. Dating the endometrial biopsy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1975; 122: 262–263.
48. Gibson M, Badger GJ, Byrn F, et al. Error in histologic dating of secretory endometrium: variance component analysis. Fertil Steril 1991; 56: 242–247.
49. Duggan MA, Brashert P, Ostor A, et al. The accuracy and interobserver reproducibility of endometrial dating. Pathology 2001; 33: 292–297.
50. Murray MJ, Meyer WR, Zaino RJ, et al. A critical analysis of the accuracy, reproducibility, and clinical utility of histologic endometrial dating in fertile women. Fertil Steril 2004; 81: 1333–1343.
51. Bulmer JN, Hollings D, Ritson A. Immunocytochemical evidence that endometrial stromal granulocytes are granulated lymphocytes. J Pathol 1987; 153: 281–288.
52. Poropatich C, Rojas M, Silverberg SG. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the endometrium during the normal menstrual cycle. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1987; 6: 230–234.
53. Deligdisch L. Hormonal pathology of the endometrium. Mod Pathol 2000; 13: 285–294.
54. Baggish MS, Woodruff JD. The occurrence of squamous epithelium in the endometrium. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1967; 22: 69–115.
55. Fruin AH, Tighe JR. Tubal metaplasia of the endometrium. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 1967; 74: 93–97.
56. Demopoulos RI, Greco MA. Mucinous metaplasia of the endometrium: ultrastructural and histochemical characteristics. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1983; 1: 383–390.
57. Nucci MR, Prasad CJ, Crum CP, Mutter GL. Mucinous endometrial epithelial proliferations: a morphologic spectrum of changes with diverse clinical significance. Mod Pathol 1999; 12: 1137–1142.
58. O’Connell JT, Mutter GL, Cviko A, et al. Identification of a basal/reserve cell immunophenotype in benign and neoplastic endometrium: a study with the p53 homologue p63. Gynecol Oncol 2001; 80: 30–36.
59. Zaman SS, Mazur MT. Endometrial papillary syncytial change. A nonspecific alteration associated with active breakdown. Am J Clin Pathol 1993; 99: 741–745.
60. Gersell DJ. Endometrial papillary syncytial change. Another perspective. Am J Clin Pathol 1993; 99: 656–657.
61. Andersen WA, Taylor PT Jr, Fechner RE, Pinkerton JA. Endometrial metaplasia associated with endometrial adenocarcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1987; 157: 597–604.
62. Kaku T, Tsukamoto N, Tsuruchi N, et al. Endometrial metaplasia associated with endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 1992; 80: 812–816.
63. Kaku T, Silverberg SG, Tsukamoto N, et al. Association of endometrial epithelial metaplasias with endometrial carcinoma and hyperplasia in Japanese and American women. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1993; 12: 297–300.
64. Jacques SM, Qureshi F, Lawrence WD. Surface epithelial changes in endometrial adenocarcinoma: diagnostic pitfalls in curettage specimens. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1995; 14: 191–197.
65. Yemelyanova A, Ji H, Shih Ie M, Wang TL, Wu LS, Ronnett BM. Utility of p16 expression for distinction of uterine serous carcinomas from endometrial endometrioid and endocervical adenocarcinomas: immunohistochemical analysis of 201 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 2009; 33: 1504–1514.
66. Lehman MB, Hart WR. Simple and complex hyperplastic papillary proliferations of the endometrium: a clinicopathologic study of nine cases of apparently localized papillary lesions with fibrovascular stromal cores and epithelial metaplasia. Am J Surg Pathol 2001; 25: 1347–1354.
67. Cappello F, Barbato F, Tomasino RM. Mature teratoma of the uterine corpus with thyroid differentiation. Pathol Int 2000; 50: 546–548.
68. Sen DK, Fox H. The lymphoid tissue of the endometrium. Gynaecologia 1967; 163: 371–378.
69. Marshall RJ, Jones DB. An immunohistochemical study of lymphoid tissue in human endometrium. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1988; 7: 225–235.
70. Kiviat NB, Wolner-Hanssen P, Eschenbach DA, et al. Endometrial histopathology in patients with culture-proved upper genital tract infection and laparoscopically diagnosed acute salpingitis. Am J Surg Pathol 1990; 14: 167–175.
71. Platt LD, Yonekura ML, Ledger WJ. The role of anaerobic bacteria in postpartum endomyometritis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1979; 135: 814–817.
72. Jones RB, Mammel JB, Shepard MK, Fisher RR. Recovery of Chlamydia trachomatis from the endometrium of women at risk for chlamydial infection. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1986; 155: 35–39.
73. Adegboyega PA, Pei Y, McLarty J. Relationship between eosinophils and chronic endometritis. Hum Pathol 2010; 41: 33–37.
74. Bayer-Garner IB, Korourian S. Plasma cells in chronic endometritis are easily identified when stained with syndecan-1. Mod Pathol 2001; 14: 877–879.
75. Rotterdam H. Chronic endometritis. A clinicopathologic study. Pathol Annu 1978; 13(Pt 2): 209–231.
76. Duncan DA, Varner RE, Mazur MT. Uterine herpes virus infection with multifocal necrotizing endometritis. Hum Pathol 1989; 20: 1021–1024.
77. Frank TS, Himebaugh KS, Wilson MD. Granulomatous endometritis associated with histologically occult cytomegalovirus in a healthy patient. Am J Surg Pathol 1992; 16: 716–720.
78. Stray-Pedersen B, Lorentzen-Styr AM. Uterine Toxoplasma infections and repeated abortions. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1977; 128: 716–721.
79. Taylor-Robinson D, McCormack WM. The genital mycoplasmas. N Engl J Med 1980; 302: 1003–1010.
80. Gupta PK. Intrauterine contraceptive devices: vaginal cytology, pathologic changes and clinical implications. Acta Cytol 1982; 26: 571–613.
81. Barua R, Kirkland JA, Petrucco OM. Xanthogranulomatous endometritis: case report. Pathology 1978; 10: 161–164.
82. Russack V, Lammers RJ. Xanthogranulomatous endometritis. Report of six cases and a proposed mechanism of development. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1990; 114: 929–932.
83. Chou SC, Wang JS, Tseng HH. Malacoplakia of the ovary, fallopian tube and uterus: a case associated with diabetes mellitus. Pathol Int 2002; 52: 789–793.
84. Kim KR, Lee YH, Ro JY. Nodular histiocytic hyperplasia of the endometrium. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2002; 21: 141–146.
85. Iezzoni JC, Mills SE. Nonneoplastic endometrial signet-ring cells. Vacuolated decidual cells and stromal histiocytes mimicking adenocarcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol 2001; 115: 249–255.
86. Valeri RM, Ibrahim N, Sheaff MT. Extramedullary hematopoiesis in the endometrium. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2002; 21: 178–181.
87. Gru AA, Hassan A, Pfeifer JD, Huettner PC. Uterine extramedullary hematopoiesis: what is the clinical significance? Int J Gynecol Pathol 2010; 29: 366–373.
88. Van Bogaert LJ. Clinicopathologic findings in endometrial polyps. Obstet Gynecol 1988; 71: 771–773.
89. Tjarks M, Van Voorhis BJ. Treatment of endometrial polyps. Obstet Gynecol 2000; 96: 886–889.
90. Schlesinger C, Silverberg SG. Tamoxifen-associated polyps (basalomas) arising in multiple endometriotic foci: a case report and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol 1999; 73: 305–311.
91. Hattab EM, Allam-Nandyala P, Rhatigan RM. The stromal component of large endometrial polyps. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1999; 18: 332–337.
92. Tai LH, Tavassoli FA. Endometrial polyps with atypical (bizarre) stromal cells. Am J Surg Pathol 2002; 26: 505–509.
93. Dal Cin P, De Wolf F, Klerckx P, Van Den Berghe H. The 6p21 chromosome region is nonrandomly involved in endometrial polyps. Gynecol Oncol 1992; 46: 393–396.
94. Dal Cin P, Vanni R, Marras S, et al. Four cytogenetic subgroups can be identified in endometrial polyps. Cancer Res 1995; 55: 1565–1568.
95. Tallini G, Vanni R, Manfioletti G, et al. HMGI-C and HMGI(Y) immunoreactivity correlates with cytogenetic abnormalities in lipomas, pulmonary chondroid hamartomas, endometrial polyps, and uterine leiomyomas and is compatible with rearrangement of the HMGI-C and HMGI(Y) genes. Lab Invest 2000; 80: 359–369.
96. Savelli L, De Iaco P, Santini D, et al. Histopathologic features and risk factors for benignity, hyperplasia, and cancer in endometrial polyps. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003; 188: 927–931.
97. Hui P, Kelly M, O’Malley DM, Tavassoli F, Schwartz PE. Minimal uterine serous carcinoma: a clinicopathological study of 40 cases. Mod Pathol 2005; 18: 75–82.
98. Lee KR, Belinson JL. Recurrence in noninvasive endometrial carcinoma. Relationship to uterine papillary serous carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 1991; 15: 965–973.
99. Sherman ME, Bitterman P, Rosenshein NB, Delgado G, Kurman RJ. Uterine serous carcinoma. A morphologically diverse neoplasm with unifying clinicopathologic features. Am J Surg Pathol 1992; 16: 600–610.
100. Silva EG, Jenkins R. Serous carcinoma in endometrial polyps. Mod Pathol 1990; 3: 120–128.
101. Young RH, Treger T, Scully RE. Atypical polypoid adenomyoma of the uterus. A report of 27 cases. Am J Clin Pathol 1986; 86: 139–145.
102. Longacre TA, Chung MH, Rouse RV, Hendrickson MR. Atypical polypoid adenomyofibromas (atypical polypoid adenomyomas) of the uterus. A clinicopathologic study of 55 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 1996; 20: 1–20.
103. Ober WB. Effects of oral and intrauterine administration of contraceptives on the uterus. Hum Pathol 1977; 8: 513–527.
104. The Writing Group for the PEPI Trial. Effects of hormone replacement therapy on endometrial histology in postmenopausal women. The Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions (PEPI) Trial. JAMA 1996; 275: 370–375.
105. Pickar JH, Yeh I, Wheeler JE, Cunnane MF, Speroff L. Endometrial effects of lower doses of conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate. Fertil Steril 2001; 76: 25–31.
106. Benda JA. Clomiphene’s effect on endometrium in infertility. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1992; 11: 273–282.
107. Cohen I, Azaria R, Bernheim J, Shapira J, Beyth Y. Risk factors of endometrial polyps resected from postmenopausal patients with breast carcinoma treated with tamoxifen. Cancer 2001; 92: 1151–1155.
108. Deligdisch L, Kalir T, Cohen CJ, et al. Endometrial histopathology in 700 patients treated with tamoxifen for breast cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2000; 78: 181–186.
109. Winner B, Peipert JF, Zhao Q, et al. Effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraception. N Engl J Med 2012; 366: 1998–2007.
110. Silverberg SG, Haukkamaa M, Arko H, Nilsson CG, Luukkainen T. Endometrial morphology during long-term use of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine devices. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1986; 5: 235–241.
111. Guttinger A, Critchley HO. Endometrial effects of intrauterine levonorgestrel. Contraception 2007; 75: S93–98.
112. Sheppard BL. Endometrial morphological changes in IUD users: a review. Contraception 1987; 36: 1–10.
113. Deans R, Abbott J. Review of intrauterine adhesions. J Min Invas Gynecol 2010; 17: 555–569.
114. Reid PC, Thurrell W, Smith JH, Kennedy A, Sharp F. Nd:YAG laser endometrial ablation: histological aspects of uterine healing. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1992; 11: 174–179.
115. McBride JM. The normal post-menopausal endometrium. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Emp 1954; 61: 691–697.
116. Arias-Stella J Jr, Arias-Velasquez A, Arias-Stella J. Normal and abnormal mitoses in the atypical endometrial change associated with chorionic tissue effect [corrected]. Am J Surg Pathol 1994; 18: 694–701.
117. Silverberg SG. Arias-Stella phenomenon in spontaneous and therapeutic abortion. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1972; 112: 777–780.
118. Huettner PC, Gersell DJ. Arias-Stella reaction in nonpregnant women: a clinicopathologic study of nine cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1994; 13: 241–247.
119. Cooper K, Haffajee Z, Taylor L. Comparative analysis of biotin intranuclear inclusions of gestational endometrium using the APAAP, ABC and the PAP immunodetection systems. J Clin Pathol 1997; 50: 153–156.
120. Munro MG, Critchley HO, Broder MS, et al. FIGO classification system (PALM-COEIN) for causes of abnormal uterine bleeding in nongravid women of reproductive age. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2011; 113: 3–13.
121. Russell P, Bannatyne P, Shearman RP, Fraser IS, Corbett P. Premature hypergonadotropic ovarian failure: clinicopathological study of 19 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1982; 1: 185–201.
122. Damewood MD, Zacur HA, Hoffman GJ, Rock JA. Circulating antiovarian antibodies in premature ovarian failure. Obstet Gynecol 1986; 68: 850–854.
123. Myhre E. Endometrial biopsy and ovarian hormonal failure. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1966; 45(Suppl 9): 143–157.
124. Vakiani M, Vavilis D, Agorastos T, et al. Histopathological findings of the endometrium in patients with dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 1996; 23: 236–239.
125. Chambers JT, Chambers SK. Endometrial sampling: When? Where? Why? With what? Clin Obstet Gynecol 1992; 35: 28–39.
126. Collins JA. Diagnostic assessment of the ovulatory process. Semin Reprod Endocrinol 1990; 8: 145–155.
127. Bukulmez O, Arici A. Luteal phase defect: myth or reality. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2004; 31: 727–744, ix.
128. Clement PB. Pathology of gamete and zygote transport: cervical, endometrial, myometrial, and tubal factors in infertility. Monogr Pathol 1991: 140–194.
129. Davis OK, Berkeley AS, Naus GJ, Cholst IN, Freedman KS. The incidence of luteal phase defect in normal, fertile women, determined by serial endometrial biopsies. Fertil Steril 1989; 51: 582–586.
130. Wentz AC, Kossoy LR, Parker RA. The impact of luteal phase inadequacy in an infertile population. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990; 162: 937–943; discussion 943–945.
131. Jones GS, Madrigal-Castro V. Hormonal findings in association with abnormal corpus luteum function in the human: the luteal phase defect. Fertil Steril 1970; 21: 1–13.
132. Wentz AC. Endometrial biopsy in the evaluation of infertility. Fertil Steril 1980; 33: 121–124.
133. Ben-Nun I, Jaffe R, Fejgin MD, Beyth Y. Therapeutic maturation of endometrium in in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Fertil Steril 1992; 57: 953–962.
134. Seidman JD, Kjerulff KH. Pathologic findings from the Maryland Women’s Health Study: practice patterns in the diagnosis of adenomyosis. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1996; 15: 217–221.
135. Tamaya T, Motoyama T, Ohono Y, et al. Steroid receptor levels and histology of endometriosis and adenomyosis. Fertil Steril 1979; 31: 396–400.
136. Goldblum JR, Clement PB, Hart WR. Adenomyosis with sparse glands. A potential mimic of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma. Am J Clin Pathol 1995; 103: 218–223.
137. Clement PB. Pathology of endometriosis. Pathol Annu 1990; 25(Pt 1): 245–295.
138. Clement PB, Young RH, Scully RE. Necrotic pseudoxanthomatous nodules of ovary and peritoneum in endometriosis. Am J Surg Pathol 1988; 12: 390–397.
139. LaGrenade A, Silverberg SG. Ovarian tumors associated with atypical endometriosis. Hum Pathol 1988; 19: 1080–1084.
140. Toki T, Fujii S, Silverberg SG. A clinicopathologic study on the association of endometriosis and carcinoma of the ovary using a scoring system. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1996; 6: 68–75.
141. Moll UM, Chumas JC, Chalas E, Mann WJ. Ovarian carcinoma arising in atypical endometriosis. Obstet Gynecol 1990; 75: 537–539.
142. Terada T. Endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the ovary arising in atypical endometriosis. Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2012; 5: 924–927.
143. Terada T. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ovary arising in atypical endometriosis: a report of eight cases. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2012; 285: 229–233.
144. Wiegand KC, Shah SP, Al-Agha OM, et al. ARID1A mutations in endometriosis-associated ovarian carcinomas. N Engl J Med 2010; 363: 1532–1543.
145. Yamamoto S, Tsuda H, Takano M, et al. PIK3CA mutation is an early event in the development of endometriosis-associated ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma. J Pathol 2011; 225: 189–194.
146. Yamamoto S, Tsuda H, Takano M, Tamai S, Matsubara O. Loss of ARID1A protein expression occurs as an early event in ovarian clear-cell carcinoma development and frequently coexists with PIK3CA mutations. Mod Pathol 2012; 25: 615–624.
147. Seidman JD. Prognostic importance of hyperplasia and atypia in endometriosis. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1996; 15: 1–9.
148. Leng J, Lang J, Guo L, Li H, Liu Z. Carcinosarcoma arising from atypical endometriosis in a cesarean section scar. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2006; 16: 432–435.
149. Nilbert M, Pejovic T, Mandahl N, et al. Monoclonal origin of endometriotic cysts. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995; 5: 61–63.
150. Adamson GD. Endometriosis classification: an update. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2011; 23: 213–220.
151. American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine classification of endometriosis: 1996. Fertil Steril 1997; 67: 817–821.
152. Vercellini P, Trespidi L, De Giorgi O, et al. Endometriosis and pelvic pain: relation to disease stage and localization. Fertil Steril 1996; 65: 299–304.
153. Carvalho LF, Below A, Abrao MS, Agarwal A. Minimal and mild endometriosis negatively impact on pregnancy outcome. Rev Assoc Med Bras 2012; 58: 607–614.
154. Haas D, Chvatal R, Habelsberger A, et al. Comparison of revised American Fertility Society and ENZIAN staging: a critical evaluation of classifications of endometriosis on the basis of our patient population. Fertil Steril 2011; 95: 1574–1578.
155. Adamson GD, Pasta DJ. Endometriosis fertility index: the new, validated endometriosis staging system. Fertil Steril 2010; 94: 1609–1615.
156. Macer ML, Taylor HS. Endometriosis and infertility: a review of the pathogenesis and treatment of endometriosis-associated infertility. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2012; 39: 535–549.
157. Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin 2012; 62: 10–29.
158. Munstedt K, Grant P, Woenckhaus J, Roth G, Tinneberg HR. Cancer of the endometrium: current aspects of diagnostics and treatment. World J Surg Oncol 2004; 2: 24.
159. Adegoke O, Kulasingam S, Virnig B. Cervical cancer trends in the United States: a 35-year population-based analysis. J Women’s Hlth 2012; 21: 1031–1037.
160. Bokhman JV. Two pathogenetic types of endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 1983; 15: 10–17.
161. Chia VM, Newcomb PA, Trentham-Dietz A, Hampton JM. Obesity, diabetes, and other factors in relation to survival after endometrial cancer diagnosis. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2007; 17: 441–446.
162. Kaaks R, Lukanova A, Kurzer MS. Obesity, endogenous hormones, and endometrial cancer risk: a synthetic review. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002; 11: 1531–1543.
163. MacDonald PC, Edman CD, Hemsell DL, Porter JC, Siiteri PK. Effect of obesity on conversion of plasma androstenedione to estrone in postmenopausal women with and without endometrial cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1978; 130: 448–455.
164. Nisker JA, Hammond GL, Davidson BJ, et al. Serum sex hormone-binding globulin capacity and the percentage of free estradiol in postmenopausal women with and without endometrial carcinoma. A new biochemical basis for the association between obesity and endometrial carcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1980; 138: 637–642.
165. Murphy LJ, Ghahary A. Uterine insulin-like growth factor-1: regulation of expression and its role in estrogen-induced uterine proliferation. Endocr Rev 1990; 11: 443–453.
166. Catalano S, Giordano C, Rizza P, et al. Evidence that leptin through STAT and CREB signaling enhances cyclin D1 expression and promotes human endometrial cancer proliferation. J Cell Physiol 2009; 218: 490–500.
167. Sherman ME. Theories of endometrial carcinogenesis: a multidisciplinary approach. Mod Pathol 2000; 13: 295–308.
168. Key TJ, Pike MC. The dose–effect relationship between ‘unopposed’ oestrogens and endometrial mitotic rate: its central role in explaining and predicting endometrial cancer risk. Br J Cancer 1988; 57: 205–212.
169. Silverberg SG, Mullen D, Faraci JA, et al. Endometrial carcinoma: clinical–pathologic comparison of cases in postmenopausal women receiving and not receiving exogenous estrogens. Cancer 1980; 45: 3018–3026.
170. Parazzini F, La Vecchia C, Bocciolone L, Franceschi S. The epidemiology of endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 1991; 41: 1–16.
171. Sherman ME, Devesa SS. Analysis of racial differences in incidence, survival, and mortality for malignant tumors of the uterine corpus. Cancer 2003; 98: 176–186.
172. Runowicz CD, Costantino JP, Wickerham DL, et al. Gynecologic conditions in participants in the NSABP breast cancer prevention study of tamoxifen and raloxifene (STAR). Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011; 205: 535 e1–5.
173. Vogel VG, Costantino JP, Wickerham DL, et al. Update of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P-2 Trial: preventing breast cancer. Cancer Prev Res 2010; 3: 696–706.
174. Garg K, Soslow RA. Lynch syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer) and endometrial carcinoma. J Clin Pathol 2009; 62: 679–684.
175. Peterson LM, Kipp BR, Halling KC, et al. Molecular characterization of endometrial cancer: a correlative study assessing microsatellite instability, MLH1 hypermethylation, DNA mismatch repair protein expression, and PTEN, PIK3CA, KRAS, and BRAF mutation analysis. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2012; 31: 195–205.
176. Hecht JL, Mutter GL. Molecular and pathologic aspects of endometrial carcinogenesis. J Clin Oncol 2006; 24: 4783–4791.
177. Clarke BA, Cooper K. Identifying Lynch syndrome in patients with endometrial carcinoma: shortcomings of morphologic and clinical schemas. Adv Anat Pathol 2012; 19: 231–238.
178. Dunlop MG, Farrington SM, Carothers AD, et al. Cancer risk associated with germline DNA mismatch repair gene mutations. Hum Molec Genet 1997; 6: 105–110.
179. Aarnio M, Sankila R, Pukkala E, et al. Cancer risk in mutation carriers of DNA-mismatch-repair genes. Int J Cancer 1999; 81: 214–218.
180. Watson P, Lynch HT. Cancer risk in mismatch repair gene mutation carriers. Famil Cancer 2001; 1: 57–60.
181. Modica I, Soslow RA, Black D, et al. Utility of immunohistochemistry in predicting microsatellite instability in endometrial carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 2007; 31: 744–751.
182. Umar A, Boland CR, Terdiman JP, et al. Revised Bethesda Guidelines for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome) and microsatellite instability. J Natl Cancer Inst 2004; 96: 261–268.
183. Pino MS, Chung DC. Application of molecular diagnostics for the detection of Lynch syndrome. Expert Rev Molec Diagn 2010; 10: 651–665.
184. Shia J. Immunohistochemistry versus microsatellite instability testing for screening colorectal cancer patients at risk for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome. Part I. The utility of immunohistochemistry. J Molec Diagn 2008; 10: 293–300.
185. Zhang L. Immunohistochemistry versus microsatellite instability testing for screening colorectal cancer patients at risk for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome. Part II. The utility of microsatellite instability testing. J Molec Diagn 2008; 10: 301–307.
186. Inoue M. Current molecular aspects of the carcinogenesis of the uterine endometrium. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2001; 11: 339–348.
187. Matias-Guiu X, Catasus L, Bussaglia E, et al. Molecular pathology of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma. Hum Pathol 2001; 32: 569–577.
188. Faquin WC, Fitzgerald JT, Lin MC, et al. Sporadic microsatellite instability is specific to neoplastic and preneoplastic endometrial tissues. Am J Clin Pathol 2000; 113: 576–582.
189. Sun H, Enomoto T, Fujita M, et al. Mutational analysis of the PTEN gene in endometrial carcinoma and hyperplasia. Am J Clin Pathol 2001; 115: 32–38.
190. Trimble CL, Kauderer J, Zaino R, et al. Concurrent endometrial carcinoma in women with a biopsy diagnosis of atypical endometrial hyperplasia: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Cancer 2006; 106: 812–819.
191. Kurman RJ, Kaminski PF, Norris HJ. The behavior of endometrial hyperplasia. A long-term study of “untreated” hyperplasia in 170 patients. Cancer 1985; 56: 403–412.
192. Silverberg SG. Problems in the differential diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma. Mod Pathol 2000; 13: 309–327.
193. Zaino RJ, Kauderer J, Trimble CL, et al. Reproducibility of the diagnosis of atypical endometrial hyperplasia: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Cancer 2006; 106: 804–811.
194. Kelly P, Dobbs SP, McCluggage WG. Endometrial hyperplasia involving endometrial polyps: report of a series and discussion of the significance in an endometrial biopsy specimen. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2007; 114: 944–950.
195. McCluggage WG. My approach to the interpretation of endometrial biopsies and curettings. J Clin Pathol 2006; 59: 801–812.
196. Trimble CL, Method M, Leitao M, et al. Management of endometrial precancers. Obstet Gynecol 2012; 120: 1160–1175.
197. Zaino RJ. Endometrial hyperplasia: is it time for a quantum leap to a new classification? Int J Gynecol Pathol 2000; 19: 314–321.
198. Dunton CJ, Baak JP, Palazzo JP, et al. Use of computerized morphometric analyses of endometrial hyperplasias in the prediction of coexistent cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996; 174: 1518–1521.
199. Silverberg SG, Kurman RJ, Nogales FF Jr, et al. Tumours of the uterine corpus: epithelial tumours and related lesions. In: Tavassoli FA, Devilee P, eds. World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Tumours of the Breast and Female Genital Organs. Lyon: IARC; 2003: pp. 221–232.
200. Mutter GL. Histopathology of genetically defined endometrial precancers. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2000; 19: 301–309.
201. Mutter GL, Baak JP, Crum CP, et al. Endometrial precancer diagnosis by histopathology, clonal analysis, and computerized morphometry. J Pathol 2000; 190: 462–469.
202. Mutter GL. Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN): will it bring order to chaos? The Endometrial Collaborative Group. Gynecol Oncol 2000; 76: 287–290.
203. Mutter GL. Endometrial Intraepithelial Neoplasia (EIN) Fact Sheet. 2008.
204. Usubutun A, Mutter GL, Saglam A, et al. Reproducibility of endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia diagnosis is good, but influenced by the diagnostic style of pathologists. Mod Pathol 2012; 25: 877–884.
205. Lacey JV Jr, Mutter GL, Nucci MR, et al. Risk of subsequent endometrial carcinoma associated with endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia classification of endometrial biopsies. Cancer 2008; 113: 2073–2081.
206. Kurman RJ, Norris HJ. Evaluation of criteria for distinguishing atypical endometrial hyperplasia from well-differentiated carcinoma. Cancer 1982; 49: 2547–2559.
207. Longacre TA, Chung MH, Jensen DN, Hendrickson MR. Proposed criteria for the diagnosis of well-differentiated endometrial carcinoma. A diagnostic test for myoinvasion. Am J Surg Pathol 1995; 19: 371–406.
208. Henderson GS, Brown KA, Perkins SL, Abbott TM, Clayton F. bcl-2 is down-regulated in atypical endometrial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma. Mod Pathol 1996; 9: 430–438.
209. Baak JP, Kuik DJ, Bezemer PD. The additional prognostic value of morphometric nuclear arrangement and DNA-ploidy to other morphometric and stereologic features in endometrial hyperplasias. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1994; 4: 289–297.
210. Kysela B, Siracky J, Redecha M, Bardos A. Flow cytometry (FCM) analysis of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma. Neoplasma 1990; 37: 489–495.
211. Wilkinson N, Buckley CH, Chawner L, Fox H. Nucleolar organiser regions in normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic endometria. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1990; 9: 55–59.
212. Klemi PJ, Gronroos M, Rauramo L, Punnonen R. Ultrastructural features of endometrial atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and adenocarcinomas and the plasma level of estrogens. Gynecol Oncol 1980; 9: 162–169.
213. Baloglu H, Cannizzaro LA, Jones J, Koss LG. Atypical endometrial hyperplasia shares genomic abnormalities with endometrioid carcinoma by comparative genomic hybridization. Hum Pathol 2001; 32: 615–622.
214. Susini T, Massi D, Paglierani M, et al. Expression of the retinoblastoma-related gene Rb2/p130 is downregulated in atypical endometrial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma. Hum Pathol 2001; 32: 360–367.
215. Ellenson LH. The molecular biology of endometrial tumorigenesis: does it have a message? Int J Gynecol Pathol 2000; 19: 310–313.
216. Schwartz AM, Silverberg SG, Fu YS, et al. Use of monoclonal antibodies MSN-1 and B72.3 in the prediction of the natural history of endometrial hyperplasia. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1993; 12: 253–258.
217. Baak JP, Orbo A, van Diest PJ, et al. Prospective multicenter evaluation of the morphometric D-score for prediction of the outcome of endometrial hyperplasias. Am J Surg Pathol 2001; 25: 930–935.
218. Widra EA, Dunton CJ, McHugh M, Palazzo JP. Endometrial hyperplasia and the risk of carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1995; 5: 233–235.
219. Pecorelli S. Revised FIGO staging for carcinoma of the vulva, cervix, and endometrium. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2009; 105: 103–104.
220. Edge SB, American Joint Committee on Cancer. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, 7th edn. New York, NY: Springer; 2010.
221. Lewin SN, Herzog TJ, Barrena Medel NI, et al. Comparative performance of the 2009 international Federation of gynecology and obstetrics’ staging system for uterine corpus cancer. Obstet Gynecol 2010; 116: 1141–1149.
222. Clement PB, Young RH. Endometrioid carcinoma of the uterine corpus: a review of its pathology with emphasis on recent advances and problematic aspects. Adv Anat Pathol 2002; 9: 145–184.
223. Sidawy MK, Silverberg SG. Endometrial carcinoma. Pathologic factors of therapeutic and prognostic significance. Pathol Annu 1992; 27(Pt 2): 153–185.
224. Mittal KR, Barwick KW. Endometrial adenocarcinoma involving adenomyosis without true myometrial invasion is characterized by frequent preceding estrogen therapy, low histologic grades, and excellent prognosis. Gynecol Oncol 1993; 49: 197–201.
225. Koshiyama M, Suzuki A, Ozawa M, et al. Adenocarcinomas arising from uterine adenomyosis: a report of four cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2002; 21: 239–245.
226. Sato S, Itamochi H, Shimada M, et al. Preoperative and intraoperative assessments of depth of myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2009; 19: 884–887.
227. McComiskey MH, McCluggage WG, Grey A, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in endometrial cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2012; 22: 1020–1025.
228. Maneschi F, Nardi S, Sarno M, et al. Endometrial carcinoma: intraoperative evaluation of myometrial invasion. A prospective study. Min Ginecol 2008; 60: 267–272.
229. Fotiou S, Vlahos N, Kondi-Pafiti A, et al. Intraoperative gross assessment of myometrial invasion and cervical involvement in endometrial cancer: Role of tumor grade and size. Gynecol Oncol 2009; 112: 517–520.
230. Zaino RJ, Abendroth C, Yemelyanova A, et al. Endocervical involvement in endometrial adenocarcinoma is not prognostically significant and the pathologic assessment of the pattern of involvement is not reproducible. Gynecol Oncol 2013; 128: 83–87.
231. Morrow CP, Bundy BN, Kurman RJ, et al. Relationship between surgical–pathological risk factors and outcome in clinical stage I and II carcinoma of the endometrium: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 1991; 40: 55–65.
232. Orezzoli JP, Sioletic S, Olawaiye A, Oliva E, del Carmen MG. Stage II endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium: clinical implications of cervical stromal invasion. Gynecol Oncol 2009; 113: 316–323.
233. Kim HS, Kim HY, Park CY, et al. Lymphadenectomy increases the prognostic value of the revised 2009 FIGO staging system for endometrial cancer: a multi-center study. Eur J Surg Oncol 2012; 38: 230–237.
234. Euscher ED, Bassett R, Malpica A. Lymph node counts in endometrial cancer: expectations versus reality. Am J Surg Pathol 2011; 35: 913–918.
235. Ayhan A, Tuncer ZS, Tuncer R, Yuce K, Kucukali T. Tumor status of lymph nodes in early endometrial cancer in relation to lymph node size. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1995; 60: 61–63.
236. Lee KR, Vacek PM, Belinson JL. Traditional and nontraditional histopathologic predictors of recurrence in uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 1994; 54: 10–18.
237. Zaino R. Conventional and novel prognostic factors in endometrioid adenocarcinoma: a critical appraisal. Pathol Case Rev 2000; 5: 138–152.
238. Scholten AN, Smit VT, Beerman H, van Putten WL, Creutzberg CL. Prognostic significance and interobserver variability of histologic grading systems for endometrial carcinoma. Cancer 2004; 100: 764–772.
239. Narayan K, Khaw P, Bernshaw D, et al. Prognostic significance of lymphovascular space invasion and nodal involvement in intermediate- and high-risk endometrial cancer patients treated with curative intent using surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2012; 22: 260–266.
240. Guntupalli SR, Zighelboim I, Kizer NT, et al. Lymphovascular space invasion is an independent risk factor for nodal disease and poor outcomes in endometrioid endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2012; 124: 31–35.
241. Kizer NT, Gao F, Guntupalli S, et al. Lower uterine segment involvement is associated with poor outcomes in early-stage endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol 2011; 18: 1419–1424.
242. Gemer O, Gdalevich M, Voldarsky M, et al. Lower uterine segment involvement is associated with adverse outcome in patients with stage I endometroid endometrial cancer: results of a multicenter study. Eur J Surg Oncol 2009; 35: 865–869.
243. Garg G, Gao F, Wright JD, et al. The risk of lymph node metastasis with positive peritoneal cytology in endometrial cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2013; 23: 90–97.
244. Hachisuga T, Fukuda K, Iwasaka T, et al. Endometrioid adenocarcinomas of the uterine corpus in women younger than 50 years of age can be divided into two distinct clinical and pathologic entities based on anatomic location. Cancer 2001; 92: 2578–2584.
245. Watanabe Y, Nakajima H, Nozaki K, et al. Clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features and microsatellite status of endometrial cancer of the uterine isthmus. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2001; 20: 368–373.
246. Westin SN, Lacour RA, Urbauer DL, et al. Carcinoma of the lower uterine segment: a newly described association with Lynch syndrome. J Clin Oncol 2008; 26: 5965–5971.
247. Mitchard J, Hirschowitz L. Concordance of FIGO grade of endometrial adenocarcinomas in biopsy and hysterectomy specimens. Histopathology 2003; 42: 372–378.
248. Farley JH, Nycum LR, Birrer MJ, Park RC, Taylor RR. Age-specific survival of women with endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus. Gynecol Oncol 2000; 79: 86–89.
249. Duska LR, Garrett A, Rueda BR, et al. Endometrial cancer in women 40 years old or younger. Gynecol Oncol 2001; 83: 388–393.
250. Quick CM, May T, Horowitz NS, Nucci MR. Low-grade, low-stage endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma: a clinicopathologic analysis of 324 cases focusing on frequency and pattern of myoinvasion. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2012; 31: 337–343.
251. Stewart CJ, Brennan BA, Leung YC, Little L. MELF pattern invasion in endometrial carcinoma: association with low grade, myoinvasive endometrioid tumours, focal mucinous differentiation and vascular invasion. Pathology 2009; 41: 454–459.
252. Hertel JD, Huettner PC, Pfeifer JD. Lymphovascular space invasion in microscystic elongated and fragented (MELF)-pattern well differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma is associated with a higher rate of lymph node metastasis. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2014; 33: 127–134.
253. Murray SK, Young RH, Scully RE. Unusual epithelial and stromal changes in myoinvasive endometrioid adenocarcinoma: a study of their frequency, associated diagnostic problems, and prognostic significance. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2003; 22: 324–333.
254. Silverberg SG. The significance of squamous elements in carcinoma of the endometrium. Prog Surg Pathol 1982; 4: 115–136.
255. Zaino RJ, Kurman R, Herbold D, et al. The significance of squamous differentiation in endometrial carcinoma. Data from a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Cancer 1991; 68: 2293–2302.
256. Demopoulos RI, Dubin N, Noumoff J, Blaustein A, Sommers GM. Prognostic significance of squamous differentiation in stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 1986; 68: 245–250.
257. Chen JL, Trost DC, Wilkinson EJ. Endometrial papillary adenocarcinomas: two clinicopathological types. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1985; 4: 279–288.
258. Zaino RJ, Kurman RJ, Brunetto VL, et al. Villoglandular adenocarcinoma of the endometrium: a clinicopathologic study of 61 cases: a gynecologic oncology group study. Am J Surg Pathol 1998; 22: 1379–1385.
259. Ambros RA, Ballouk F, Malfetano JH, Ross JS. Significance of papillary (villoglandular) differentiation in endometrioid carcinoma of the uterus. Am J Surg Pathol 1994; 18: 569–575.
260. Murray SK, Young RH, Scully RE. Uterine endometrioid carcinoma with small nonvillous papillae: an analysis of 26 cases of a favorable-prognosis tumor to be distinguished from serous carcinoma. Int J Surg Pathol 2000; 8: 279–289.
261. Ng ABP. Endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma and extrauterine cancer. In: Bibbo M, ed. Comprehensive Cytopathology. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1991: pp. 257–284.
262. Kusuyama Y, Yoshida M, Imai H, et al. Secretory carcinoma of the endometrium. Acta Cytol 1989; 33: 127–130.
263. Tobon H, Watkins GJ. Secretory adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1985; 4: 328–335.
264. Hendrickson MR, Kempson RL. Ciliated carcinoma – a variant of endometrial adenocarcinoma: a report of 10 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1983; 2: 1–12.
265. Motoyama T, Ajioka Y, Ohta T, Watanabe H. Ciliated carcinoma of the endometrium associated with mucinous and neuroendocrine differentiation: a case report with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study. Pathol Int 1994; 44: 480–485.
266. Eichhorn JH, Young RH, Clement PB. Sertoliform endometrial adenocarcinoma: a study of four cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1996; 15: 119–126.
267. Young RH, Scully RE. Uterine carcinomas simulating microglandular hyperplasia. A report of six cases. Am J Surg Pathol 1992; 16: 1092–1097.
268. Zaloudek C, Hayashi GM, Ryan IP, Powell CB, Miller TR. Microglandular adenocarcinoma of the endometrium: a form of mucinous adenocarcinoma that may be confused with microglandular hyperplasia of the cervix. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1997; 16: 52–59.
269. Ross JC, Eifel PJ, Cox RS, Kempson RL, Hendrickson MR. Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. A clinicopathologic and histochemical study. Am J Surg Pathol 1983; 7: 715–729.
270. Melhem MF, Tobon H. Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium: a clinico-pathological review of 18 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1987; 6: 347–355.
271. Voss MA, Ganesan R, Ludeman L, et al. Should grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma be considered a type 2 cancer – a clinical and pathological evaluation. Gynecol Oncol 2012; 124: 15–20.
272. Alvarez T, Miller E, Duska L, Oliva E. Molecular profile of grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma: is it a type I or type II endometrial carcinoma? Am J Surg Pathol 2012; 36: 753–761.
273. Spiegel GW. Endometrial carcinoma in situ in postmenopausal women. Am J Surg Pathol 1995; 19: 417–432.
274. Ambros RA, Sherman ME, Zahn CM, Bitterman P, Kurman RJ. Endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma: a distinctive lesion specifically associated with tumors displaying serous differentiation. Hum Pathol 1995; 26: 1260–1267.
275. Kuhn E, Wu RC, Guan B, et al. Identification of molecular pathway aberrations in uterine serous carcinoma by genome-wide analyses. J Natl Cancer Inst 2012; 104: 1503–1513.
276. Jarboe EA, Pizer ES, Miron A, et al. Evidence for a latent precursor (p53 signature) that may precede serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma. Mod Pathol 2009; 22: 345–350.
277. Slomovitz BM, Burke TW, Eifel PJ, et al. Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC): a single institution review of 129 cases. Gynecol Oncol 2003; 91: 463–469.
278. Soslow RA, Pirog E, Isacson C. Endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma with associated peritoneal carcinomatosis. Am J Surg Pathol 2000; 24: 726–732.
279. Roelofsen T, van Kempen LC, van der Laak JA, et al. Concurrent endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC) and serous ovarian cancer: can EIC be seen as the precursor lesion? Int J Gynecol Cancer 2012; 22: 457–464.
280. Zheng W, Schwartz PE. Serous EIC as an early form of uterine papillary serous carcinoma: recent progress in understanding its pathogenesis and current opinions regarding pathologic and clinical management. Gynecol Oncol 2005; 96: 579–582.
281. Lauchlan SC. Tubal (serous) carcinoma of the endometrium. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1981; 105: 615–618.
282. Hendrickson M, Ross J, Eifel P, Martinez A, Kempson R. Uterine papillary serous carcinoma: a highly malignant form of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 1982; 6: 93–108.
283. Carcangiu ML, Chambers JT. Early pathologic stage clear cell carcinoma and uterine papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium: comparison of clinicopathologic features and survival. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1995; 14: 30–38.
284. Al Kushi A, Lim P, Aquino-Parsons C, Gilks CB. Markers of proliferative activity are predictors of patient outcome for low-grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma but not papillary serous carcinoma of endometrium. Mod Pathol 2002; 15: 365–371.
285. Baergen RN, Warren CD, Isacson C, Ellenson LH. Early uterine serous carcinoma: clonal origin of extrauterine disease. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2001; 20: 214–219.
286. Cirisano FD Jr, Robboy SJ, Dodge RK, et al. The outcome of stage I–II clinically and surgically staged papillary serous and clear cell endometrial cancers when compared with endometrioid carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 2000; 77: 55–65.
287. Jordan LB, Abdul-Kader M, Al-Nafussi A. Uterine serous papillary carcinoma: histopathologic changes within the female genital tract. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2001; 11: 283–289.
288. Wheeler DT, Bell KA, Kurman RJ, Sherman ME. Minimal uterine serous carcinoma: diagnosis and clinicopathologic correlation. Am J Surg Pathol 2000; 24: 797–806.
289. Cirisano FD Jr, Robboy SJ, Dodge RK, et al. Epidemiologic and surgicopathologic findings of papillary serous and clear cell endometrial cancers when compared to endometrioid carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 1999; 74: 385–394.
290. Pennington KP, Walsh T, Lee M, et al. BRCA1, TP53, and CHEK2 germline mutations in uterine serous carcinoma. Cancer 2013; 119: 332–338.
291. Parkash V, Carcangiu ML. Endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma with psammoma bodies. Am J Surg Pathol 1997; 21: 399–406.
292. Alkushi A, Kobel M, Kalloger SE, Gilks CB. High-grade endometrial carcinoma: serous and grade 3 endometrioid carcinomas have different immunophenotypes and outcomes. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2010; 29: 343–350.
293. Ioffe OB. Villoglandular adenocarcinoma of the endometrium and its differential diagnosis with uterine serous carcinoma. Pathol Case Rev 2000; 5: 163–167.
294. Hirschowitz L, Ganesan R, McCluggage WG. WT1, p53 and hormone receptor expression in uterine serous carcinoma. Histopathology 2009; 55: 478–482.
295. McCluggage WG. WT1 is of value in ascertaining the site of origin of serous carcinomas within the female genital tract. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2004; 23: 97–99.
296. Acs G, Pasha T, Zhang PJ. WT1 is differentially expressed in serous, endometrioid, clear cell, and mucinous carcinomas of the peritoneum, fallopian tube, ovary, and endometrium. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2004; 23: 110–118.
297. Roelofsen T, van Ham MA, Wiersma van Tilburg JM, et al. Pure compared with mixed serous endometrial carcinoma: two different entities? Obstet Gynecol 2012; 120: 1371–1381.
298. Boruta DM II, Gehrig PA, Groben PA, et al. Uterine serous and grade 3 endometrioid carcinomas: is there a survival difference? Cancer 2004; 101: 2214–2221.
299. Fader AN, Starks D, Gehrig PA, et al. An updated clinicopathologic study of early-stage uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC). Gynecol Oncol 2009; 115: 244–248.
300. Jang KS, Lee WM, Kim YJ, Cho SH. Collision of three histologically distinct endometrial cancers of the uterus. J Korean Med Sci 2012; 27: 89–92.
301. Del Carmen MG, Birrer M, Schorge JO. Uterine papillary serous cancer: a review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol 2012; 127: 651–661.
302. Geisler JP, Geisler HE, Melton ME, Wiemann MC. What staging surgery should be performed on patients with uterine papillary serous carcinoma? Gynecol Oncol 1999; 74: 465–467.
303. Bristow RE, Asrari F, Trimble EL, Montz FJ. Extended surgical staging for uterine papillary serous carcinoma: survival outcome of locoregional (Stage I–III) disease. Gynecol Oncol 2001; 81: 279–286.
304. Kato N, Takeda J, Fukase M, Motoyama T. Hyalinized stroma in clear cell carcinoma of the ovary: how is it formed? Hum Pathol 2012; 43: 2041–2046.
305. Malpica A, Tornos C, Burke TW, Silva EG. Low-stage clear-cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Am J Surg Pathol 1995; 19: 769–774.
306. Abeler VM, Kjorstad KE. Clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium: a histopathological and clinical study of 97 cases. Gynecol Oncol 1991; 40: 207–217.
307. Vang R, Whitaker BP, Farhood AI, et al. Immunohistochemical analysis of clear cell carcinoma of the gynecologic tract. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2001; 20: 252–259.
308. An HJ, Logani S, Isacson C, Ellenson LH. Molecular characterization of uterine clear cell carcinoma. Mod Pathol 2004; 17: 530–537.
309. Ordi J, Nogales FF, Palacin A, et al. Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus: CD10 expression as evidence of mesonephric differentiation. Am J Surg Pathol 2001; 25: 1540–1545.
310. Khalifa MA, Mannel RS, Haraway SD, Walker J, Min KW. Expression of EGFR, HER-2/neu, P53, and PCNA in endometrioid, serous papillary, and clear cell endometrial adenocarcinomas. Gynecol Oncol 1994; 53: 84–92.
311. Silver SA, Cheung AN, Tavassoli FA. Oncocytic metaplasia and carcinoma of the endometrium: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1999; 18: 12–19.
312. Goodrich S, Kebria-Moslemi M, Broshears J, Sutton GP, Rose P. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the endometrium: two cases and a review of the literature. Diagn Cytopathol 2013; 41: 817–820.
313. Takeuchi K, Tsujino T, Yabuta M, Kitazawa S. A case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the endometrium associated with extensive “ichthyosis uteri”. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 2012; 33: 552–554.
314. Murhekar K, Majhi U, Sridevi V, Rajkumar T. Does “ichthyosis uteri” have malignant potential? A case report of squamous cell carcinoma of endometrium associated with extensive ichthyosis uteri. Diagn Pathol 2008; 3: 4.
315. Horn LC, Richter CE, Einenkel J, et al. p16, p14, p53, cyclin D1, and steroid hormone receptor expression and human papillomaviruses analysis in primary squamous cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Ann Diagn Pathol 2006; 10: 193–196.
316. Huntsman DG, Clement PB, Gilks CB, Scully RE. Small-cell carcinoma of the endometrium. A clinicopathological study of sixteen cases. Am J Surg Pathol 1994; 18: 364–375.
317. Mhawech P, Dellas A, Terracciano LM. Glassy cell carcinoma of the endometrium: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2001; 125: 816–819.
318. Lininger RA, Ashfaq R, Albores-Saavedra J, Tavassoli FA. Transitional cell carcinoma of the endometrium and endometrial carcinoma with transitional cell differentiation. Cancer 1997; 79: 1933–1943.
319. Jones MA, Young RH, Scully RE. Endometrial adenocarcinoma with a component of giant cell carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1991; 10: 260–270.
320. Pesce C, Merino MJ, Chambers JT, Nogales F. Endometrial carcinoma with trophoblastic differentiation. An aggressive form of uterine cancer. Cancer 1991; 68: 1799–1802.
321. Houghton JP, Ioffe OB, Silverberg SG, McGrady B, McCluggage WG. Metastatic breast lobular carcinoma involving tamoxifen-associated endometrial polyps: report of two cases and review of tamoxifen-associated polypoid uterine lesions. Mod Pathol 2003; 16: 395–398.
322. Ramalingam P, Middleton LP, Tamboli P, et al. Invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast metastatic to the urinary bladder and endometrium: diagnostic pitfalls and review of the literature of tumors with micropapillary features. Ann Diagn Pathol 2003; 7: 112–119.
323. Kumar A, Schneider V. Metastases to the uterus from extrapelvic primary tumors. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1983; 2: 134–140.
324. Kumar NB, Hart WR. Metastases to the uterine corpus from extragenital cancers. A clinicopathologic study of 63 cases. Cancer 1982; 50: 2163–2169.
325. McCluggage WG. Immunohistochemistry as a diagnostic aid in cervical pathology. Pathology 2007; 39: 97–111.
326. Kong CS, Beck AH, Longacre TA. A panel of 3 markers including p16, ProExC, or HPV ISH is optimal for distinguishing between primary endometrial and endocervical adenocarcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol 2010; 34: 915–926.
327. Zaino R, Whitney C, Brady MF, et al. Simultaneously detected endometrial and ovarian carcinomas – a prospective clinicopathologic study of 74 cases: a gynecologic oncology group study. Gynecol Oncol 2001; 83: 355–362.
328. Altaras MM, Bernheim J, Zehavi T, et al. Papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum coexisting with or after endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 2002; 84: 245–251.
329. Matias-Guiu X, Lagarda H, Catasus L, et al. Clonality analysis in synchronous or metachronous tumors of the female genital tract. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2002; 21: 205–211.
330. Lim P, Al Kushi A, Gilks B, Wong F, Aquino-Parsons C. Early stage uterine papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium: effect of adjuvant whole abdominal radiotherapy and pathologic parameters on outcome. Cancer 2001; 91: 752–757.
331. Straughn JM Jr, Huh WK, Kelly FJ, et al. Conservative management of stage I endometrial carcinoma after surgical staging. Gynecol Oncol 2002; 84: 194–200.
332. Mariani A, Webb MJ, Keeney GL, Podratz KC. Routes of lymphatic spread: a study of 112 consecutive patients with endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2001; 81: 100–104.
333. Podczaski E, Kaminski P, Gurski K, et al. Detection and patterns of treatment failure in 300 consecutive cases of “early” endometrial cancer after primary surgery. Gynecol Oncol 1992; 47: 323–327.
334. Mariani A, Webb MJ, Keeney GL, Calori G, Podratz KC. Hematogenous dissemination in corpus cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2001; 80: 233–238.
335. Otsuka I, Ono I, Akamatsu H, Sunamori M, Aso T. Pulmonary metastasis from endometrial carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2002; 12: 208–213.
336. Laughlin SK, Schroeder JC, Baird DD. New directions in the epidemiology of uterine fibroids. Semin Reprod Med 2010; 28: 204–217.
337. Cardozo ER, Clark AD, Banks NK, et al. The estimated annual cost of uterine leiomyomata in the United States. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2012; 206: 211 e1–9.
338. Baird DD, Dunson DB. Why is parity protective for uterine fibroids? Epidemiology 2003; 14: 247–250.
339. Sandberg AA. Updates on the cytogenetics and molecular genetics of bone and soft tissue tumors: leiomyoma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2005; 158: 1–26.
340. Takahashi T, Nagai N, Oda H, et al. Evidence for RAD51L1/HMGIC fusion in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2001; 30: 196–201.
341. Lehtonen HJ, Kiuru M, Ylisaukko-Oja SK, et al. Increased risk of cancer in patients with fumarate hydratase germline mutation. J Med Genet 2006; 43: 523–526.
342. Gross KL, Panhuysen CI, Kleinman MS, et al. Involvement of fumarate hydratase in nonsyndromic uterine leiomyomas: genetic linkage analysis and FISH studies. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2004; 41: 183–190.
343. McGuire MM, Yatsenko A, Hoffner L, et al. Whole exome sequencing in a random sample of North American women with leiomyomas identifies MED12 mutations in majority of uterine leiomyomas. PloS ONE 2012; 7: e33251.
344. Perot G, Croce S, Ribeiro A, et al. MED12 alterations in both human benign and malignant uterine soft tissue tumors. PloS ONE 2012; 7: e40015.
345. Makinen N, Mehine M, Tolvanen J, et al. MED12, the mediator complex subunit 12 gene, is mutated at high frequency in uterine leiomyomas. Science 2011; 334: 252–255.
346. Vollenhoven BJ, Lawrence AS, Healy DL. Uterine fibroids: a clinical review. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1990; 97: 285–298.
347. Torpin R, Pund E, Peeples WJ. The etiologic and pathologic factors in a series of 1741 fibromyomas of the uterus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1942; 44: 569–574.
348. Mittal K, Demopoulos RI. MIB-1 (Ki-67), p53, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor expression in uterine smooth muscle tumors. Hum Pathol 2001; 32: 984–987.
349. Norris HJ, Hilliard GD, Irey NS. Hemorrhagic cellular leiomyomas (“apoplectic leiomyoma”) of the uterus associated with pregnancy and oral contraceptives. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1988; 7: 212–224.
350. Tiltman AJ. The effect of progestins on the mitotic activity of uterine fibromyomas. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1985; 4: 89–96.
351. Malik M, Norian J, McCarthy-Keith D, Britten J, Catherino WH. Why leiomyomas are called fibroids: the central role of extracellular matrix in symptomatic women. Semin Reprod Med 2010; 28: 169–179.
352. Clement PB, Young RH, Scully RE. Diffuse, perinodular, and other patterns of hydropic degeneration within and adjacent to uterine leiomyomas. Problems in differential diagnosis. Am J Surg Pathol 1992; 16: 26–32.
353. Wilkinson N, Rollason TP. Recent advances in the pathology of smooth muscle tumours of the uterus. Histopathology 2001; 39: 331–341.
354. Sieinski W. Lipomatous neometaplasia of the uterus. Report of 11 cases with discussion of histogenesis and pathogenesis. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1989; 8: 357–363.
355. Mazur MT, Kraus FT. Histogenesis of morphologic variations in tumors of the uterine wall. Am J Surg Pathol 1980; 4: 59–74.
356. McCluggage WG, Ellis PK, McClure N, et al. Pathologic features of uterine leiomyomas following uterine artery embolization. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2000; 19: 342–347.
357. Clement PB. The pathology of uterine smooth muscle tumors and mixed endometrial stromal–smooth muscle tumors: a selective review with emphasis on recent advances. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2000; 19: 39–55.
358. Kempson RL, Hendrickson MR. Smooth muscle, endometrial stromal, and mixed Mullerian tumors of the uterus. Mod Pathol 2000; 13: 328–342.
359. Oliva E, Young RH, Clement PB, Bhan AK, Scully RE. Cellular benign mesenchymal tumors of the uterus. A comparative morphologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 33 highly cellular leiomyomas and six endometrial stromal nodules, two frequently confused tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 1995; 19: 757–768.
360. Oliva E, Clement PB, Young RH, Scully RE. Mixed endometrial stromal and smooth muscle tumors of the uterus: a clinicopathologic study of 15 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 1998; 22: 997–1005.
361. Downes KA, Hart WR. Bizarre leiomyomas of the uterus: a comprehensive pathologic study of 24 cases with long-term follow-up. Am J Surg Pathol 1997; 21: 1261–1270.
362. Bell SW, Kempson RL, Hendrickson MR. Problematic uterine smooth muscle neoplasms. A clinicopathologic study of 213 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 1994; 18: 535–558.
363. Prayson RA, Goldblum JR, Hart WR. Epithelioid smooth-muscle tumors of the uterus: a clinicopathologic study of 18 patients. Am J Surg Pathol 1997; 21: 383–391.
364. Nucci MR, O’Connell JT, Huettner PC, et al. h-Caldesmon expression effectively distinguishes endometrial stromal tumors from uterine smooth muscle tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 2001; 25: 455–463.
365. Oliva E, Young RH, Amin MB, Clement PB. An immunohistochemical analysis of endometrial stromal and smooth muscle tumors of the uterus: a study of 54 cases emphasizing the importance of using a panel because of overlap in immunoreactivity for individual antibodies. Am J Surg Pathol 2002; 26: 403–412.
366. Fadare O, Liang SX. Epithelioid smooth muscle tumors of the uterus do not express CD1a: a potential immunohistochemical adjunct in their distinction from uterine perivascular epithelioid cell tumors. Ann Diagn Pathol 2008; 12: 401–405.
367. Kaminski PF, Tavassoli FA. Plexiform tumorlet: a clinical and pathologic study of 15 cases with ultrastructural observations. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1984; 3: 124–134.
368. Tavassoli FA, Devilee P, eds. World Health Organization Classification of Tumours. Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Breast and Female Genital Organs. Lyon: IARC; 2003.
369. Clement PB. Intravenous leiomyomatosis of the uterus. Pathol Annu 1988; 23(Pt 2): 153–183.
370. Mulvany NJ, Slavin JL, Ostor AG, Fortune DW. Intravenous leiomyomatosis of the uterus: a clinicopathologic study of 22 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1994; 13: 1–9.
371. Esteban JM, Allen WM, Schaerf RH. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma of the uterus: histologic and immunohistochemical characterization of primary and metastatic lesions. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1999; 123: 960–962.
372. Tietze L, Gunther K, Horbe A, et al. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma: a cytogenetically balanced but clonal disease. Hum Pathol 2000; 31: 126–128.
373. Bekkers RL, Willemsen WN, Schijf CP, et al. Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata: does malignant transformation occur? A literature review. Gynecol Oncol 1999; 75: 158–163.
374. Baschinsky DY, Isa A, Niemann TH, et al. Diffuse leiomyomatosis of the uterus: a case report with clonality analysis. Hum Pathol 2000; 31: 1429–1432.
375. Mulvany NJ, Ostor AG, Ross I. Diffuse leiomyomatosis of the uterus. Histopathology 1995; 27: 175–179.
376. Roth LM, Reed RJ. Cotyledonoid leiomyoma of the uterus: report of a case. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2000; 19: 272–275.
377. Cheuk W, Chan JK, Liu JY. Cotyledonoid leiomyoma: a benign uterine tumor with alarming gross appearance. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2002; 126: 210–213.
378. Du J, Zhao X, Guo D, Li H, Sun B. Intravenous leiomyomatosis of the uterus: a clinicopathologic study of 18 cases, with emphasis on early diagnosis and appropriate treatment strategies. Hum Pathol 2011; 42: 1240–1246.
379. Gal AA, Brooks JS, Pietra GG. Leiomyomatous neoplasms of the lung: a clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical study. Mod Pathol 1989; 2: 209–216.
380. Gyure KA, Hart WR, Kennedy AW. Lymphangiomyomatosis of the uterus associated with tuberous sclerosis and malignant neoplasia of the female genital tract: a report of two cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1995; 14: 344–351.
381. Kang WD, Kim SM, Kim YH, Choi HS. Three isolated, large retroperitoneal leiomyomas. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2009; 280: 499–501.
382. Leren V, Langebrekke A, Qvigstad E. Parasitic leiomyomas after laparoscopic surgery with morcellation. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2012; 91: 1233–1236.
383. Yanazume S, Tsuji T, Yoshioka T, et al. Large parasitic myomas in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue along a previous myomectomy scar. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2012; 38: 875–879.
384. Cucinella G, Granese R, Calagna G, Somigliana E, Perino A. Parasitic myomas after laparoscopic surgery: an emerging complication in the use of morcellator? Description of four cases. Fertil Steril 2011; 96: e90–96.
385. Larrain D, Rabischong B, Khoo CK, et al. “Iatrogenic” parasitic myomas: unusual late complication of laparoscopic morcellation procedures. J Min Invas Gynecol 2010; 17: 719–724.
386. Nezhat C, Kho K. Iatrogenic myomas: new class of myomas? J Min Invas Gynecol 2010; 17: 544–550.
387. Harlow BL, Weiss NS, Lofton S. The epidemiology of sarcomas of the uterus. J Natl Cancer Inst 1986; 76: 399–402.
388. Mittal K, Popiolek D, Demopoulos RI. Uterine myxoid leiomyosarcoma within a leiomyoma. Hum Pathol 2000; 31: 398–400.
389. den Bakker MA, Hegt VN, Sleddens HB, Nuijten AS, Dinjens WN. Malignant mesenchymoma of the uterus, arising in a leiomyoma. Histopathology 2002; 40: 65–70.
390. Silverberg SG. Leiomyosarcoma of the uterus. A clinicopathologic study. Obstet Gynecol 1971; 38: 613–628.
391. Giuntoli RL II, Metzinger DS, DiMarco CS, et al. Retrospective review of 208 patients with leiomyosarcoma of the uterus: prognostic indicators, surgical management, and adjuvant therapy. Gynecol Oncol 2003; 89: 460–469.
392. Hart WR, Billman JK Jr. A reassessment of uterine neoplasms originally diagnosed as leiomyosarcomas. Cancer 1978; 41: 1902–1910.
393. Christopherson WM, Richardson M. Uterine mesenchymal tumors. Pathol Annu 1981; 16(Pt 1): 215–246.
394. Silverberg SG. Reproducibility of the mitosis count in the histologic diagnosis of smooth muscle tumors of the uterus. Hum Pathol 1976; 7: 451–454.
395. Hilsenbeck SG, Allred DC. Improved methods of estimating mitotic activity in solid tumors. Hum Pathol 1992; 23: 601–602.
396. Wang WL, Soslow R, Hensley M, et al. Histopathologic prognostic factors in stage I leiomyosarcoma of the uterus: a detailed analysis of 27 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 2011; 35: 522–529.
397. Coard KC, Fletcher HM. Leiomyosarcoma of the uterus with a florid intravascular component (“intravenous leiomyosarcomatosis”). Int J Gynecol Pathol 2002; 21: 182–185.
398. Veras E, Zivanovic O, Jacks L, et al. “Low-grade leiomyosarcoma” and late-recurring smooth muscle tumors of the uterus: a heterogenous collection of frequently misdiagnosed tumors associated with an overall favorable prognosis relative to conventional uterine leiomyosarcomas. Am J Surg Pathol 2011; 35: 1626–1637.
399. Atkins KA, Arronte N, Darus CJ, Rice LW. The use of p16 in enhancing the histologic classification of uterine smooth muscle tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 2008; 32: 98–102.
400. Chen L, Yang B. Immunohistochemical analysis of p16, p53, and Ki-67 expression in uterine smooth muscle tumors. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2008; 27: 326–332.
401. D’Angelo E, Spagnoli LG, Prat J. Comparative clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of uterine sarcomas diagnosed using the World Health Organization classification system. Hum Pathol 2009; 40: 1571–1585.
402. Zivanovic O, Jacks LM, Iasonos A, et al. A nomogram to predict postresection 5-year overall survival for patients with uterine leiomyosarcoma. Cancer 2012; 118: 660–669.
403. Garg G, Shah JP, Liu JR, et al. Validation of tumor size as staging variable in the revised International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I leiomyosarcoma: a population-based study. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2010; 20: 1201–1206.
404. Dafopoulos A, Tsikouras P, Dimitraki M, et al. The role of lymphadenectomy in uterine leiomyosarcoma: review of the literature and recommendations for the standard surgical procedure. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2010; 282: 293–300.
405. Kapp DS, Shin JY, Chan JK. Prognostic factors and survival in 1396 patients with uterine leiomyosarcomas: emphasis on impact of lymphadenectomy and oophorectomy. Cancer 2008; 112: 820–830.
406. Trope CG, Abeler VM, Kristensen GB. Diagnosis and treatment of sarcoma of the uterus. A review. Acta oncologica 2012; 51: 694–705.
407. King ME, Dickersin GR, Scully RE. Myxoid leiomyosarcoma of the uterus. A report of six cases. Am J Surg Pathol 1982; 6: 589–598.
408. Schneider D, Halperin R, Segal M, Maymon R, Bukovsky I. Myxoid leiomyosarcoma of the uterus with unusual malignant histologic pattern – a case report. Gynecol Oncol 1995; 59: 156–158.
409. Atkins K, Bell S, Kempson R, et al. Myxoid smooth muscle tumors of the uterus. Mod Pathol 2001; 14: 132A.
410. Burch DM, Tavassoli FA. Myxoid leiomyosarcoma of the uterus. Histopathology 2011; 59: 1144–1155.
411. Ip PP, Cheung AN, Clement PB. Uterine smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP): a clinicopathologic analysis of 16 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 2009; 33: 992–1005.
412. Guntupalli SR, Ramirez PT, Anderson ML, et al. Uterine smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential: a retrospective analysis. Gynecol Oncol 2009; 113: 324–326.
413. Ng JS, Han A, Chew SH, Low J. A clinicopathologic study of uterine smooth muscle tumours of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP). Ann Acad Med Singapore 2010; 39: 625–628.
414. Dionigi A, Oliva E, Clement PB, Young RH. Endometrial stromal nodules and endometrial stromal tumors with limited infiltration: a clinicopathologic study of 50 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 2002; 26: 567–581.
415. Tavassoli FA, Norris HJ. Mesenchymal tumours of the uterus. VII. A clinicopathological study of 60 endometrial stromal nodules. Histopathology 1981; 5: 1–10.
416. Chang KL, Crabtree GS, Lim-Tan SK, Kempson RL, Hendrickson MR. Primary uterine endometrial stromal neoplasms. A clinicopathologic study of 117 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 1990; 14: 415–438.
417. Evans HL. Endometrial stromal sarcoma and poorly differentiated endometrial sarcoma. Cancer 1982; 50: 2170–2182.
418. Muñoz AK, Berek JS, Fu YS, Heintz PA. Pelvic hemangiopericytomas: a report of five cases and literature review. Gynecol Oncol 1990; 36: 380–382.
419. Eddy GL, Mazur MT. Endolymphatic stromal myosis associated with tamoxifen use. Gynecol Oncol 1997; 64: 262–264.
420. McCluggage WG, Ganesan R, Herrington CS. Endometrial stromal sarcomas with extensive endometrioid glandular differentiation: report of a series with emphasis on the potential for misdiagnosis and discussion of the differential diagnosis. Histopathology 2009; 54: 365–373.
421. Clement PB, Scully RE. Endometrial stromal sarcomas of the uterus with extensive endometrioid glandular differentiation: a report of three cases that caused problems in differential diagnosis. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1992; 11: 163–173.
422. Clement PB, Scully RE. Uterine tumors with mixed epithelial and mesenchymal elements. Semin Diagn Pathol 1988; 5: 199–222.
423. Baker RJ, Hildebrandt RH, Rouse RV, Hendrickson MR, Longacre TA. Inhibin and CD99 (MIC2) expression in uterine stromal neoplasms with sex-cord-like elements. Hum Pathol 1999; 30: 671–679.
424. de Leval L, Lim GS, Waltregny D, Oliva E. Diverse phenotypic profile of uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors: an immunohistochemical study of 12 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 2010; 34: 1749–1761.
425. Chu PG, Arber DA, Weiss LM, Chang KL. Utility of CD10 in distinguishing between endometrial stromal sarcoma and uterine smooth muscle tumors: an immunohistochemical comparison of 34 cases. Mod Pathol 2001; 14: 465–471.
426. McCluggage WG, Sumathi VP, Maxwell P. CD10 is a sensitive and diagnostically useful immunohistochemical marker of normal endometrial stroma and of endometrial stromal neoplasms. Histopathology 2001; 39: 273–278.
427. Dunton CJ, Kelsten ML, Brooks SE, et al. Low-grade stromal sarcoma: DNA flow cytometric analysis and estrogen progesterone receptor data. Gynecol Oncol 1990; 37: 268–275.
428. Sabini G, Chumas JC, Mann WJ. Steroid hormone receptors in endometrial stromal sarcomas. A biochemical and immunohistochemical study. Am J Clin Pathol 1992; 97: 381–386.
429. Aubry MC, Myers JL, Colby TV, Leslie KO, Tazelaar HD. Endometrial stromal sarcoma metastatic to the lung: a detailed analysis of 16 patients. Am J Surg Pathol 2002; 26: 440–449.
430. Silverberg SG. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma: a rare but often puzzling diagnostic problem. Pathol Case Rev 2000; 5: 173–180.
431. Koontz JI, Soreng AL, Nucci M, et al. Frequent fusion of the JAZF1 and JJAZ1 genes in endometrial stromal tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001; 98: 6348–6353.
432. Micci F, Walter CU, Teixeira MR, et al. Cytogenetic and molecular genetic analyses of endometrial stromal sarcoma: nonrandom involvement of chromosome arms 6p and 7p and confirmation of JAZF1/JJAZ1 gene fusion in t(7;17). Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2003; 144: 119–124.
433. Nucci MR, Harburger D, Koontz J, Dal Cin P, Sklar J. Molecular analysis of the JAZF1–JJAZ1 gene fusion by RT-PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization in endometrial stromal neoplasms. Am J Surg Pathol 2007; 31: 65–70.
434. Li H, Wang J, Mor G, Sklar J. A neoplastic gene fusion mimics trans-splicing of RNAs in normal human cells. Science 2008; 321: 1357–1361.
435. Staats PN, Garcia JJ, Dias-Santagata DC, et al. Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCT) lack the JAZF1–JJAZ1 translocation frequently seen in endometrial stromal tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 2009; 33: 1206–1212.
436. Bartosch C, Exposito MI, Lopes JM. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma and undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma: a comparative analysis emphasizing the importance of distinguishing between these two groups. Int J Surg Pathol 2010; 18: 286–291.
437. Lee CH, Ou WB, Marino-Enriquez A, et al. 14–3–3 fusion oncogenes in high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2012; 109: 929–934.
438. Lee CH, Marino-Enriquez A, Ou W, et al. The clinicopathologic features of YWHAE–FAM22 endometrial stromal sarcomas: a histologically high-grade and clinically aggressive tumor. Am J Surg Pathol 2012; 36: 641–653.
439. Lee CH, Ali RH, Rouzbahman M, et al. Cyclin D1 as a diagnostic immunomarker for endometrial stromal sarcoma with YWHAE–FAM22 rearrangement. Am J Surg Pathol 2012; 36: 1562–1570.
440. Ohta Y, Suzuki T, Omatsu M, et al. Transition from low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma to high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2010; 29: 374–377.
441. Schick U, Bolukbasi Y, Thariat J, et al. Outcome and prognostic factors in endometrial stromal tumors: a Rare Cancer Network study. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 2012; 82: e757–763.
442. Gilks CB, Clement PB, Hart WR, Young RH. Uterine adenomyomas excluding atypical polypoid adenomyomas and adenomyomas of endocervical type: a clinicopathologic study of 30 cases of an underemphasized lesion that may cause diagnostic problems with brief consideration of adenomyomas of other female genital tract sites. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2000; 19: 195–205.
443. Tahlan A, Nanda A, Mohan H. Uterine adenomyoma: a clinicopathologic review of 26 cases and a review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2006; 25: 361–365.
444. Jakus S, Edmonds P, Dunton C, Holland G. Atypical polypoid adenomyoma mimicking cervical adenocarcinoma. J Low Genital Tract Dis 2002; 6: 33–38.
445. Heatley MK. Atypical polypoid adenomyoma: a systematic review of the English literature. Histopathology 2006; 48: 609–610.
446. McCluggage WG. Mullerian adenosarcoma of the female genital tract. Adv Anat Pathol 2010; 17: 122–129.
447. Zaloudek CJ, Norris HJ. Adenofibroma and adenosarcoma of the uterus: a clinicopathologic study of 35 cases. Cancer 1981; 48: 354–366.
448. Ali S, Wells M. Mixed Mullerian tumors of the uterine corpus: a review. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1993; 3: 1–11.
449. Clement PB, Oliva E, Young RH. Mullerian adenosarcoma of the uterine corpus associated with tamoxifen therapy: a report of six cases and a review of tamoxifen-associated endometrial lesions. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1996; 15: 222–229.
450. Clement PB, Scully RE. Mullerian adenosarcoma of the uterus: a clinicopathologic analysis of 100 cases with a review of the literature. Hum Pathol 1990; 21: 363–381.
451. Kaku T, Silverberg SG, Major FJ, et al. Adenosarcoma of the uterus: a Gynecologic Oncology Group clinicopathologic study of 31 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1992; 11: 75–88.
452. Clement PB, Scully RE. Mullerian adenosarcoma of the uterus. A clinicopathologic analysis of ten cases of a distinctive type of mullerian mixed tumor. Cancer 1974; 34: 1138–1149.
453. Kaku T, Ogawa S, Ariyoshi K, Amada S, Nakano H. Adenosarcoma of the uterus with sarcomatous overgrowth. Pathol Case Rev 2000; 5: 168–172.
454. Krivak TC, Seidman JD, McBroom JW, et al. Uterine adenosarcoma with sarcomatous overgrowth versus uterine carcinosarcoma: comparison of treatment and survival. Gynecol Oncol 2001; 83: 89–94.
455. Arend R, Bagaria M, Lewin SN, et al. Long-term outcome and natural history of uterine adenosarcomas. Gynecol Oncol 2010; 119: 305–308.
456. Silverberg SG. Mixed mullerian tumors. Curr Top Pathol 1992; 85: 35–56.
457. Silverberg SG, Major FJ, Blessing JA, et al. Carcinosarcoma (malignant mixed mesodermal tumor) of the uterus. A Gynecologic Oncology Group pathologic study of 203 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1990; 9: 1–19.
458. McCluggage WG, Haller U, Kurman RJ, Kubik-Huch RA. Mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumours. In: Tavassoli FA, Devilee P, eds. World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Tumours of the Breast and Female Genital Organs. Lyon: IARC; 2003: pp. 245–249.
459. Sreenan JJ, Hart WR. Carcinosarcomas of the female genital tract. A pathologic study of 29 metastatic tumors: further evidence for the dominant role of the epithelial component and the conversion theory of histogenesis. Am J Surg Pathol 1995; 19: 666–674.
460. McCluggage WG, Abdulkader M, Price JH, et al. Uterine carcinosarcomas in patients receiving tamoxifen. A report of 19 cases. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2000; 10: 280–284.
461. Jonson AL, Bliss RL, Truskinovsky A, et al. Clinical features and outcomes of uterine and ovarian carcinosarcoma. Gynecol Oncol 2006; 100: 561–564.
462. Wada H, Enomoto T, Fujita M, et al. Molecular evidence that most but not all carcinosarcomas of the uterus are combination tumors. Cancer Res 1997; 57: 5379–5385.
463. McCluggage WG. Malignant biphasic uterine tumours: carcinosarcomas or metaplastic carcinomas? J Clin Pathol 2002; 55: 321–325.
464. Yoshida Y, Kurokawa T, Fukuno N, et al. Markers of apoptosis and angiogenesis indicate that carcinomatous components play an important role in the malignant behavior of uterine carcinosarcoma. Hum Pathol 2000; 31: 1448–1454.
465. Bitterman P, Chun B, Kurman RJ. The significance of epithelial differentiation in mixed mesodermal tumors of the uterus. A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study. Am J Surg Pathol 1990; 14: 317–328.
466. de Brito PA, Silverberg SG, Orenstein JM. Carcinosarcoma (malignant mixed mullerian (mesodermal) tumor) of the female genital tract: immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis of 28 cases. Hum Pathol 1993; 24: 132–142.
467. Amant F, de la Rey M, Dorfling CM, et al. PTEN mutations in uterine sarcomas. Gynecol Oncol 2002; 85: 165–169.
468. Fujii H, Yoshida M, Gong ZX, et al. Frequent genetic heterogeneity in the clonal evolution of gynecological carcinosarcoma and its influence on phenotypic diversity. Cancer Res 2000; 60: 114–120.
469. Curtin JP, Blessing JA, Soper JT, DeGeest K. Paclitaxel in the treatment of carcinosarcoma of the uterus: a gynecologic oncology group study. Gynecol Oncol 2001; 83: 268–270.
470. Manolitsas TP, Wain GV, Williams KE, Freidlander M, Hacker NF. Multimodality therapy for patients with clinical Stage I and II malignant mixed Mullerian tumors of the uterus. Cancer 2001; 91: 1437–1443.
471. Galaal K, Kew FM, Tam KF, et al. Evaluation of prognostic factors and treatment outcomes in uterine carcinosarcoma. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2009; 143: 88–92.
472. Rovirosa A, Ascaso C, Ordi J, et al. Is vascular and lymphatic space invasion a main prognostic factor in uterine neoplasms with a sarcomatous component? A retrospective study of prognostic factors of 60 patients stratified by stages. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 2002; 52: 1320–1329.
473. Yamada SD, Burger RA, Brewster WR, et al. Pathologic variables and adjuvant therapy as predictors of recurrence and survival for patients with surgically evaluated carcinosarcoma of the uterus. Cancer 2000; 88: 2782–2786.
474. Arrastia CD, Fruchter RG, Clark M, et al. Uterine carcinosarcomas: incidence and trends in management and survival. Gynecol Oncol 1997; 65: 158–163.
475. Gonzalez Bosquet J, Terstriep SA, Cliby WA, et al. The impact of multi-modal therapy on survival for uterine carcinosarcomas. Gynecol Oncol 2010; 116: 419–423.
476. Nogales FF, Isaac MA, Hardisson D, et al. Adenomatoid tumors of the uterus: an analysis of 60 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2002; 21: 34–40.
477. Livingston EG, Guis MS, Pearl ML, Stern JL, Brescia RJ. Diffuse adenomatoid tumor of the uterus with a serosal papillary cystic component. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1992; 11: 288–292.
478. Honore LH. Uterine mesothelioma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1979; 135: 162.
479. Vang R, Kempson RL. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (‘PEComa’) of the uterus: a subset of HMB-45-positive epithelioid mesenchymal neoplasms with an uncertain relationship to pure smooth muscle tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 2002; 26: 1–13.
480. Folpe AL, Mentzel T, Lehr HA, et al. Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms of soft tissue and gynecologic origin: a clinicopathologic study of 26 cases and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol 2005; 29: 1558–1575.
481. Fadare O. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) of the uterus: an outcome-based clinicopathologic analysis of 41 reported cases. Adv Anat Pathol 2008; 15: 63–75.
482. Yaegashi H, Moriya T, Soeda S, et al. Uterine angiomyolipoma: case report and review of the literature. Pathol Int 2001; 51: 896–901.
483. McCluggage WG, Lioe TF, McClelland HR, Lamki H. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterus: report of two cases, including one of the spindle cell variant. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2002; 12: 128–132.
484. Su M, Tokairin T, Nishikawa Y, et al. Primary osteosarcoma of the uterine corpus: case report and review of the literature. Pathol Int 2002; 52: 158–163.
485. Ferry JA, Young RH. Malignant lymphoma, pseudolymphoma, and hematopoietic disorders of the female genital tract. Pathol Annu 1991; 26(Pt 1): 227–263.
486. Vang R, Medeiros LJ, Ha CS, Deavers M. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas involving the uterus: a clinicopathologic analysis of 26 cases. Mod Pathol 2000; 13: 19–28.
487. Ferry JA, Harris NL, Scully RE. Uterine leiomyomas with lymphoid infiltration simulating lymphoma. A report of seven cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1989; 8: 263–270.
488. Young RH, Harris NL, Scully RE. Lymphoma-like lesions of the lower female genital tract: a report of 16 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1985; 4: 289–299.