Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: March 2015

Chapter 24 - The esophagus

References

1. Kluth D, Fiegel H. The embryology of the foregut. Semin Pediatr Surg 2003; 12(1): 3–9.
2. Russo P, Huff D. Congenital and developmental disorders of the GI tract. In: Odze RD, Goldblum JR, eds. Surgical Pathology of the GI Tract, Liver, Biliary Tract, and Pancreas, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2009: pp. 145–168.
3. Mittal RK, Balaban DH. The esophagogastric junction. N Engl J Med 1997; 336(13): 924–932.
4. Tateishi R, Taniguchi H, Wada A, Horai T, Taniguchi K. Argyrophil cells and melanocytes in esophageal mucosa. Arch Pathol 1974; 98(2): 87–89.
5. Wang HH, Jonasson JG, Ducatman BS. Brushing cytology of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Obsolete or not? Acta Cytol 1991; 35(2): 195–198.
6. Tobin RW. Esophageal rings, webs, and diverticula. J Clin Gastroenterol 1998; 27(4): 285–295.
7. Spitz L. Esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula in children. Curr Opin Pediatr 1993; 5(3): 347–352.
8. Brown AK, Roddam AW, Spitz L, Ward SJ. Oesophageal atresia, related malformations, and medical problems: a family study. Am J Med Genet 1999; 85(1): 31–37.
9. Chittmittrapap S, Spitz L, Kiely EM, Brereton RJ. Oesophageal atresia and associated anomalies. Arch Dis Child 1989; 64(3): 364–368.
10. Martinez-Frias ML, Frias JL. VACTERL as primary, polytopic developmental field defects. Am J Med Genet 1999; 83(1): 13–16.
11. Achildi O, Grewal H. Congenital anomalies of the esophagus. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2007; 40(1): 219–244, viii.
12. Vasudevan SA, Kerendi F, Lee H, Ricketts RR. Management of congenital esophageal stenosis. J Pediatr Surg 2002; 37(7): 1024–1026.
13. Dimmick JE, Hardwick DF. Gastrointestinal system and exocrine pancreas. In: Dimmick JE, Kalousek DK, eds. Developmental Pathology of the Embryo and Fetus. Philadelphia, PA: JB Lipincott; 1992: pp. 509–544.
14. Schatzki R, Gary JE. Dysphagia due to diaphragm-like narrowing in the lower esophagus (‘lower esophageal ring’). Am J Roentgenol Rad Therapy Nuclear Med 1956; 75: 246–261.
15. Atmatzidis K, Papaziogas B, Pavlidis T, Mirelis C, Papaziogas T. Plummer–Vinson syndrome. Dis Esophagus 2003; 16(2): 154–157.
16. Hillemeier C, Touloukian R, McCallum R, Gryboski J. Esophageal web: a previously unrecognized complication of epidermolysis bullosa. Pediatrics 1981; 67(5): 678–682.
17. Snyder CL, Bickler SW, Gittes GK, Ramachandran V, Ashcraft KW. Esophageal duplication cyst with esophageal web and tracheoesophageal fistula. J Pediatr Surg 1996; 31(7): 968–969.
18. McDonald GB, Sullivan KM, Schuffler MD, Shulman HM, Thomas ED. Esophageal abnormalities in chronic graft-versus-host disease in humans. Gastroenterology 1981; 80(5 pt 1): 914–921.
19. Allen MS. Pharyngoesophageal diverticulum: technique of repair. Chest Surg Clin N Am 1995; 5(3): 449–458.
20. D’Journo XB, Ferraro P, Martin J, Chen LQ, Duranceau A. Lower oesophageal sphincter dysfunction is part of the functional abnormality in epiphrenic diverticulum. Br J Surg 2009; 96(8): 892–900.
21. Sabanathan S, Salama FD, Morgan WE. Oesophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis. Thorax 1985; 40(11): 849–857.
22. Weickert U, Wolf A, Schroder C, Autschbach F, Vollmer H. Frequency, histopathological findings, and clinical significance of cervical heterotopic gastric mucosa (gastric inlet patch): a prospective study in 300 patients. Dis Esophagus 2011; 24(2): 63–68.
23. Bard A, Coton T, De Biasi C, Guisset M. Adenocarcinoma of the upper esophagus. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2011; 35(5): 418–419.
24. Georges A, Coopman S, Rebeuh J, et al. Inlet patch: clinical presentation and outcome in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2011; 52(4): 419–423.
25. Bertoni G, Sassatelli R, Nigrisoli E, Conigliaro R, Bedogni G. Ectopic sebaceous glands in the esophagus: report of three new cases and review of the literature. Am J Gastroenterol 1994; 89(10): 1884–1887.
26. Wang HH, Zeroogian JM, Spechler SJ, Goyal RK, Antonioli DA. Prevalence and significance of pancreatic acinar metaplasia at the gastroesophageal junction. Am J Surg Pathol 1996; 20(12): 1507–1510.
27. Johansson J, Hakansson HO, Mellblom L, et al. Pancreatic acinar metaplasia in the distal oesophagus and the gastric cardia: prevalence, predictors and relation to GORD. J Gastroenterol 2010; 45(3): 291–299.
28. Mayberry JF. Epidemiology and demographics of achalasia. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am 2001; 11(2): 235–248, v.
29. Verne GN, Sallustio JE, Eaker EY. Anti-myenteric neuronal antibodies in patients with achalasia. A prospective study. Dig Dis Sci 1997; 42(2): 307–313.
30. Bruley des Varannes S, Chevalier J, Pimont S, et al. Serum from achalasia patients alters neurochemical coding in the myenteric plexus and nitric oxide mediated motor response in normal human fundus. Gut 2006; 55(3): 319–326.
31. Robertson CS, Martin BA, Atkinson M. Varicella-zoster virus DNA in the oesophageal myenteric plexus in achalasia. Gut 1993; 34(3): 299–302.
32. Goldblum JR, Whyte RI, Orringer MB, Appelman HD. Achalasia. A morphologic study of 42 resected specimens. Am J Surg Pathol 1994; 18(4): 327–337.
33. Peracchia A, Segalin A, Bardini R, et al. Esophageal carcinoma and achalasia: prevalence, incidence and results of treatment. Hepatogastroenterology 1991; 38(6): 514–516.
34. Liu W, Fackler W, Rice TW, et al. The pathogenesis of pseudoachalasia: a clinicopathologic study of 13 cases of a rare entity. Am J Surg Pathol 2002; 26(6): 784–788.
35. Rassi A Jr, Rassi A, Marin-Neto JA. Chagas disease. Lancet 2010; 375(9723): 1388–1402.
36. Palma R, Freire A, Freitas J, et al. Esophageal motility disorders in patients with Sjogren’s syndrome. Dig Dis Sci 1994; 39(4): 758–761.
37. Tada S, Iida M, Iwashita A, et al. Endoscopic and biopsy findings of the upper digestive tract in patients with amyloidosis. Gastrointest Endosc 1990; 36(1): 10–14.
38. Fitzgerald RC, Triadafilopoulos G. Esophageal manifestations of rheumatic disorders. Semin Arthritis Rheum 1997; 26(4): 641–666.
39. Weston S, Thumshirn M, Wiste J, Camilleri M. Clinical and upper gastrointestinal motility features in systemic sclerosis and related disorders. Am J Gastroenterol 1998; 93(7): 1085–1089.
40. Cozzi F, Zucchetta P, Durigon N, et al. [Changes in esophageal peristalsis in diverse clinical forms and antibody specificity in scleroderma: a scintigraphic study in 100 cases]. Reumatismo 2003; 55(2): 86–92.
41. Brais B, Xie YG, Sanson M, et al. The oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy locus maps to the region of the cardiac alpha and beta myosin heavy chain genes on chromosome 14q11.2-q13. Hum Mol Genet 1995; 4(3): 429–434.
42. Spechler SJ, Castell DO. Classification of oesophageal motility abnormalities. Gut 2001; 49(1): 145–151.
43. Melzer E, Tiomny A, Coret A, Bar-Meir S. Nutcracker esophagus: severe muscular hypertrophy on endosonography. Gastrointest Endosc 1995; 42(4): 366–367.
44. Manzia TM, Gravante G, Di Paolo D, et al. Liver transplantation for the treatment of nodular regenerative hyperplasia. Dig Liver Dis 2011; 43: 929–934.
45. Tsochatzis EA, Triantos CK, Garcovich M, Burroughs AK. Primary prevention of variceal hemorrhage. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2011; 13(1): 3–9.
46. Eroglu A, Can Kurkcuogu I, Karaoganogu N, et al. Esophageal perforation: the importance of early diagnosis and primary repair. Dis Esophagus 2004; 17(1): 91–94.
47. Jougon J, Mc Bride T, Delcambre F, Minniti A, Velly JF. Primary esophageal repair for Boerhaave’s syndrome whatever the free interval between perforation and treatment. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2004; 25(4): 475–479.
48. Vakil N. Disease definition, clinical manifestations, epidemiology and natural history of GERD. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2010; 24(6): 759–764.
49. Knuff TE, Benjamin SB, Worsham GF, Hancock JE, Castell DO. Histologic evaluation of chronic gastroesophageal reflux. An evaluation of biopsy methods and diagnostic criteria. Dig Dis Sci 1984; 29(3): 194–201.
50. Tummala V, Barwick KW, Sontag SJ, Vlahcevic RZ, McCallum RW. The significance of intraepithelial eosinophils in the histologic diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux. Am J Clin Pathol 1987; 87(1): 43–48.
51. Johnson LF, Demeester TR, Haggitt RC. Esophageal epithelial response to gastroesophageal reflux. A quantitative study. Am J Dig Dis 1978; 23(6): 498–509.
52. Singh SP, Odze RD. Multinucleated epithelial giant cell changes in esophagitis: a clinicopathologic study of 14 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 1998; 22(1): 93–99.
53. Geboes K, Desmet V, Vantrappen G, Mebis J. Vascular changes in the esophageal mucosa. An early histologic sign of esophagitis. Gastrointest Endosc 1980; 26(2): 29–32.
54. Collins BJ, Elliott H, Sloan JM, McFarland RJ, Love AH. Oesophageal histology in reflux oesophagitis. J Clin Pathol 1985; 38(11): 1265–1272.
55. Brown LF, Goldman H, Antonioli DA. Intraepithelial eosinophils in endoscopic biopsies of adults with reflux esophagitis. Am J Surg Pathol 1984; 8(12): 899–905.
56. Orenstein SR. Gastroesophageal reflux. Curr Probl Pediatr 1991; 21(5): 193–241.
57. Wang HH, Mangano MM, Antonioli DA. Evaluation of T-lymphocytes in esophageal mucosal biopsies. Mod Pathol 1994; 7(1): 55–58.
58. Shekitka KM, Helwig EB. Deceptive bizarre stromal cells in polyps and ulcers of the gastrointestinal tract. Cancer 1991; 67(8): 2111–2117.
59. Teot LA, Geisinger KR. Diagnostic esophageal cytology and its histologi basis. In: Castell DO, ed. The Esophagus, 2nd edn. Boston, MA: Little, Brown; 1995: pp. 179–204.
60. Hoover L, Berman JJ. Epithelial repair versus carcinoma in esophageal brush cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 1988; 4(3): 217–223.
61. Hetzel DJ, Dent J, Reed WD, et al. Healing and relapse of severe peptic esophagitis after treatment with omeprazole. Gastroenterology 1988; 95(4): 903–912.
62. Prasad M, Rentz AM, Revicki DA. The impact of treatment for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease on health-related quality of life: a literature review. Pharmacoeconomics 2003; 21(11): 769–790.
63. Mardani J, Lundell L, Engstrom C. Total or posterior partial fundoplication in the treatment of GERD: results of a randomized trial after 2 decades of follow-up. Ann Surg 2011; 253(5): 875–878.
64. Kodsi BE, Wickremesinghe C, Kozinn PJ, Iswara K, Goldberg PK. Candida esophagitis: a prospective study of 27 cases. Gastroenterology 1976; 71(5): 715–719.
65. Wilcox CM, Karowe MW. Esophageal infections: etiology, diagnosis, and management. Gastroenterologist 1994; 2(3): 188–206.
66. Pappas PG, Rex JH, Sobel JD, et al. Guidelines for treatment of candidiasis. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 38(2): 161–189.
67. Hector RF, Bierer DE. New beta-glucan inhibitors as antifungal drugs. Expert Opin Ther Pat 2011; 21: 1597–1610.
68. Hata K, Horii T, Miyazaki M, et al. Efficacy of oral E1210, a new broad-spectrum antifungal with a novel mechanism of action, in murine models of candidiasis, aspergillosis, and fusariosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2011; 55: 4543–4551.
69. Arathoon EG, Gotuzzo E, Noriega LM, et al. Randomized, double-blind, multicenter study of caspofungin versus amphotericin B for treatment of oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiases. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002; 46(2): 451–457.
70. Wagner C, Graninger W, Presterl E, Joukhadar C. The echinocandins: comparison of their pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and clinical applications. Pharmacology 2006; 78(4): 161–177.
71. Rodrigues F, Brandao N, Duque V, Ribeiro C, Antonio AM. Herpes simplex virus esophagitis in immunocompetent children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2004; 39(5): 560–563.
72. Ramanathan J, Rammouni M, Baran J Jr, Khatib R. Herpes simplex virus esophagitis in the immunocompetent host: an overview. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95(9): 2171–2176.
73. Greenson JK, Beschorner WE, Boitnott JK, Yardley JH. Prominent mononuclear cell infiltrate is characteristic of herpes esophagitis. Hum Pathol 1991; 22(6): 541–549.
74. Bonacini M, Young T, Laine L. The causes of esophageal symptoms in human immunodeficiency virus infection. A prospective study of 110 patients. Arch Intern Med 1991; 151(8): 1567–1572.
75. Siegmund B, Moos V, Loddenkemper C, et al. Esophageal giant ulcer in primary human immunodeficiency virus infection is associated with an infiltration of activated T cells. Scand J Gastroenterol 2007; 42(7): 890–895.
76. Borges MC, Colares JK, Lima DM, Fonseca BA. Advantages and pitfalls of the polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of esophageal ulcers in AIDS patients. Dig Dis Sci 2009; 54(9): 1933–1939.
77. Kitchen VS, Helbert M, Francis ND, et al. Epstein–Barr virus associated oesophageal ulcers in AIDS. Gut 1990; 31(11): 1223–1225.
78. Walsh TJ, Belitsos NJ, Hamilton SR. Bacterial esophagitis in immunocompromised patients. Arch Intern Med 1986; 146(7): 1345–1348.
79. Welzel TM, Kawan T, Bohle W, et al. An unusual cause of dysphagia: esophageal tuberculosis. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis 2010; 19(3): 321–324.
80. Sutton FM, Graham DY, Goodgame RW. Infectious esophagitis. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am 1994; 4(4): 713–729.
81. Fucci JC, Nightengale ML. Primary esophageal histoplasmosis. Am J Gastroenterol 1997; 92(3): 530–531.
82. Abraham SC, Cruz-Correa M, Lee LA, Yardley JH, Wu TT. Alendronate-associated esophageal injury: pathologic and endoscopic features. Mod Pathol 1999; 12(12): 1152–1157.
83. Kadayifci A, Gulsen MT, Koruk M, Savas MC. Doxycycline-induced pill esophagitis. Dis Esophagus 2004; 17(2): 168–171.
84. Abraham SC, Yardley JH, Wu TT. Erosive injury to the upper gastrointestinal tract in patients receiving iron medication: an underrecognized entity. Am J Surg Pathol 1999; 23(10): 1241–1247.
85. Semble EL, Wu WC, Castell DO. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and esophageal injury. Semin Arthritis Rheum 1989; 19(2): 99–109.
86. Boyce HW Jr. Drug-induced esophageal damage: diseases of medical progress. Gastrointest Endosc 1998; 47(6): 547–550.
87. Werner-Wasik M, Paulus R, Curran WJ Jr, Byhardt R. Acute esophagitis and late lung toxicity in concurrent chemoradiotherapy trials in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: analysis of the radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) database. Clin Lung Cancer 2011; 12(4): 245–251.
88. Straumann A, Simon HU. Eosinophilic esophagitis: escalating epidemiology? J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005; 115(2): 418–419.
89. Antonioli DA, Furuta GT. Allergic eosinophilic esophagitis: a primer for pathologists. Semin Diagn Pathol 2005; 22(4): 266–272.
90. Almansa C, Devault KR, Achem SR. A comprehensive review of eosinophilic esophagitis in adults. J Clin Gastroenterol 2011; 45(8): 658–664.
91. Blanchard C, Wang N, Stringer KF, et al. Eotaxin-3 and a uniquely conserved gene-expression profile in eosinophilic esophagitis. J Clin Invest 2006; 116(2): 536–547.
92. Blanchard C, Stucke EM, Rodriguez-Jimenez B, et al. A striking local esophageal cytokine expression profile in eosinophilic esophagitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2011; 127(1): 208–217.
93. Potter JW, Saeian K, Staff D, et al. Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults: an emerging problem with unique esophageal features. Gastrointest Endosc 2004; 59(3): 355–361.
94. Liacouras CA, Spergel JM, Ruchelli E, et al. Eosinophilic esophagitis: a 10-year experience in 381 children. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005; 3(12): 1198–1206.
95. Li-Kim-Moy JP, Tobias V, Day AS, Leach S, Lemberg DA. Esophageal subepithelial fibrosis and hyalinization are features of eosinophilic esophagitis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2011; 52(2): 147–153.
96. Furuta GT, Liacouras CA, Collins MH, et al. Eosinophilic esophagitis in children and adults: a systematic review and consensus recommendations for diagnosis and treatment. Gastroenterology 2007; 133(4): 1342–1363.
97. Faubion WA Jr, Perrault J, Burgart LJ, et al. Treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis with inhaled corticosteroids. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1998; 27(1): 90–93.
98. Stumphy J, Al-Zubeidi D, Guerin L, Mitros F, Rahhal R. Observations on use of montelukast in pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis: insights for the future. Dis Esophagus 2011; 24(4): 229–234.
99. Assa’ad AH, Gupta SK, Collins MH, et al. An antibody against IL-5 reduces numbers of esophageal intraepithelial eosinophils in children with eosinophilic esophagitis. Gastroenterology 2011; 141: 1593–1604.
100. Francalanci P, De Angelis P, Minnei F, et al. Eosinophilic esophagitis and Barrett’s esophagus: an occasional association or an overlap disease? Esophageal ‘double trouble’ in two children. Digestion 2008; 77(1): 16–19.
101. Rubio CA, Sjodahl K, Lagergren J. Lymphocytic esophagitis: a histologic subset of chronic esophagitis. Am J Clin Pathol 2006; 125(3): 432–437.
102. Ebach DR, Vanderheyden AD, Ellison JM, Jensen CS. Lymphocytic esophagitis: a possible manifestation of pediatric upper gastrointestinal Crohn’s disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2011; 17(1): 45–49.
103. Purdy JK, Appelman HD, Golembeski CP, McKenna BJ. Lymphocytic esophagitis: a chronic or recurring pattern of esophagitis resembling allergic contact dermatitis. Am J Clin Pathol 2008; 130(4): 508–513.
104. Lamireau T, Leaute-Labreze C, Le Bail B, Taieb A. Esophageal involvement in Stevens–Johnson syndrome. Endoscopy 2001; 33(6): 550–553.
105. Stewart MI, Woodley DT, Briggaman RA. Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita and associated symptomatic esophageal webs. Arch Dermatol 1991; 127(3): 373–377.
106. Wise JL, Murray JA. Esophageal manifestations of dermatologic disease. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2002; 4(3): 205–212.
107. Abraham SC, Ravich WJ, Anhalt GJ, Yardley JH, Wu TT. Esophageal lichen planus: case report and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol 2000; 24(12): 1678–1682.
108. Gomi H, Akiyama M, Yakabi K, Nakamura T, Matsuo I. Oesophageal involvement in pemphigus vulgaris. Lancet 1999; 354(9192): 1794.
109. Fukuchi M, Otake S, Naitoh H, et al. A case of exfoliative esophagitis with pemphigus vulgaris. Dis Esophagus 2011; 24(3): E23–25.
110. Shields HM, Shaffer K, O’Farrell RP, et al. Gastrointestinal manifestations of dermatologic disorders. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007; 5(9): 1010–1017; quiz 1005–1006.
111. Sodhi SS, Srinivasan R, Thomas RM. Esophageal graft versus host disease. Gastrointest Endosc 2000; 52(2): 235.
112. Minocha A, Mandanas RA, Kida M, Jazzar A. Bullous esophagitis due to chronic graft-versus-host disease. Am J Gastroenterol 1997; 92(3): 529–530.
113. Shulman HM, Kleiner D, Lee SJ, et al. Histopathologic diagnosis of chronic graft-versus-host disease: National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Project on Criteria for Clinical Trials in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease: II. Pathology Working Group Report. Biol Blood Marrow Transpl 2006; 12(1): 31–47.
114. Hokama A, Yamamoto Y, Taira K, et al. Esophagitis dissecans superficialis and autoimmune bullous dermatoses: a review. World J Gastrointest Endosc 2010; 2(7): 252–256.
115. Nakshabendi IM, Maldonado ME, Coppola D, Mamel JJ. Esophageal cast: a manifestation of graft-versus-host disease. Dig Dis 2000; 18(2): 103–105.
116. Carmack SW, Vemulapalli R, Spechler SJ, Genta RM. Esophagitis dissecans superficialis (“sloughing esophagitis”): a clinicopathologic study of 12 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 2009; 33(12): 1789–1794.
117. Decker GA, Loftus EV Jr, Pasha TM, Tremaine WJ, Sandborn WJ. Crohn’s disease of the esophagus: clinical features and outcomes. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2001; 7(2): 113–119.
118. Coriat R, Mozer M, Caux E, et al. Endoscopic findings in Cowden syndrome. Endoscopy 2011; 43(8): 723–726.
119. Politoske EJ. Squamous papilloma of the esophagus associated with the human papillomavirus. Gastroenterology 1992; 102(2): 668–673.
120. Odze R, Antonioli D, Shocket D, et al. Esophageal squamous papillomas. A clinicopathologic study of 38 lesions and analysis for human papillomavirus by the polymerase chain reaction. Am J Surg Pathol 1993; 17(8): 803–812.
121. Abraham SC, Singh VK, Yardley JH, Wu TT. Hyperplastic polyps of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction: histologic and clinicopathologic findings. Am J Surg Pathol 2001; 25(9): 1180–1187.
122. Chen ZM, Scudiere JR, Abraham SC, Montgomery E. Pyloric gland adenoma: an entity distinct from gastric foveolar type adenoma. Am J Surg Pathol 2009; 33(2): 186–193.
123. Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, et al. Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 2011; 61(2): 69–90.
124. Ribeiro U Jr, Posner MC, Safatle-Ribeiro AV, Reynolds JC. Risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus. Br J Surg 1996; 83(9): 1174–1185.
125. Wei WQ, Abnet CC, Lu N, et al. Risk factors for oesophageal squamous dysplasia in adult inhabitants of a high risk region of China. Gut 2005; 54(6): 759–763.
126. Dawsey SM, Fleischer DE, Wang GQ, et al. Mucosal iodine staining improves endoscopic visualization of squamous dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in Linxian, China. Cancer 1998; 83(2): 220–231.
127. Shimizu Y, Omori T, Yokoyama A, et al. Endoscopic diagnosis of early squamous neoplasia of the esophagus with iodine staining: high-grade intra-epithelial neoplasia turns pink within a few minutes. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008; 23: 546–550.
128. Liu H, Li YQ, Yu T, et al. Confocal endomicroscopy for in vivo detection of microvascular architecture in normal and malignant lesions of upper gastrointestinal tract. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008; 23: 56–61.
129. Devlin S, Falck V, Urbanski SJ, Mitchell P, Romagnuolo J. Verrucous carcinoma of the esophagus eluding multiple sets of endoscopic biopsies and endoscopic ultrasound: a case report and review of the literature. Can J Gastroenterol 2004; 18(7): 459–462.
130. Zhang XH, Sun GQ, Zhou XJ, Guo HF, Zhang TH. Basaloid squamous carcinoma of esophagus: a clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study of sixteen cases. World J Gastroenterol 1998; 4(5): 397–403.
131. Lauwers GY, Grant LD, Scott GV, Carr NJ, Sobin LH. Spindle cell squamous carcinoma of the esophagus: analysis of ploidy and tumor proliferative activity in a series of 13 cases. Hum Pathol 1998; 29(8): 863–868.
132. Kwatra KS, Prabhakar BR, Jain S, Grewal JS. Sarcomatoid carcinoma (carcinosarcoma) of the esophagus with extensive areas of osseous differentiation: a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2003; 46(1): 49–51.
133. Angulo-Pernett F, Smythe WR. Primary lymphoepithelioma of the esophagus. Ann Thorac Surg 2003; 76(2): 603–605.
134. Cao W, Chen X, Dai H, et al. Mutational spectra of p53 in geographically localized esophageal squamous cell carcinoma groups in China. Cancer 2004; 101(4): 834–844.
135. Metzger R, Schneider PM, Warnecke-Eberz U, Brabender J, Holscher AH. Molecular biology of esophageal cancer. Onkologie 2004; 27(2): 200–206.
136. Lu N, Hu N, Li WJ, et al. Microsatellite alterations in esophageal dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma from laser capture microdissected endoscopic biopsies. Cancer Lett 2003; 189(2): 137–145.
137. Yu HP, Xu SQ, Liu L, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in squamous dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Cancer Lett 2003; 198(2): 193–201.
138. Takeuchi H, Ozawa S, Shih CH, et al. Loss of p16INK4a expression is associated with vascular endothelial growth factor expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Int J Cancer 2004; 109(4): 483–490.
139. Samantaray S, Sharma R, Chattopadhyaya TK, Gupta SD, Ralhan R. Increased expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2004; 130(1): 37–44.
140. Zhang W, Wang L, Chang A, Jin Y, Rao J. Immunohistochemical analysis of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in premalignant and malignant esophageal glandular and squamous lesions in Cixian, China. Cancer Detect Prev 2003; 27(4): 243–249.
141. Maaser K, Daubler P, Barthel B, et al. Oesophageal squamous cell neoplasia in head and neck cancer patients: upregulation of COX-2 during carcinogenesis. Br J Cancer 2003; 88(8): 1217–1222.
142. Fang MZ, Liu C, Song Y, et al. Over-expression of gastrin-releasing peptide in human esophageal squamous cell carcinomas. Carcinogenesis 2004; 25(6): 865–871.
143. Farhadi M, Tahmasebi Z, Merat S, et al. Human papillomavirus in squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus in a high-risk population. World J Gastroenterol 2005; 11(8): 1200–1203.
144. Wang GQ, Abnet CC, Shen Q, et al. Histological precursors of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma: results from a 13 year prospective follow up study in a high risk population. Gut 2005; 54(2): 187–192.
145. Esophagus and esophagogastric junction. In: Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al., eds. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, 7th edn. New York, NY: Springer; 2010: pp. 103–115.
146. Sampliner RE. Updated guidelines for the diagnosis, surveillance, and therapy of Barrett’s esophagus. Am J Gastroenterol 2002; 97(8): 1888–1895.
147. Harrison R, Perry I, Haddadin W, et al. Detection of intestinal metaplasia in Barrett’s esophagus: an observational comparator study suggests the need for a minimum of eight biopsies. Am J Gastroenterol 2007; 102(6): 1154–1161.
148. Yantiss RK, Odze RD. Optimal approach to obtaining mucosal biopsies for assessment of inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Am J Gastroenterol 2009; 104(3): 774–783.
149. Rex DK, Cummings OW, Shaw M, et al. Screening for Barrett’s esophagus in colonoscopy patients with and without heartburn. Gastroenterology 2003; 125(6): 1670–1677.
150. Weston AP, Sharma P, Mathur S, et al. Risk stratification of Barrett’s esophagus: updated prospective multivariate analysis. Am J Gastroenterol 2004; 99(9): 1657–1666.
151. Chaves P, Cardoso P, de Almeida JC, et al. Non-goblet cell population of Barrett’s esophagus: an immunohistochemical demonstration of intestinal differentiation. Hum Pathol 1999; 30(11): 1291–1295.
152. DeMeester SR, Wickramasinghe KS, Lord RV, et al. Cytokeratin and DAS-1 immunostaining reveal similarities among cardiac mucosa, CIM, and Barrett’s esophagus. Am J Gastroenterol 2002; 97(10): 2514–2523.
153. Groisman GM, Amar M, Meir A. Expression of the intestinal marker Cdx2 in the columnar-lined esophagus with and without intestinal (Barrett’s) metaplasia. Mod Pathol 2004; 17(10): 1282–1288.
154. Hahn HP, Blount PL, Ayub K, et al. Intestinal differentiation in metaplastic, nongoblet columnar epithelium in the esophagus. Am J Surg Pathol 2009; 33: 1006–1015.
155. Liu W, Hahn H, Odze RD, Goyal RK. Metaplastic esophageal columnar epithelium without goblet cells shows DNA content abnormalities similar to goblet cell-containing epithelium. Am J Gastroenterol 2009; 104(4): 816–824.
156. Kelty CJ, Gough MD, Van Wyk Q, Stephenson TJ, Ackroyd R. Barrett’s oesophagus: intestinal metaplasia is not essential for cancer risk. Scand J Gastroenterol 2007; 42(11): 1271–1274.
157. Gatenby PA, Ramus JR, Caygill CP, Shepherd NA, Watson A. Relevance of the detection of intestinal metaplasia in non-dysplastic columnar-lined oesophagus. Scand J Gastroenterol 2008; 43(5): 524–530.
158. Takubo K, Aida J, Naomoto Y, et al. Cardiac rather than intestinal-type background in endoscopic resection specimens of minute Barrett adenocarcinoma. Hum Pathol 2009; 40(1): 65–74.
159. Riddell RH, Odze RD. Definition of Barrett’s esophagus: time for a rethink – is intestinal metaplasia dead? Am J Gastroenterol 2009; 104: 2588–2594.
160. Ogiya K, Kawano T, Ito E, et al. Lower esophageal palisade vessels and the definition of Barrett’s esophagus. Dis Esophagus 2008; 21(7): 645–649.
161. Playford RJ. New British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) guidelines for the diagnosis and management of Barrett’s oesophagus. Gut 2006; 55(4): 442.
162. Ronkainen J, Aro P, Storskrubb T, et al. Prevalence of Barrett’s esophagus in the general population: an endoscopic study. Gastroenterology 2005; 129(6): 1825–1831.
163. Winters C Jr, Spurling TJ, Chobanian SJ, et al. Barrett’s esophagus. A prevalent, occult complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Gastroenterology 1987; 92(1): 118–124.
164. Cameron AJ. Epidemiology of columnar-lined esophagus and adenocarcinoma. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1997; 26(3): 487–494.
165. Wild CP, Hardie LJ. Reflux, Barrett’s oesophagus and adenocarcinoma: burning questions. Nat Rev Cancer 2003; 3(9): 676–684.
166. Edelstein ZR, Farrow DC, Bronner MP, Rosen SN, Vaughan TL. Central adiposity and risk of Barrett’s esophagus. Gastroenterology 2007; 133(2): 403–411.
167. Hampel H, Abraham NS, El-Serag HB. Meta-analysis: obesity and the risk for gastroesophageal reflux disease and its complications. Ann Intern Med 2005; 143(3): 199–211.
168. Sharma P, Dent J, Armstrong D, et al. The development and validation of an endoscopic grading system for Barrett’s esophagus: the Prague C & M criteria. Gastroenterology 2006; 131(5): 1392–1399.
169. Abraham SC, Krasinskas AM, Correa AM, et al. Duplication of the muscularis mucosae in Barrett esophagus: an underrecognized feature and its implication for staging of adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 2007; 31(11): 1719–1725.
170. Bodger K, Campbell F, Rhodes JM. Detection of sulfated glycoproteins in intestinal metaplasia: a comparison of traditional mucin staining with immunohistochemistry for the sulfo-Lewis(a) carbohydrate epitope. J Clin Pathol 2003; 56(9): 703–708.
171. Glickman JN, Wang H, Das KM, et al. Phenotype of Barrett’s esophagus and intestinal metaplasia of the distal esophagus and gastroesophageal junction: an immunohistochemical study of cytokeratins 7 and 20, Das-1 and 45 MI. Am J Surg Pathol 2001; 25(1): 87–94.
172. Yantiss RK. Diagnostic challenges in the pathologic evaluation of Barrett esophagus. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2010; 134(11): 1589–1600.
173. Chen YY, Wang HH, Antonioli DA, et al. Significance of acid-mucin-positive nongoblet columnar cells in the distal esophagus and gastroesophageal junction. Hum Pathol 1999; 30(12): 1488–1495.
174. Kilgore SP, Ormsby AH, Gramlich TL, et al. The gastric cardia: fact or fiction? Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95(4): 921–924.
175. Derdoy JJ, Bergwerk A, Cohen H, et al. The gastric cardia: to be or not to be? Am J Surg Pathol 2003; 27(4): 499–504.
176. Chandrasoma PT, Der R, Ma Y, Dalton P, Taira M. Histology of the gastroesophageal junction: an autopsy study. Am J Surg Pathol 2000; 24(3): 402–409.
177. Oberg S, Peters JH, DeMeester TR, et al. Inflammation and specialized intestinal metaplasia of cardiac mucosa is a manifestation of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Ann Surg 1997; 226(4): 522–530; discussion 530–532.
178. Wieczorek TJ, Wang HH, Antonioli DA, Glickman JN, Odze RD. Pathologic features of reflux and Helicobacter pylori-associated carditis: a comparative study. Am J Surg Pathol 2003; 27(7): 960–968.
179. Chen YY, Antonioli DA, Spechler SJ, et al. Gastroesophageal reflux disease versus Helicobacter pylori infection as the cause of gastric carditis. Mod Pathol 1998; 11(10): 950–956.
180. Srivastava A, Odze RD, Lauwers GY, et al. Morphologic features are useful in distinguishing Barrett esophagus from carditis with intestinal metaplasia. Am J Surg Pathol 2007; 31(11): 1733–1741.
181. Ormsby AH, Goldblum JR, Rice TW, et al. Cytokeratin subsets can reliably distinguish Barrett’s esophagus from intestinal metaplasia of the stomach. Hum Pathol 1999; 30(3): 288–294.
182. El-Zimaity HM, Graham DY. Cytokeratin subsets for distinguishing Barrett’s esophagus from intestinal metaplasia in the cardia using endoscopic biopsy specimens. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96(5): 1378–1382.
183. Mohammed IA, Streutker CJ, Riddell RH. Utilization of cytokeratins 7 and 20 does not differentiate between Barrett’s esophagus and gastric cardiac intestinal metaplasia. Mod Pathol 2002; 15(6): 611–616.
184. McIntire MG, Soucy G, Vaughan TL, Shahsafaei A, Odze RD. MUC2 is a highly specific marker of goblet cell metaplasia in the distal esophagus and gastroesophageal junction. Am J Surg Pathol 2011; 35(7): 1007–1013.
185. Glickman JN, Shahsafaei A, Odze RD. Mucin core peptide expression can help differentiate Barrett’s esophagus from intestinal metaplasia of the stomach. Am J Surg Pathol 2003; 27(10): 1357–1365.
186. Wang HH, Sovie S, Zeroogian JM, et al. Value of cytology in detecting intestinal metaplasia and associated dysplasia at the gastroesophageal junction. Hum Pathol 1997; 28(4): 465–471.
187. Yu C, Zhang X, Huang Q, Klein M, Goyal RK. High-fidelity DNA histograms in neoplastic progression in Barrett’s esophagus. Lab Invest 2007; 87(5): 466–472.
188. Chao DL, Maley CC, Wu X, et al. Mutagen sensitivity and neoplastic progression in patients with Barrett’s esophagus: a prospective analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006; 15(10): 1935–1940.
189. Galipeau PC, Li X, Blount PL, et al. NSAIDs modulate CDKN2A, TP53, and DNA content risk for progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma. PLoS Med 2007; 4(2): e67.
190. Reid BJ, Prevo LJ, Galipeau PC, et al. Predictors of progression in Barrett’s esophagus II: baseline 17p (p53) loss of heterozygosity identifies a patient subset at increased risk for neoplastic progression. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96(10): 2839–2848.
191. Maley CC, Rustgi AK. Barrett’s esophagus and its progression to adenocarcinoma. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2006; 4(4): 367–374.
192. Merlo LM, Shah NA, Li X, et al. A comprehensive survey of clonal diversity measures in Barrett’s esophagus as biomarkers of progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2010; 3(11): 1388–1397.
193. Barrett MT, Sanchez CA, Prevo LJ, et al. Evolution of neoplastic cell lineages in Barrett oesophagus. Nat Genet 1999; 22(1): 106–109.
194. Horwhat JD, Baroni D, Maydonovitch C, et al. Normalization of intestinal metaplasia in the esophagus and esophagogastric junction: incidence and clinical data. Am J Gastroenterol 2007; 102(3): 497–506.
195. Reid BJ, Levine DS, Longton G, Blount PL, Rabinovitch PS. Predictors of progression to cancer in Barrett’s esophagus: baseline histology and flow cytometry identify low- and high-risk patient subsets. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95(7): 1669–1676.
196. Skacel M, Petras RE, Gramlich TL, et al. The diagnosis of low-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus and its implications for disease progression. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95(12): 3383–3387.
197. Schnell TG, Sontag SJ, Chejfec G, et al. Long-term nonsurgical management of Barrett’s esophagus with high-grade dysplasia. Gastroenterology 2001; 120(7): 1607–1619.
198. Sharma P, Morales TG, Bhattacharyya A, Garewal HS, Sampliner RE. Squamous islands in Barrett’s esophagus: what lies underneath? Am J Gastroenterol 1998; 93(3): 332–335.
199. Biddlestone LR, Barham CP, Wilkinson SP, Barr H, Shepherd NA. The histopathology of treated Barrett’s esophagus: squamous reepithelialization after acid suppression and laser and photodynamic therapy. Am J Surg Pathol 1998; 22(2): 239–245.
200. Pohl H, Welch HG. The role of overdiagnosis and reclassification in the marked increase of esophageal adenocarcinoma incidence. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005; 97(2): 142–146.
201. Menke-Pluymers MB, Hop WC, Dees J, van Blankenstein M, Tilanus HW. Risk factors for the development of an adenocarcinoma in columnar-lined (Barrett) esophagus. The Rotterdam Esophageal Tumor Study Group. Cancer 1993; 72(4): 1155–1158.
202. Buttar NS, Wang KK, Sebo TJ, et al. Extent of high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus correlates with risk of adenocarcinoma. Gastroenterology 2001; 120(7): 1630–1639.
203. Iftikhar SY, James PD, Steele RJ, Hardcastle JD, Atkinson M. Length of Barrett’s oesophagus: an important factor in the development of dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. Gut 1992; 33(9): 1155–1158.
204. Levine DS, Blount PL, Rudolph RE, Reid BJ. Safety of a systematic endoscopic biopsy protocol in patients with Barrett’s esophagus. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95(5): 1152–1157.
205. Montgomery E, Bronner MP, Greenson JK, et al. Are ulcers a marker for invasive carcinoma in Barrett’s esophagus? Data from a diagnostic variability study with clinical follow-up. Am J Gastroenterol 2002; 97(1): 27–31.
206. Thurberg BL, Duray PH, Odze RD. Polypoid dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular study of five cases. Hum Pathol 1999; 30(7): 745–752.
207. Sharma P, Marcon N, Wani S, et al. Non-biopsy detection of intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus: a prospective multicenter study. Endoscopy 2006; 38(12): 1206–1212.
208. Anagnostopoulos GK, Yao K, Kaye P, Hawkey CJ, Ragunath K. Novel endoscopic observation in Barrett’s oesophagus using high resolution magnification endoscopy and narrow band imaging. Aliment Pharmacol Therap 2007; 26(3): 501–507.
209. Lim CH, Rotimi O, Dexter SP, Axon AT. Randomized crossover study that used methylene blue or random 4-quadrant biopsy for the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus. Gastrointest Endosc 2006; 64(2): 195–199.
210. Rugge M, Correa P, Dixon MF, et al. Gastric dysplasia: the Padova international classification. Am J Surg Pathol 2000; 24(2): 167–176.
211. Schlemper RJ, Riddell RH, Kato Y, et al. The Vienna classification of gastrointestinal epithelial neoplasia. Gut 2000; 47(2): 251–255.
212. Reid BJ, Haggitt RC, Rubin CE, et al. Observer variation in the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus. Hum Pathol 1988; 19(2): 166–178.
213. Lomo LC, Blount PL, Sanchez CA, et al. Crypt dysplasia with surface maturation: a clinical, pathologic, and molecular study of a Barrett’s esophagus cohort. Am J Surg Pathol 2006; 30(4): 423–435.
214. Chirieac LR, Swisher SG, Correa AM, et al. Signet-ring cell or mucinous histology after preoperative chemoradiation and survival in patients with esophageal or esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 2005; 11(6): 2229–2236.
215. Estrella JS, Hofstetter WL, Correa AM, et al. Duplicated muscularis mucosae invasion has similar risk of lymph node metastasis and recurrence-free survival as intramucosal esophageal adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 2011; 35(7): 1045–1053.
216. Ormsby AH, Petras RE, Henricks WH, et al. Observer variation in the diagnosis of superficial oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Gut 2002; 51(5): 671–676.
217. Zhu W, Appelman HD, Greenson JK, et al. Barretts/cardiac high grade dysplasia is not a strong marker for concurrent carcinoma, unless architectural changes suspicious for adenocarcinoma are also present. Lab Invest 2006; 86: 126A.
218. Reid BJ, Blount PL, Feng Z, Levine DS. Optimizing endoscopic biopsy detection of early cancers in Barrett’s high-grade dysplasia. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95(11): 3089–3096.
219. Yoon HH, Khan M, Shi Q, et al. The prognostic value of clinical and pathologic factors in esophageal adenocarcinoma: a mayo cohort of 796 patients with extended follow-up after surgical resection. Mayo Clin Proc 2010; 85(12): 1080–1089.
220. Ackroyd R, Tam W, Schoeman M, Devitt PG, Watson DI. Prospective randomized controlled trial of argon plasma coagulation ablation vs. endoscopic surveillance of patients with Barrett’s esophagus after antireflux surgery. Gastrointest Endosc 2004; 59(1): 1–7.
221. Barr H, Shepherd NA, Dix A, et al. Eradication of high-grade dysplasia in columnar-lined (Barrett’s) oesophagus by photodynamic therapy with endogenously generated protoporphyrin IX. Lancet 1996; 348(9027): 584–585.
222. Ell C, May A, Pech O, et al. Curative endoscopic resection of early esophageal adenocarcinomas (Barrett’s cancer). Gastroint Endosc 2007; 65(1): 3–10.
223. Prasad GA, Wang KK, Buttar NS, et al. Long-term survival following endoscopic and surgical treatment of high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus. Gastroenterology 2007; 132(4): 1226–1233.
224. Leers JM, DeMeester SR, Oezcelik A, et al. The prevalence of lymph node metastases in patients with T1 esophageal adenocarcinoma a retrospective review of esophagectomy specimens. Ann Surg 2011; 253(2): 271–278.
225. Saeki H, Morita M, Nakashima Y, et al. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for clinical stage II–III esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Anticancer Res 2011; 31(9): 3073–3077.
226. Okines A, Cunningham D, Chau I. Targeting the human EGFR family in esophagogastric cancer. Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2011; 8(8): 492–503.
227. Park DI, Yun JW, Park JH, et al. HER-2/neu amplification is an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer. Dig Dis Sci 2006; 51(8): 1371–1379.
228. Tanner M, Hollmen M, Junttila TT, et al. Amplification of HER-2 in gastric carcinoma: association with Topoisomerase IIalpha gene amplification, intestinal type, poor prognosis and sensitivity to trastuzumab. Ann Oncol 2005; 16(2): 273–278.
229. Bang YJ, Van Cutsem E, Feyereislova A, et al. Trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for treatment of HER2-positive advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer (ToGA): a phase 3, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2010; 376(9742): 687–697.
230. Pinto C, Di Fabio F, Siena S, et al. Phase II study of cetuximab in combination with FOLFIRI in patients with untreated advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (FOLCETUX study). Ann Oncol 2007; 18(3): 510–517.
231. Wainberg ZA, Anghel A, Desai AJ, et al. Lapatinib, a dual EGFR and HER2 kinase inhibitor, selectively inhibits HER2-amplified human gastric cancer cells and is synergistic with trastuzumab in vitro and in vivo. Clin Cancer Res 2010; 16(5): 1509–1519.
232. Ferry DR, Anderson M, Beddard K, et al. A phase II study of gefitinib monotherapy in advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma: evidence of gene expression, cellular, and clinical response. Clin Cancer Res 2007; 13(19): 5869–5875.
233. Tsubochi H, Suzuki T, Suzuki S, et al. Immunohistochemical study of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, adenoid cystic and mucoepidermoid carcinoma in the upper aerodigestive tract. Anticancer Res 2000; 20(2B): 1205–1211.
234. Bell-Thomson J, Haggitt RC, Ellis FH, Jr. Mucoepidermoid and adenoid cystic carcinomas of the esophagus. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1980; 79(3): 438–446.
235. Flejou JF, Odze RD, Montgomery E, et al. Adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus. In: Bosman FT, Carneiro F, Hruban RH, Theise ND, eds. WHO Classification of Tumours of the Digestive System, 4th edn. Lyon: IARC; 2010: pp. 25–31.
236. Chen S, Chen Y, Yang J, et al. Primary mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the esophagus. J Thorac Oncol 2011; 6(8): 1426–1431.
237. Matsukuma S, Aida S, Shima S, Tamai S. Paget’s disease of the esophagus. A case report with review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol 1995; 19(8): 948–955.
238. Alagozlu H, Ergun M, Cindoruk M, et al. The rare presentations of a large polyp and an esophageal carcinoma in heterotropic gastric mucosa: a case series. J Med Case Rep 2007; 1: 127.
239. Abe T, Hosokawa M, Kusumi T, et al. Adenocarcinoma arising from ectopic gastric mucosa in the cervical esophagus. Am J Clin Oncol 2004; 27(6): 644–645.
240. Pearse AG, Polak JM. Neural crest origin of the endocrine polypeptide (APUD) cells of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. Gut 1971; 12(10): 783–788.
241. Pearse AG, Polak JM. Cytochemical evidence for the neural crest origin of mammalian ultimobranchial C cells. Histochemie 1971; 27(2): 96–102.
242. Barker N, Clevers H. Lineage tracing in the intestinal epithelium. Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol 2010; Chapter 5: Unit 5A 4.
243. Helle KB. Chromogranins A and B and secretogranin II as prohormones for regulatory peptides from the diffuse neuroendocrine system. Results Probl Cell Differ 2010; 50: 21–44.
244. Chuah SK, Hu TH, Kuo CM, et al. Upper gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors incidentally found by endoscopic examinations. World J Gastroenterol 2005; 11(44): 7028–7032.
245. Hoang MP, Hobbs CM, Sobin LH, Albores-Saavedra J. Carcinoid tumor of the esophagus: a clinicopathologic study of four cases. Am J Surg Pathol 2002; 26(4): 517–522.
246. Asayama M, Fuse N, Yoshino T, et al. Amrubicin for the treatment of neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract: a retrospective analysis of five cases. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2011; 68: 1325–1330.
247. Huang Q, Zhang LH. The histopathologic spectrum of carcinomas involving the gastroesophageal junction in the Chinese. Int J Surg Pathol 2007; 15(1): 38–52.
248. Goenka AH, Sharma S, Ramachandran V, Chattopadhyay TK, Ray R. Giant fibrovascular polyp of the esophagus: report of a case. Surg Today 2011; 41(1): 120–124.
249. Fries MR, Galindo RL, Flint PW, Abraham SC. Giant fibrovascular polyp of the esophagus. A lesion causing upper airway obstruction and syncope. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2003; 127(4): 485–487.
250. Levine MS, Buck JL, Pantongrag-Brown L, et al. Fibrovascular polyps of the esophagus: clinical, radiographic, and pathologic findings in 16 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1996; 166(4): 781–787.
251. John BK, Dang NC, Hussain SA, et al. Multifocal granular cell tumor presenting as an esophageal stricture. J Gastrointest Cancer 2008; 39(1–4): 107–113.
252. Goldblum JR, Rice TW, Zuccaro G, Richter JE. Granular cell tumors of the esophagus: a clinical and pathologic study of 13 cases. Ann Thorac Surg 1996; 62(3): 860–865.
253. David O, Jakate S. Multifocal granular cell tumor of the esophagus and proximal stomach with infiltrative pattern: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1999; 123(10): 967–973.
254. Narra SL, Tombazzi C, Datta V, Ismail MK. Granular cell tumor of the esophagus: report of five cases and review of the literature. Am J Med Sci 2008; 335(5): 338–341.
255. Parfitt JR, McLean CA, Joseph MG, et al. Granular cell tumours of the gastrointestinal tract: expression of nestin and clinicopathological evaluation of 11 patients. Histopathology 2006; 48(4): 424–430.
256. Johnston J, Helwig EB. Granular cell tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and perianal region: a study of 74 cases. Dig Dis Sci 1981; 26(9): 807–816.
257. Fanburg-Smith JC, Meis-Kindblom JM, Fante R, Kindblom LG. Malignant granular cell tumor of soft tissue: diagnostic criteria and clinicopathologic correlation. Am J Surg Pathol 1998; 22(7): 779–794.
258. Postlethwait RW. Benign tumors and cysts of the esophagus. Surg Clin North Am 1983; 63(4): 925–931.
259. Takubo K, Nakagawa H, Tsuchiya S, et al. Seedling leiomyoma of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction zone. Hum Pathol 1981; 12(11): 1006–1010.
260. Jiang G, Zhao H, Yang F, et al. Thoracoscopic enucleation of esophageal leiomyoma: a retrospective study on 40 cases. Dis Esophagus 2009; 22(3): 279–283.
261. Miettinen M, Sarlomo-Rikala M, Sobin LH. Mesenchymal tumors of muscularis mucosae of colon and rectum are benign leiomyomas that should be separated from gastrointestinal stromal tumors – a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of eighty-eight cases. Mod Pathol 2001; 14(10): 950–956.
262. Miettinen M, Sarlomo-Rikala M, Sobin LH, Lasota J. Esophageal stromal tumors: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic study of 17 cases and comparison with esophageal leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas. Am J Surg Pathol 2000; 24(2): 211–222.
263. Miettinen M, Lasota J. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: pathology and prognosis at different sites. Semin Diagn Pathol 2006; 23(2): 70–83.
264. Stranks GJ, Mathai JT, Rowe-Jones DC. Primary malignant melanoma of the oesophagus: case report and review of surgical pathology. Gut 1991; 32(7): 828–830.
265. Li B, Lei W, Shao K, et al. Characteristics and prognosis of primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus. Melanoma Res 2007; 17(4): 239–242.
266. Bisceglia M, Perri F, Tucci A, et al. Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus: a clinicopathologic study of a case with comprehensive literature review. Adv Anat Pathol 2011; 18(3): 235–252.
267. Hulshof MC, Van Haaren PM, Zum Vorde Sive Vording PJ, et al. Radiotherapy combined with hyperthermia for primary malignant melanomas of the esophagus. Dis Esophagus 2010; 23(8): E42–47.
268. DiCostanzo DP, Urmacher C. Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus. Am J Surg Pathol 1987; 11(1): 46–52.