Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: July 2015

4 - How the Self Is Altered in Psychiatric Disorders

from Section One - Restoring Phenomenology to Psychiatry

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Alcaro, A., Panksepp, J., Witczak, J., Hayes, D. J., & Northoff, G. (2010). Is subcortical-cortical midline activity in depression mediated by glutamate and GABA? A cross-species translational approach. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 34(4), 592605.
Bleuler, E. (2010). [Dementia praecox or the group of schizophrenias]. Vertex, 21(93), 394400. (Original work published 1911)
Boker, H., Budischewski, K., Eppel, A., Hartling, F., Rinnert, J., von Schmeling, C., … Schoeneich, F. (2000). [Self concept and object relations of patients with affective disorders: Individual-centered diagnosis with the repertory-grid technique]. Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie, 50(8), 328–34.
Buckner, R. L., Andrews-Hanna, J. R., & Schacter, D. L. (2008). The brain's default network: anatomy, function, and relevance to disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124, 138.
Calhoun, V. D., Maciejewski, P. K., Pearlson, G. D., & Kiehl, K. A. (2008). Temporal lobe and “default” hemodynamic brain modes discriminate between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Human Brain Mapping, 29(11), 1265–75.
Christoff, K., Cosmelli, D., Legrand, D., & Thompson, E. (2011). Specifying the self for cognitive neuroscience. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15(3), 104–12.
D'Argembeau, A., Collette, F., Van der, L. M., Laureys, S., Del Fiore, G., Degueldre, C., … Salmon, E. (2005). Self-referential reflective activity and its relationship with rest: a PET study. Neuroimage, 25(2), 616–24.
de Greck, M., Enzi, B., Prosch, U., Gantman, A., Tempelmann, C., & Northoff, G. (2010). Decreased neuronal activity in reward circuitry of pathological gamblers during processing of personal relevant stimuli. Human Brain Mapping, 31(11), 1802–12.
de Greck, M., Supady, A., Thiemann, R., Tempelmann, C., Bogerts, B., Forschner, L., … Northoff, G. (2009). Decreased neural activity in reward circuitry during personal reference in abstinent alcoholics: A fMRI study. Human Brain Mapping, 30(5), 16911704.
Doering, S., Burgmer, M., Heuft, G., Menke, D., Baumer, B., Lubking, M., … Schneider, G. (2013). Assessment of personality functioning: Validity of the operationalized psychodynamic diagnosis Axis IV (Structure). Psychopathology, 47, 185–93.
Feinberg, T. E. (2009). From axons to identity: Neurological explorations of the nature of the self. Norton Series on Interpersonal Neurobiology. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.
Feinberg, T. E. (2011). Neuropathologies of the self: Clinical and anatomical features. Consciousiousness and Cognition, 20(1), 7581.
Feinberg, T. E., Venneri, A., Simone, A. M., Fan, Y., & Northoff, G. (2010). The neuroanatomy of asomatognosia and somatoparaphrenia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, & Psychiatry, 81(3), 276–81.
Fitzgerald, P. B., Oxley, T. J., Laird, A. R., Kulkarni, J., Egan, G. F., & Daskalakis, Z. J. (2006). An analysis of functional neuroimaging studies of dorsolateral prefrontal cortical activity in depression. Psychiatry Research, 148(1), 3345.
Gillihan, S. J., & Farah, M. J. (2005). Is self special? A critical review of evidence from experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Psychological Bulletin, 131(1), 7697.
Grimm, S., Ernst, J., Boesiger, P., Schuepbach, D., Boeker, H., & Northoff, G. (2011). Reduced negative BOLD responses in the default-mode network and increased self-focus in depression. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 12(8), 627–37.
Grimm, S., Ernst, J., Boesiger, P., Schuepbach, D., Hell, D., Boeker, H., & Northoff, G. (2009). Increased self-focus in major depressive disorder is related to neural abnormalities in subcortical-cortical midline structures. Human Brain Mapping, 30(8), 2617–27.
Grunebaum, M. F., Keilp, J., Li, S., Ellis, S. P., Burke, A. K., Oquendo, M. A., & Mann, J. J. (2005). Symptom components of standard depression scales and past suicidal behavior. Journal of Affective Disorders, 87(1), 7382.
Hasler, G., & Northoff, G. (2011). Discovering imaging endophenotypes for major depression. Molecular Psychiatry, 16(6), 604–19.
Holt, D. J., Cassidy, B. S., Andrews-Hanna, J. R., Lee, S. M., Coombs, G., Goff, D. C., … Moran, J. M. (2011). An anterior-to-posterior shift in midline cortical activity in schizophrenia during self-reflection. Biological Psychiatry, 69(5), 415423.
Hoptman, M. J., Zuo, X. N., Butler, P. D., Javitt, D. C., D'Angelo, D., Mauro, C. J., & Milham, M. P. (2010). Amplitude of low-frequency oscillations in schizophrenia: A resting state fMRI study. Schizophrenia Research, 117(1), 1320.
Huang, Z., Dai, R., Wu, X., Yang, Z., Liu, D., Hu, J., … Northoff, G. (2013). The self and its resting state in consciousness: An investigation of the vegetative state. Human Brain Mapping, 35(5), 19972008.
Ingram, R. E. (1990). Self-focused attention in clinical disorders: Review and a conceptual model. Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 156–76.
Jafri, M. J., Pearlson, G. D., Stevens, M., & Calhoun, V. D. (2008). A method for functional network connectivity among spatially independent resting-state components in schizophrenia. Neuroimage, 39(4), 1666–81.
Jaspers, K. (1964). General psychopathology. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Kraeplin, E. (1913). Ein Lehrbuch für Studierende und Ärzte. Leipzig, Germany: Barth.
Kuhn, S., & Gallinat, J. (2013). Resting-state brain activity in schizophrenia and major depression: A quantitative meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 39(2), 358–65.
Ladouceur, C. D., Versace, A., & Phillips, M. L. (2015). Understanding the neural circuitry of emotion regulation: White matter tract abnormalities and psychiatric disorder. In Kirmayer, L. J., Lemelson, R., & Cummings, C. A. (Eds.), Re-visioning psychiatry: Cultural phenomenology, critical neuroscience, and global mental health (pp. 236–72). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Legrand, D., & Ruby, P. (2009). What is self-specific? Theoretical investigation and critical review of neuroimaging results. Psychological Review, 116(1), 252–82.
Lemogne, C., Bergouignan, L., Piolino, P., Jouvent, R., Allilaire, J. F., & Fossati, P. (2009). Cognitive avoidance of intrusive memories and autobiographical memory: Specificity, autonoetic consciousness, and self-perspective. Memory, 17(1), 17.
Lemogne, C., Delaveau, P., Freton, M., Guionnet, S., & Fossati, P. (2012). Medial prefrontal cortex and the self in major depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 136(1–2), e1e11.
Lemogne, C., le Bastard, G., Mayberg, H., Volle, E., Bergouignan, L., Lehericy, S., … Fossati, P. (2009). In search of the depressive self: Extended medial prefrontal network during self-referential processing in major depression. Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, 4(3), 305–12.
Lemogne, C., Mayberg, H., Bergouignan, L., Volle, E., Delaveau, P., Lehericy, S., … Fossati, P. (2010). Self-referential processing and the prefrontal cortex over the course of depression: A pilot study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 124(1–2), 196201.
Lou, H. C., Gross, J., Biermann-Ruben, K., Kjaer, T. W., & Schnitzler, A. (2010). Coherence in consciousness: Paralimbic gamma synchrony of self-reference links conscious experiences. Human Brain Mapping, 31(2), 185–92. 10.1002/hbm.20855
Lou, H. C., Joensson, M., Biermann-Ruben, K., Schnitzler, A., Ostergaard, L., Kjaer, T. W., & Gross, J. (2011). Recurrent activity in higher order, modality non-specific brain regions: A Granger causality analysis of autobiographic memory retrieval. PLOS One, 6(7), e22286.
Lou, H. C., Kjaer, T. W., Friberg, L., Wildschiodtz, G., Holm, S., & Nowak, M. (1999). A 15O-H2O PET study of meditation and the resting state of normal consciousness. Human Brain Mapping, 7(2), 98105.
Lou, H. C., Luber, B., Crupain, M., Keenan, J. P., Nowak, M., Kjaer, T. W., … Lisanby, S. H. (2004). Parietal cortex and representation of the mental Self. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(17), 6827–32.
Lou, H. C., Luber, B., Stanford, A., & Lisanby, S. H. (2010). Self-specific processing in the default network: a single-pulse TMS study. Experimental Brain Research, 207(1–2), 2738.
Lou, H. C., Nowak, M., & Kjaer, T. W. (2005). The mental self. Progress in Brain Research, 150, 197204.
Lutz, A., & Thompson, E. (2003). Neurophenomenology integrating subjective experience and brain dynamics in the neuroscience of consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 10(9–10), 3152.
Mannell, M. V., Franco, A. R., Calhoun, V. D., Canive, J. M., Thoma, R. J., & Mayer, A. R. (2010). Resting state and task-induced deactivation: A methodological comparison in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Human Brain Mapping, 31(3), 424–37.
Mayberg, H. S. (2002). Depression, II: Localization of pathophysiology. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(12), 1979.
Mayberg, H. S. (2003). Modulating dysfunctional limbic-cortical circuits in depression: Towards development of brain-based algorithms for diagnosis and optimised treatment. British Medical Bulletin, 65, 193207.
Mayberg, H. S. (2009). Targeted electrode-based modulation of neural circuits for depression. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 119(4), 717725.
Metzinger, T. (2003). Being no one: The self-model theory of subjectivity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Nelson, B., Whitford, T. J., Lavoie, S., & Sass, L. A. (2014a). What are the neurocognitive correlates of basic self-disturbance in schizophrenia? Integrating phenomenology and neurocognition. Part 1 (Source monitoring deficits). Schizophrenia Research, 152(1), 1219.
Nelson, B., Whitford, T. J., Lavoie, S., & Sass, L. A. (2014b). What are the neurocognitive correlates of basic self-disturbance in schizophrenia? Integrating phenomenology and neurocognition. Part 2 (Aberrant salience). Schizophrenia Research, 152(1), 20–7.
Northoff, G. (2004). Philosophy of the brain: The brain problem. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins.
Northoff, G. (2007). Psychopathology and pathophysiology of the self in depression: Neuropsychiatric hypothesis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 104(1–3), 114.
Northoff, G. (2011). Self and brain: What is self-related processing? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15(5), 1867.
Northoff, G. (2013a). What the brain's intrinsic activity can tell us about consciousness? A tri-dimensional view. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 37(4), 726–38.
Northoff, G. (2013b). Gene, brains, and environment-genetic neuroimaging of depression. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 23(1), 133–42.
Northoff, G. (2014a). Unlocking the brain: Volume 1 – Coding. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Northoff, G. (2014b). Unlocking the brain: Volume 2 – Consciousness. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Northoff, G., Heinzel, A., de Greck, M., Bermpohl, F., Dobrowolny, H., & Panksepp, J. (2006). Self-referential processing in our brain: A meta-analysis of imaging studies on the self. Neuroimage, 31(1), 440–57.
Northoff, G., & Panksepp, J. (2008). The trans-species concept of self and the subcortical-cortical midline system. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12(7), 259–64.
Northoff, G., Qin, P., & Nakao, T. (2010). Rest-stimulus interaction in the brain: A review. Trends in Neurosciences, 33(6), 277–84.
Northoff, G., Schneider, F., Rotte, M., Matthiae, C., Tempelmann, C., Wiebking, C., … Panksepp, J. (2009). Differential parametric modulation of self-relatedness and emotions in different brain regions. Human Brain Mapping, 30(2), 369–82.
Northoff, G., Wiebking, C., Feinberg, T., & Panksepp, J. (2011). The “resting-state hypothesis” of major depressive disorder: A translational subcortical-cortical framework for a system disorder. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 35(9), 1929–45.
Panksepp, J. (1998). Affective neuroscience: The foundations of human and animal emotions. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Panksepp, J., & Northoff, G. (2009). The trans-species core SELF: The emergence of active cultural and neuro-ecological agents through self-related processing within subcortical-cortical midline networks. Consciousness and Cognition, 18(1), 193215.
Park, I. G., Kim, J. J., Chun, J., Jung, Y. C., Seok, J. H., Park, H. J., & Lee, J. D. (2009). Medial prefrontal default-mode hypoactivity affecting trait physical anhedonia in schizophrenia. Psychiatric Research, 171(3),155–65.
Parnas, J. (2003). Self and schizophrenia: A phenomenological perspective. In Kircher, T. & David, A. (Eds.), The self in neuroscience and psychiatry (pp. 217–41). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Parnas, J., Vianin, P., Saebye, D., Jansson, L., Volmer-Larsen, A., & Bovet, P. (2001). Visual binding abilities in the initial and advanced stages of schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 103(3), 171–80.
Phillips, M. L. (2003). Understanding the neurobiology of emotion perception: implications for psychiatry. British Journal of Psychiatry, 182, 1902.
Phillips, M. L., Drevets, W. C., Rauch, S. L., & Lane, R. (2003). Neurobiology of emotion perception II: Implications for major psychiatric disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 54(5), 515–28.
Pomarol-Clotet, E., Salvador, R., Sarro, S., Gomar, J., Vila, F., Martinez, A., … McKenna, P. J. (2008). Failure to deactivate in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia: dysfunction of the default mode network? Psychological Medicine, 38(8), 1185–93.
Price, J. L., & Drevets, W. C. (2010). Neurocircuitry of mood disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35(1), 192216.
Qin, P., Di, H., Liu, Y., Yu, S., Gong, Q., Duncan, N., … Northoff, G. (2010). Anterior cingulate activity and the self in disorders of consciousness. Human Brain Mapping, 31(12), 19932002.
Qin, P., & Northoff, G. (2011). How is our self related to midline regions and the default-mode network? Neuroimage, 57(3), 1221–33.
Raichle, M. E., MacLeod, A. M., Snyder, A. Z., Powers, W. J., Gusnard, D. A., & Shulman, G. L. (2001). A default mode of brain function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98(2), 676–82.
Raz, A., & Macdonald, E. (2015). Paying attention to a field in crisis: Psychiatry, neuroscience, and functional systems of the brain. In Kirmayer, L. J., Lemelson, R., & Cummings, C. A. (Eds.), Re-visioning psychiatry: Cultural phenomenology, critical neuroscience, and global mental health (pp. 273304). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Rimes, K. A., & Watkins, E. (2005). The effects of self-focused rumination on global negative self-judgements in depression. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43(12), 1673–81.
Rotarska-Jagiela, A., van, d. V., V, Oertel-Knochel, V., Uhlhaas, P. J., Vogeley, K., & Linden, D. E. (2010). Resting-state functional network correlates of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 117(1), 2130.
Sass, L. A., & Parnas, J. (2003). Schizophrenia, consciousness, and the self. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 29(3), 427–44.
Savitz, J. B., & Drevets, W. C. (2009a). Bipolar and major depressive disorder: Neuroimaging the developmental-degenerative divide. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 33(5), 699771.
Savitz, J. B., & Drevets, W. C. (2009b). Imaging phenotypes of major depressive disorder: genetic correlates. Neuroscience, 164(1), 300330.
Schneider, F., Bermpohl, F., Heinzel, A., Rotte, M., Walter, M., Tempelmann, C., … Northoff, G. (2008). The resting brain and our self: Self-relatedness modulates resting state neural activity in cortical midline structures. Neuroscience, 157(1), 120–31.
Taylor, S. F., Welsh, R. C., Chen, A. C., Velander, A. J., & Liberzon, I. (2007). Medial frontal hyperactivity in reality distortion. Biological Psychiatry, 61(10), 11718.
Treynor, W., Gonzalez, R., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2003). Rumination reconsidered: A psychometric analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27(3), 247–59.
van der Meer, L., Costafreda, S., Aleman, A., & David, A. S. (2010). Self-reflection and the brain: A theoretical review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies with implications for schizophrenia. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 34(6), 935–46.
Whitfield-Gabrieli, S., Thermenos, H. W., Milanovic, S., Tsuang, M. T., Faraone, S. V., McCarley, R. W., … Seidman, L. J. (2009). Hyperactivity and hyperconnectivity of the default network in schizophrenia and in first-degree relatives of persons with schizophrenia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(4), 1279–84.
Wiebking, C., Bauer, A., de Greck, M., Duncan, N. W., Tempelmann, C., & Northoff, G. (2010). Abnormal body perception and neural activity in the insula in depression: An fMRI study of the depressed “material me.” World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 11(3), 538–49.
Williamson, P. (2007). Are anticorrelated networks in the brain relevant to schizophrenia? Schizophrenia Bulletin, 33(4), 9941003.