Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Cited by 48
  • Print publication year: 2003
  • Online publication date: June 2012

7 - Sequelae of Child Maltreatment: Vulnerability and Resilience

Summary

To grow into competent and productive adults, children must learn to regulate their emotions and their behavior, to form a coherent, positive sense of self, and toform and maintain relationships with other people. A substantial body of evidence indicates that consistent, responsive parenting contributes to children's ability to master these developmental tasks (Lord, Eccles, & McCarthy, 1994; Raver, 1996). In maltreating families, however, parental care does not meet children's basic needs for physical sustenance and protection, emotional security, and social interaction. Thus, maltreatment constitutes a significant deviation from the average expectable or species-typical environment, as defined by community norms and by medical, legal, and social scientific standards (National Research Council, 1993). Developmental theory on the influence of early caregiving predicts that such conditions predispose children to a variety of difficulties in adjustment and adaptation (Cicchetti & Lynch, 1995; Scarr, 1992).

Empirical evidence supports this contention: Maltreatment during childhood is associated with an increased risk for internalizing problems, such as depression and anxiety (Lynch & Cicchetti, 1998; McGee, Wolfe, & Wilson, 1997; Toth, Manly, & Cicchetti, 1992), and externalizing problems including aggression, delinquency, and antisocial behavior (Herrenkohl, Egolf, & Herrenkohl, 1997; Widom, 1989). Maltreated children encounter more difficulties in developing autonomy and self-esteem (Egeland, Sroufe, & Erickson, 1983) and in relationships with others, including peers (Cicchetti, Lynch, Shonk, & Manly, 1992; Rogosch, Cicchetti, & Aber, 1995; Salzinger, Feldman, Hammer, & Rosario, 1993).

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
References
Abramson, L. Y., Seligman, M. E. P., & Teasdale, J. D. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 49–74
Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the Youth Self-Report and 1991 Profile. Burlington: University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry
Aguilar, B., Sroufe, L. A., Egeland, B., & Carlson, E. (2000). Distinguishing the early-onset/persistent and adolescent-onset antisocial behavior types: From birth to 16 years. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 109–132
Banyard, V. L. (1999). Childhood maltreatment and the mental health of low-income women. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 69, 161–171
Barnett, D., Manly, J. T., & Cicchetti, D. (1993). Defining child maltreatment: The interface between policy and research. In D. Cicchetti & S. L. Toth (Eds.), Child abuse, child development, and social policy (pp. 7–74). Norwood, NJ: Ablex
Belsky, J. (1980). Child maltreatment: An ecological integration. American Psychologist, 35, 320–335
Bolger, K. E., & Patterson, C. J. (2001a). Developmental pathways from child maltreatment to peer rejection. Child Development, 72(2), 549–568
Bolger, K. E. & Patterson, C. J. (2001b). Pathways from child maltreatment to internalizing problems: Perceptions of control as mediators and moderators. Development and Psychopathology. 13, 913–940
Bolger K. E., Patterson, C. J., & Kupersmidt, J. B.(1998a, July). Friendship as a moderator of the relation between maltreatment and childern's adjustment. Poster presented at the meetings of the International Society for the Study of Behavioural Development, Berne, Switzerland
Bolger, K. E., Patterson, C. J., & Kupersmidt, J. B. (1998b). Peer relationships and self-esteem among children who have been maltreated. Child Development, 69, 1171–1197
Chaffin, M., Kelleher, K., & Hollenberg, J. (1996). Onset of physical abuse and neglect: Psychiatric, substance abuse, and social risk factors from prospective community data. Child Abuse and Neglect, 20, 191–203
Cicchetti, D., & Lynch, M. (1995). Failures in the expectable environment and their impact on individual development: The case of child maltreatment. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology, Vol. 2: Risk, disorder, and adaptation (pp. 32–71). New York: Wiley
Cicchetti, D., Lynch, M., Shonk, S., & Manly, J. T. (1992). An organizational perspective on peer relations in maltreated children. In R. D. Parke & G. W. Ladd (Eds.), Family–peer relationships: Modes of linkage (pp. 345–383). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (1997). The role of self-organization in the promotion of resilience in maltreated children. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 797–815
Cicchetti, D., Rogosch, F. A., Lynch, M., & Holt, K. (1993). Resilience in maltreated children: Processes leading to adaptive outcome. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 629–647
Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., & Coppotelli, H. (1982). Dimensions and types of social status: A cross-age perspective. Developmental Psychology, 18, 557–570
Conger, R. D., Conger, K. J., Elder, G. H., Lorenz, F. O., Simons, R. L., & Whitbeck, L. B. (1992). A family process model of economic hardship and adjustment of early adolescent boys. Child Development, 63, 526–541
Connell, J. P. (1985). A new multidimensional measure of children's perceptions of control. Child Development, 56, 1018–1041
Cowen, E. L., Lorion, R. P., & Caldwell, R. A. (1975). Nonprofessionals' judgments about clinical interaction problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 619–625
Dishion, T. J., & Patterson, G. R. (1992). Age effects in parent training outcome. Behavior Therapy, 23, 719–729
Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (1997). How the experience of early physical abuse leads children to become chronically aggressive. In D. Cicchetti & S. L. Toth (Eds.), Developmental perspectives on trauma: Theory, research, and intervention. Rochester symposium on developmental psychology (Vol. 8, pp. 263–288). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press
Eckenrode, J., Ganzel, B., Henderson, C. R., Smith, E., Olds, D. L., Powers, J., Cole, R., Kitzman, H., & Sidora, K. (2000). Preventing child abuse and neglect with a program of nurse home visitation: The limiting effects of domestic violence. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284, 1385–1391
Eckenrode, J., Zielinski, D., Smith, E., Marcynyszyn, L. A., Henderson, C. R., Kitzman, H., Cole, R., Powers, J., & Olds, D. L. (2001). Child maltreatment and the early onset of problem behaviors: Can a program of nurse home visitation break the link?Development and Psychopathology. 13, 873–890
Egeland, B., Carlson, E., & Sroufe, L. A. (1993). Resilience as process. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 517–528
Egami, Y., Ford, D. E., Greenfield, S. F., & Crum, R. M. (1996). Psychiatric profile and sociodemographic characteristics of adults who report physically abusing or neglecting children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 921–928
Egeland, B., Jacobvitz, D., & Sroufe, L. A. (1988). Breaking the cycle of abuse. Child Development, 59, 1080–1088
Egeland, B., Sroufe, L. A., & Erickson, M. (1983). The developmental consequences of different patterns of maltreatment. Child Abuse and Neglect, 7, 459–469
Elder, G. H., Nguyen, T., & Caspi, A. (1985). Linking family hardship to children's lives. Child Development, 56, 361–375
Erickson, M. F., & Egeland, B. (1999). The STEEP program: Linking theory and research to practice. In M. F. Erickson & R. A. Weinberg (Eds.), Zero to three (Vol. 20, pp. 11–16). Washington, D C: Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families
Fantuzzo, J., Sutton-Smith, B., Atkins, M., Stevenson, H., Coolahan, K., Weiss, A., & Manz, P. (1996). Community-based resilient peer treatment of withdrawn maltreated preschool children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 1377–1386
Farber, E. A., & Egeland, B. (1987). Invulnerability in abused and neglected children. In E. J. Anthony & B. J. Cohler (Eds.), The invulnerable child (pp. 253–288). New York: Guilford Press
Fisher, P. A., Gunnar, M. R., Chamberlain, P., & Reid, J. B. (2000). Preventive intervention for maltreated preschool children: Impact on children's behavior, neuroendocrine activity, and foster parent functioning. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 1356–1364
Furman, W., & Buhrmester, D. (1985). Children's perceptions of the personal relationships in their social networks. Developmental Psychology, 21, 1016–1024
Gilligan, R. (1999). Enhancing the resilience of children and young people in public care by mentoring their talents and interests. Child and Family Social Work, 4, 187–196
Grossman, J. B., & Tierney, J. P. (1998). Does mentoring work? An impact study of the Big Brothers Big Sisters program. Evaluation Review, 22, 403–426
Harter, S. (1985). Manual for the Self-Perception Profile for Children. Denver: Department of Psychology, University of Denver
Hartup, W. W., & Stevens, N. (1999). Friendships and adaptation across the lifespan. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8, 76–79
Herrenkohl, R. C., Egolf, B. P., & Herrenkohl, E. C. (1997). Preschool antecedents of adolescent assaultive behavior: A longitudinal study. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 67, 422–432
Herrenkohl, E. C., Herrenkohl, R. C., & Egolf, B. P. (1994). Resilient early-school-age children from maltreating homes: Outcomes in late adolescence. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 64, 301–309
Huesmann, L. R., Eron, L. D., Lefkowitz, M. M., & Walder, L. O. (1984). Stability of aggression over time and generations. Developmental Psychology, 20, 1120–1134
Kovacs, M., & Devlin, B. (1998). Internalizing disorders in childhood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 39, 47–63
Lord, S. E., Eccles, J. S., & McCarthy, K. A. (1994). Surviving the junior high school transition: Family processes and self-perceptions as protective and risk factors. Journal of Early Adolescence, 14, 162–199
Luthar, S. S. (1991). Vulnerability and resilience: A study of high-risk adolescents. Child Development, 62, 600–616
Luthar, S. S. (1993). Annotation: Methodological and conceptual issues in research on childhood resilience. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 34, 441–453
Luthar, S. S. (1999). Poverty and children's adjustment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Luthar, S. S., & Suchman, N. E. (2000). Relational Psychotherapy Mothers' Group: A developmentally informed intervention for at-risk mothers. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 235–253
Lynch, M., & Cicchetti, D. (1998). An ecological-transactional analysis of children and contexts: The longitudinal interplay among child maltreatment, community violence, and children's symptomatology. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 235–257
Masten, A. S., & Coatsworth, J. D. (1998). The development of competence in favorable and unfavorable environments: Lessons from research on successful children. American Psychologist, 53, 205–220
Mayes, L. C., & Truman, S. D. (2002). Substance abuse and parenting. In M. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting (3rd ed., Vol. 4, pp. 329–359). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum
McGee, R. A., Wolfe, D. A., & Wilson, S. K. (1997). Multiple maltreatment experiences and adolescents' behavior problems: Adolescents' perspectives. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 131–149
McLoyd, V. C. (1998). Socioeconomic disadvantage and child development. American Psychologist, 53, 185–204
Moran, P. B., & Eckenrode, J. (1992). Protective personality characteristics among adolescent victims of maltreatment. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, 743–754
Mueller, E., & Silverman, N. (1989). Peer relations in maltreated children. In D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect (pp. 529–578). New York: Cambridge University Press
National Research Council (U. S.) Panel on Research on Child Abuse and Neglect (1993). Understanding child abuse and neglect. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences
Olds, D. L., & Kitzman, H. (1993). Review of research on home visiting for pregnant women and parents of young children. The Future of Children, 3, 53–92
Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1987). Peer relations and later personal adjustment: Are low-accepted children at risk?Psychological Bulletin, 102, 357–389
Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1993). Friendship and friendship quality in middle childhood: Links with peer group acceptance and feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction. Developmental Psychology, 29, 611–621
Patterson, C. J., Griesler, P. C., Vaden, N. A., & Kupersmidt, J. B. (1992). Family economic circumstances, life transitions, and children's peer relations. In R. D. Parke & G. W. Ladd (Eds.), Family–peer relationships: Modes of linkage (pp. 385–424). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
Patterson, G. R. (1995). Coercion as a basis for early age of onset for arrest. In J. McCord (Ed.), Coercion and punishment in long-term perspecive (pp. 81–105). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Patterson, G. R., Reid, J. B., & Dishion, T. J. (1998). Antisocial boys. In J. M. Jenkins, K. Oatley, et al. (Eds.), Human emotions: A reader (pp. 330–336). Malden, MA: Blackwell
Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. (1984). Causal explanations as a risk factor for depression: Theory and evidence. Psychological Review, 91, 347–374
Price, J. M. (1996). Friendships of maltreated children and adolescents: Contexts for expressing and modifying relationship history. In W. M. Bukowski & A. F. Newcomb (Eds.), The company they keep: Friendships in childhood and adolescence (pp. 262–285). New York: Cambridge University Press
Raver, C. C. (1996). Relations between social contingency in mother–child interaction and 2-year-olds' social competence. Developmental Psychology, 32, 850–859
Rogosch, F. A., Cicchetti, D., & Aber, J. L. (1995). The role of child maltreatment in early deviations in cognitive and affective processing abilities and later peer relationship problems. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 591–609
Rutter, M., & Quinton, D. (1984). Long-term follow-up of women institutionalized in childhood: Factors promoting good functioning in adult life. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 2, 191–204
Salzinger, S., Feldman, R. S., Hammer, M., & Rosario, M. (1993). The effects of physical abuse on children's social relationships. Child Development, 64, 169–187
Sameroff, A. J., Seifer, R., & Bartko, W. T. (1997). Environmental perspectives on adaptation during childhood and adolescence. In S. S. Luthar, J. A. Burack, D. Cicchetti, & J. R. Weisz (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Perspectives on adjustment, risk, and disorder (pp. 507–526). New York: Cambridge University Press
Scarr, S. (1992). Developmental theories for the 1990s: Development and individual differences. Child Development, 63, 1–19
Sedlak, A. J., & Broadhurst, D. D. (1996). Third National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect, final report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Toth, S. L., Manly, J. T., & Cicchetti, D. (1992). Child maltreatment and vulnerability to depression. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 97–112
Vinokur, A. D., Schul, Y., Vuori, J., & Price, R. H. (2000). Two years after a job loss: Long-term impact of the JOBS program on reemployment and mental health. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 32–47
Werner, E., & Smith, R. S. (1992). Overcoming the odds: High risk children from birth to adulthood. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press
Widom, C. S. (1989). Does violence beget violence? A critical examination of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 3–28