Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2018
  • Online publication date: July 2018

4 - Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulation and Climate


The atmospheric and oceanic circulations of the polar regions and their climatic conditions are discussed. Both hemispheres feature a large upper tropospheric polar vortex surrounded by westerly airflows, but the low-level circulations differ greatly. Around Antarctica there is a circumpolar trough, while in the northern hemisphere there is the year-round Icelandic low, with an Aleutian low and Siberian high in winter. The Southern Ocean has a continuous Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) flowing eastward while the North Atlantic Current enters the Arctic Ocean via the Norwegian Sea and the East Greenland Current carries cold water and sea ice southward. Despite the polar night / day, the radiative regimes differ owing to persistent low clouds in the Arctic summer, a variable surface albedo, and winter cyclones. The Antarctic plateau presents a persistent ice surface. Arctic temperatures range from ~-30 °C in January to near 0 °C in summer, while at South Pole they are about 30 °C lower. Surface temperature inversions are prevalent in both regions. Annual precipitation in the Arctic is <200 mm, but most of Antarctica has even less. The Arctic and Antarctic Peninsula have warmed at twice the global average since the 1950's due to polar amplification.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Allison, I., Wendler, G., and Radok, U.. 1993. “Climatology of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (100 °E to 140 °E) Derived from Automatic Weather Stations.” Journal of Geophysical Research 98: 8815–23.
Andreas, E. L., and Ackley, S. F.. 1982. On the Differences in Ablation Seasons of Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice. CRREL Report 82–33. Hanover, NH: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab.
Arctic Climatology Project. 2000. Environmental Working Group Arctic Meteorology and Climate Atlas, edited by Fetterer, F. and Radionov, V.. Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice Data Center. doi: 10.7265/N5MS3QNJ
Ballinger, T. J., Schmidlin, T. W., and Steinhoff, D. F.. 2013. “The Polar Marine Climate Revisited.” Journal of Climate 26: 3935–52.
Barry, R. G., and Blanken, P. D.. 2016. Microclimate and Local Climate. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Barry, R. G., and Carleton, A. M.. 2001. Synoptic and Dynamic Climatology. London: Routledge.
Barry, R. G., and Hall-McKim, E. A.. 2014. Essentials of the Earth’s Climate System. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Barry, R. G., et al. 1987. “Arctic Cloudiness in Spring from Satellite Imagery.” Journal of Climatology 7: 423–51.
Belkin, I. M. 2004. “Propagation of the ‘Great Salinity Anomaly’ of the 1990s around the Northern North Atlantic.” Geophysical Research Letters 31: L08306.
Bogdanova, E. G., Ilyin, B. M., and Dragomilova, I. V.. 2002. “Application of an Improved Bias Correction Model to Precipitation Measured at Russian North Pole Drifting Stations.” Journal of Hydrometeorology 3: 700–13.
Bokhorst, S., et al. 2016. “Changing Arctic Snow Cover: A Review of Recent Developments and Assessment of Future Needs for Observations, Modelling, and Impacts.” AMBIO. doi: 10.1007/s13280-016-0770-0.
Bromwich, D. H. 1988. “Snowfall in High Southern Latitudes.” Reviews of Geophysics 26: 149–68.
Bromwich, D. H. 1989. “Satellite Analyses of Antarctic Katabatic Wind Behavior.” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 70: 738–49.
Bromwich, D. H., and Kurtz, D. D.. 1984. “Katabatic Wind Forcing of the Terra Nova Bay Polynya.” Journal of Geophysical Research 89(C3): 3561–72.
Bromwich, D. H., and Parish, T. R.. 1998. “Meteorology of the Antarctic.” In Meteorology of the Southern Hemisphere, edited by Karoly, D. J. and Vincent, D. G., 175–200. Meteorology Monographs 27(49).
Bromwich, D. H., Parish, T. R., and Zormanc, A.. 1990. “The Confluence Zone of the Intense Katabatic Winds at Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica, as Derived from Airborne Sastrugi Surveys and Mesoscale Numerical Modeling.” Journal of Geophysical Research 95(D5): 5495–509.
Bromwich, D. H., et al. 2013. “Central West Antarctica among the Most Rapidly Warming Regions on Earth.” Nature Geoscience 6: 139–45.
Callaghan, T., et al. 2011. “The Changing Face of Arctic Snow Cover: A Synthesis of Observed and Projected Changes.” AMBIO 40: 1731.
Carleton, A. M. 2002. “Synoptic Interactions between Antarctica and Lower Latitudes.” Australian Meteorological Magazine 40: 129–47.
Carleton, A. M., and Carpenter, D. A.. 1990. “Satellite Climatology of Polar Lows and Broad-Scale Climatic Associations for the Southern Hemisphere.” International Journal of Climatology 10: 219–46.
Carleton, A. M., and Fitch, M.. 1993. “Synoptic Aspects of Antarctic Meso-cyclones.” Journal of Geophysical Research 98: 1299713018.
Carmack, E. C., et al. 2016. “Freshwater and Its Role in the Arctic Marine System: Sources, Disposition, Storage, Export, and Physical and Biogeochemical Consequences in the Arctic and Global Oceans.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 121: 675717.
Carrasco, J. F., and Bromwich, D. H.. 1994. “Climatological Aspects of Mesoscale Cyclogenesis over the Ross Ice Shelf Regions of Antarctica.” Monthly Weather Review 122: 2405–25.
Cassano, J. J., Nigro, M. A., and Lazzara, M. A.. 2016. “Characteristics of the Near-Surface Atmosphere over the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmosphere 121, doi: 10.1002/2015JD024383.
Chernokulsky, A., and Mokhov, I. I.. 2012. “Climatology of Total Cloudiness in the Arctic: An Intercomparison of Observations and Reanalyses.” Advances in Meteorology, 542093. doi: 10.1155/2012/542093
Clem, K. R., et al. 2016. “The Relative Influence of ENSO and SAM on Antarctic Peninsula Climate.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmosphere. doi: 10.1002/2016JD025305.
Connolley, W. M. 1996. “The Antarctic Temperature Inversion.” International Journal of Climatology 16: 1333–42.
Connolley, W. M., and King, J. C.. 1993. “Atmospheric Water Vapour Transport to Antarctica Inferred from Radiosonde Data.” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 119: 325–42.
Costanza, C. A., et al. 2016. “The Surface Climatology of the Ross Ice Shelf Antarctica.” International M.C. Climatology 36: 4929–41.
Crawford, A., and Serreze, M. C.. 2015. “A New Look at the Summer Arctic Frontal Zone.” Journal of Climate 28: 737–54.
Crawford, A., and Serreze, M. C.. 2016. “Does the Summer Arctic Frontal Zone Influence Arctic Ocean Cyclone Activity?” Journal of Climate 39: 4977–93.
Cullather, R. I., and Bosilovich, M.G.. 2011. “The Moisture Budget of the Polar Atmosphere in MERRA.” Journal of Climate 24: 2861–79.
Cullather, R. I., Bromwich, D. H., and Van Woert, M. L.. 1998. “Spatial and Temporal Variability of Antarctic Precipitation from Atmospheric Methods.” Journal of Climate 11: 334–67.
Devasthale, A., et al. 2010. “Quantifying the Clear-Sky Temperature Inversion Frequency and Strength over the Arctic Ocean during Summer and Winter Seasons from AIRS Profiles.” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10: 5565–72.
Dickson, R. R., et al. 1988. “The ‘Great Salinity Anomaly’ in the Northern North Atlantic, 1968–1982.” Progress in Oceanography 20: 103–51.
Donahue, K. A., et al. 2016. “Mean Antarctic Circumpolar Current Transport Measured in Drake Passage.” Geophysical Research Letters 43: 760–7.
Dufour, A., Zolina, O., and Gulev, S. K.. 2016. “Atmospheric Moisture Transport to the Arctic: Assessment of Reanalyses and Analysis of Transport Components.” Journal of Climate 29: 5061–81.
Emery, W. J. 1977. “Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone from Australia to the Drake Passage.” Journal of Physical Oceanography 7: 811–22.
Fioletov, V. E. 2008. “Ozone Climatology, Trends, and Substances That Control Ozone.” Atmosphere and Ocean 46: 3967.
Fioletov, V. E., et al. 2002. “The Global Ozone and Zonal Total Ozone Variations Estimated from Ground-Based and Satellite Measurements: 1978–2000.” Journal of Geophysical Research 107: D22.
Fitch, M., and Carleton, A. M.. 1991. “Antarctic Mesocyclone Regimes from Satellite and Conventional Data.” Tellus, A 44: 180–96.
Fogt, R. L., et al. 2012. “The Characteristic Variability and Connection to the Underlying Synoptic Activity of the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Sea Low. Journal of Geophysical Research 117(D7): D07111.
Fristrup, B. 1961. “Climatological Studies of Some High Arctic Stations in North Greenland.” Physical Geography of Greenland. Folia Geogr. Danica (Copenhagen) 9: 6778.
Frolov, I. F., et al. 2005. The Arctic Basin: Results from the Russian Drifting Stations. Chichester, UK: Praxis Publishing.
Giovinetto, M. B., and Bentley, C. R.. 1985. “Surface Balance in Ice Drainage Systems of Antarctica.” Antarctica Journal U.S. 20(4): 613.
Goodison, B. E., and Metcalfe, J. R.. 1992. “The WMO Solid Precipitation Intercomparison: Canadian Assessment.” In WMO Technical Conference on Instruments and Method of Observation, WMO/TD No. 462, 221–5.
Gorshkov, S. G. 1980. Atlas of Oceans: Arctic Ocean. [In Russian]. Moscow: Military Defense Publishing House.
Groisman, P., et al. 2016. “Northern Eurasia Future Initiative: Facing the Challenges and Pathways of Global Change in the 21st Century.” [White paper].
Grytsal, A. V., et al. 2007. “Structure and Long-Term Change in the Zonal Asymmetry in Antarctic Total Ozone during Spring.” Annales Geophysicae 25(2): 361–74.
Haine, T. W. N., et al. 2015. “Arctic Freshwater Export: Status, Mechanisms, and Prospects.” Global and Planetary Change 125: 1335.
Häkkinen, S. 1999. “A Simulation of Thermohaline Effects of a Great Salinity Anomaly.” Journal of Climate 12: 1781–95.
Hartmann, D. L., Klein Tank, A. M. G., and Rusticucci, M.. 2013. “Observations, Atmosphere and Surface.” In Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by Stocker, T. F. et al., 159254. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hori, M., et al. 2017. “A 38-Year (1978–2015) Northern Hemisphere Daily Snow Cover Extent Product Derived Using Consistent Objective Criteria from Satellite-Borne Optical Sensors.” Remote Sensing of the Environment 191: 402–18.
Hudson, S. R., and Brandt, R. E.. 2005. “A Look at the Surface-Based Temperature Inversion on the Antarctic Plateau.” Journal of Climate 18(11): 1673–96.
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), and International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans (IAPSO). 2010. The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010: Calculation and Use of Thermodynamic Properties. IOC, UNESCO.
James, I. N. 1989. “The Antarctic Drainage Flow: Implications for Hemispheric Flow on the Southern Hemisphere.” Antarctic Science 1: 279–90.
Jiao, C., et al. 2014. “An AeroCom Assessment of Black Carbon in Arctic Snow and Sea Ice.” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14: 2399–417.
Johansson, E., et al. 2017. “Response of the Lower Troposphere to Moisture Intrusions into the Arctic.” Geophysical Research Letters 44: 2527–36.
Karoly, D. A., and Vincent, D. G.. 1998. Meteorology of the Southern Hemisphere. Boston: American Meteorological Society.
King, J. C. 1996. “Longwave Atmospheric Radiation over Antarctica.” Antarctic Science 8: 105–9.
King, J. C., and Turner, J.. 1997. Meteorology and Climatology of the Antarctic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kondratyev, K. Ya. 2003. “Arctic Atmosphere.” In Arctic Environment Variability in the Context of Global Change, edited by Bobylev, L. P. et al., 1788. Chichester, UK: Springer-Praxis.
Kort, V. G. 1964. “Antarctic Oceanography.” In Research in Geophysics. Vol. 2, edited by Odishaw, H., 309–33. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Krebs, S. J., and Barry, R. G.. 1970. “The Arctic Front and the Tundra–Taiga Boundary in Eurasia.” Geography Review 60: 548–54.
Lee, S., et al. 2017. “Revisiting the Cause of the 1989–2009 Arctic Surface Warming Using the Surface Energy Budget: Downward Infrared Radiation Dominates the Surface Fluxes.” Geophysical Research Letters 44. doi: 10.1002/2017GL075375.
Lewis, E. L., et al. 2000. The Freshwater Budget of the Arctic Ocean. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.
Liljedahl, A. K., et al. 2017. “Tundra Water Budget and Implications of Precipitation Underestimation.” Water Resources Research 53. doi: 10.1002/2016WR020001.
Liston, G. E., and Hiemstra, C. A.. 2011. “The Changing Cryosphere: Pan-Arctic Snow Trends (1979–2009).” Journal of Climate 24: 5691–712.
Lorenz, E. N. 1951. “Seasonal and Irregular Variations of the Northern Hemisphere Sea-Level Pressure Profile.” Journal of Meteorology 8(1): 52–9.
Marshall, G. J. 2003. “Trends in the Southern Annular Mode from Observations and Reanalyses.” Journal of Climate 16: 4134–43.
Marshall, G. J., and Turner, J.. 1997. “Katabatic Wind Propagation over the Western Ross Sea Observed Using ERS-1 Scatterometer Data.” Antarctic Science 9: 221–6.
Mayewski, P. A., et al. 2017. “Ice Core and Climate Reanalysis Analogs to Predict Antarctic and Southern Hemisphere Climate Changes.” Quaternary Science Reviews 155: 5066.
McBean, G., et al. 2005. “Arctic Climate: Past and Present.” In Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, 1960. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McCusker, K. E., Fyfe, J. C., and Sigmond, M.. 2016. “Twenty-Five Winters of Unexpected Eurasian Cooling Unlikely Due to Arctic Sea-Ice Loss.” Nature Geoscience 9: 838–42.
Melling, H., and Lewis, E. L.. 1982. “Shelf Drainage Flows in the Beaufort Sea and Their Effect on the Arctic Ocean Pycnocline.” Deep-Sea Research 29: 967–85.
Moore, G. W. K., and Renfrew, I. A.. 2005. “Tip Jets and Barrier Winds: A QuikSCAT Climatology of High Wind Speed Events around Greenland.” Journal of Climate 18: 3713–25.
Mudryk, L. R., et al. 2015. “Characterization of Northern Hemisphere Snow Water Equivalent Datasets, 1981–2010.” Journal of Climate 28: 8037–51.
Muto, A., et al. 2011. “Recent Surface Temperature Trends in the Interior of East Antarctica from Borehole Firn Temperature Measurements and Geophysical Inverse Methods.” Geophysical Research Letters 38: L15502.
Nowlin, W. D. Jr., Whitworth, T. III, and Pillsburry, R. D.. 1977. “Structure and Transport of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current at Drake Passage from Short-Term Measurements.” Journal of Physical Oceanography 7: 778802.
Orsi, A. H., Whitworth, T. III, and Nowlin, W. D.. 1995. “On the Meridional Extent and Fronts of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.” Deep-Sea Research 42: 641–73.
Orsi, A. J., Cornuelle, B. D., and Severinghaus, J. P.. 2012. “Little Ice Age Cold Interval in West Antarctica: Evidence from Borehole Temperature at the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide.” Geophysical Research Letters 39: L0971.
Overland, J. E. 2009. “Meteorology of the Beaufort Sea.” Journal of Geophysical Research 114(C1): C00A07.
Overland, J. E., and Wang, M.-Y.. 2016. “Recent Extreme Arctic Temperatures Are due to a Split Polar Vortex.” Journal of Climate 29: 5609–16.
Parish, T. R., and Bromwich, D. H.. 1987. “The Surface Wind Field over the Antarctic Ice Sheets.” Nature 328: 51–4.
Parish, T. R., and Cassano, J. J.. 2003. “The Role of Katabatic Winds on the Antarctic Surface Wind Regime.” Monthly Weather Reviews 131: 317–33.
Park, H., et al. 2013. “The Role of Declining Arctic Sea Ice in Recent Decreasing Terrestrial Arctic Snow Depths.” Polar Science 7: 174–82.
Perovich, D. K., et al. 2002. “Seasonal Evolution of the Albedo of Multiyear Arctic Sea Ice.” Journal of Geophysical Research 107(C10): 8044.
Persson, P. O. G. 2002. “Measurements near the Atmospheric Surface Flux Group Tower at SHEBA: Near Surface Conditions and Surface Energy Budget.” Journal of Geophysical Research 107(C10): C000705.
Phillpot, H. R., and Zillman, J. W.. 1970. “The Surface Temperature Inversions over the Antarctic Continent.” Journal of Geophysical Research 75(21): 4161–9.
Pithan, F., and Mauritsen, T.. 2014. “Arctic Amplification Dominated by Temperature Feedbacks in Contemporary Climate Models.” Nature Geoscience 7: 181–4.
Polyakov, I. V., et al. 2003. “Variability and Trends of Air Temperature and Pressure in the Maritime Arctic.” Journal of Climate 16: 2078–85.
Polyani, L. M., et al. 2011. “Stratospheric Ozone Depletion: The Main Driver of Twentieth-Century Atmospheric Circulation Changes in the Southern Hemisphere.” Journal of Climate 24: 795812.
Prowse, T. D., et al. 2015. “Arctic Freshwater Synthesis: Introduction.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeoscience 120(11): 2121–31.
Pryzbylak, R., et al. 2010. “Air Temperature Changes in the Arctic from 1801 to 1920.” International Journal of Climatology 30: 791812.
Pryzbylak, R., et al. 2016. “Air Temperature Changes in Svalbard and the Surrounding Seas from 1865 to 1920.” International Journal of Climatology 36: 2899–916.
Qian, W.-H., Wu, K.-J., and Liang, H.-Y.. 2015. “Arctic and Antarctic Cells in the Troposphere.” Theoretical and Applied Climatology. doi: 10.1007/s00704-015-1485-z.
Raphael, M. N., et al. 2016. “The Amundsen Sea Low: Variability, Change, and Impact on Antarctic Climate.” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 97(1): 111–21.
Rasmussen, E. A., and Turner, J., eds. 2003. Polar Lows: Mesoscale Weather Systems in the Polar Regions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rudels, B. 2015. “Arctic Ocean Circulation, Processes and Water Masses: A Description of Observations and Ideas with Focus on the Period Prior to the International Polar Year 2007–2009.” Progress in Oceanography 132: 2267.
Scambos, T., et al. 2013. “The Coldest Place on Earth.”
Screen, J. A., and Francis, J. A.. 2016. “Contribution of Sea-Ice Loss to Arctic Amplification Is Regulated by Pacific Ocean Decadal Variability.” Nature Climate Change 6: 856–60.
Screen, J., and Simmonds, I.. 2010. “The Central Role of Diminishing Sea Ice in Recent Arctic Temperature Amplification.” Nature 464: 1334–7.
Serreze, M. C., and Barrett, A. P.. 2008. “The Summer Cyclone Maximum over the Central Arctic Ocean.” Journal of Climate 21: 1048–65.
Serreze, M. C., and Barrett, A. P.. 2011. “Characteristics of the Beaufort Sea High.” Journal of Climate 24: 159–82.
Serreze, M. C., and Barry, R. G.. 2011. “Processes and Impacts of Arctic Amplification: A Research Synthesis.” Global and Planetary Change 77: 8596.
Serreze, M. C., and Barry, R. G.. 2014. The Arctic Climate System. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Serreze, M. C., and Hurst, C. M.. 2000. “Representation of Mean Arctic Precipitation from NCEP–NCAR and ERA Reanalyses.” Journal of Climate 13: 182201.
Serreze, M. C., Lynch, A. H., and Clarke, M. P.. 2001. “The Arctic Frontal Zone as Seen in the NCEP–NCAR Reanalysis.” Journal of Climate 14: 1550–67.
Serreze, M. C., et al. 2006. “The Large-Scale Freshwater Cycle of the Arctic.” Journal of Geophysical Research 111: C11010.
Sharma, E., et al. 2006. “Variations and Sources of the Equivalent Black Carbon in the High Arctic Revealed by Long-Term Observations at Alert and Barrow: 1989–2003.” Journal of Geophysical Research 111: D14208.
Shiklomanov, I. A. 2000. “The Dynamics of River Water Inflow to the Arctic Ocean.” In The Freshwater Budget of the Arctic Ocean, edited by Lewis, E. L. et al., 281–96. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Sievers, H. A., and Emery, W. J.. 1978. “Variability of the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone in the Drake Passage – Summer 1976–77. Journal of Geophysical Research 83: 3010–22.
Simmonds, I. 1998. “The Climate of the Antarctic Region.” In Climates of the Southern Continents: Past, Present and Future, edited by Hobbs, J. E., Lindesay, J. A., and Bridgman, H. A., 137–60. Chichester, UK: Wiley and Sons.
Stolarski, R. S., and Frith, S.. 2006. “Search for Evidence of Trend Slowdown in the Long-Term TOMS/SBUV Total Ozone Data Record: The Importance of Instrument Drift Uncertainty.” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6: 4057–65.
Stone, R. S., et al. 2014. “A Characterization of Arctic Aerosols on the Basis of Aerosol Optical Depth and Black Carbon Measurements.” Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene 2: 27.
Streten, N. A. 1990. “A Review of the Climate of Mawson: A Representative Strong Wind Site in East Antarctica.” Antarctic Science 2: 7989.
Swinbank, W. C. 1963. “Long-Wave Radiation from Clear Skies.” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 89: 339–48.
Tanaka, H. L., et al. 2012. “The Structure and Behavior of the Arctic Cyclone in Summer Analyzed by the JRA-25/JCDAS Data.” Polar Science 6: 5569.
Tanis, F., and Timokhov, I., eds. 1997. Joint U.S.–Russian Atlas for the Arctic Ocean: Oceanographic Atlas for the Winter Period. [Digital media.] Boulder, CO: Environmental Working Group, University of Colorado, National Snow and Ice Data Center.
Tanis, F., and Timokhov, I., eds. 1998. Joint U.S.–Russian Atlas for the Arctic Ocean: Oceanographic Atlas for the Summer Period. [Digital media.] Boulder, CO: Environmental Working Group, University of Colorado, National Snow and Ice Data Center.
Teppei, J., et al. 2015. “Impact of Snow Darkening via Dust, Black Carbon, and Organic Carbon on Boreal Spring Climate in the Earth System.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmosphere 120: 5485–503.
Thompson, D. W. J., and Wallace, J. M.. 1998. “The Arctic Oscillation Signature in the Wintertime Geopotential Height and Temperature Fields.” Geophysical Research Letters 25(9): 1297–300.
Tietãväinen, H., and Vihma, T.. 2008. “Atmospheric Moisture Budget over Antarctica and the Southern Ocean Based on the ERA-40 Reanalysis.” International Journal of Climatology 28: 1977–95.
Tjernstrom, M., and Graversen, R. G.. 2009. “The Vertical Structure of the Lower Arctic Troposphere Analysed from Observations and ERA-40 Reanalysis.” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 135(639): 431–43.
Town, M. S., Walden, V. P., and Warren, S. G.. 2007. “Cloud Cover over the South Pole from Visual Observations, Satellite Retrievals, and Surface-Based Infrared Radiation Measurement.” Journal of Climate 20: 544–59.
Turner, J., and Marshall, G. J.. 2011. Climate Change in the Polar Regions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Turner, J., et al. 1995. “The Synoptic Origins of Precipitation over the Antarctic Peninsula.” Antarctic Science 7: 327–37.
Turner, J., et al. 2013. “The Amundsen Sea Low.” International Journal of Climatology 33: 1818–29.
Turner, J., et al. 2014. “Antarctic Climate Change and the Environment: An Update.” Polar Record 50: 237–59.
Turner, J., et al. 2016. “Variability and Trends in the Southern Hemisphere High Latitude, Quasi-Stationary Planetary Waves.” International Journal of Climatology. doi: 10.1002/joc.4848.
Uotila, P., et al. 2011. “Relationships between Antarctic Cyclones and Surface Conditions as Derived from High-Resolution Numerical Weather Prediction Data.” Journal of Geophysical Research 116: D07109.
Uttal, T., et al. 2002. “Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean.” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 83: 255–75.
Van Den Broeke, M. R. 1998. “The Semi-Annual Oscillation and Antarctic Climate, Part I: Influence on Near-Surface Temperatures.” Antarctic Science 10: 175–83.
van Loon, H. 1967. “The Half-Yearly Oscillation in the Middle and High Southern Latitudes and the Coreless Winter.” Journal of Atmospheric Science 24: 472–86.
Vázquez, M., et al. 2016. “Moisture Transport into the Arctic: Source–Receptor Relationships and the Roles of Atmospheric Circulation and Evaporation.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmosphere. doi: 10.1002/2016JD025400.
Verezemskaya, P., et al. 2017. “Southern Ocean Mesocyclones and Polar Lows from Manually Tracked Satellite Mosaics.” Geophysical Research Letters 44. doi: 10.1002/2017GL074053.
Wang, L., et al. 2016. “Frequency and Distribution of Winter Melt Events from Passive Microwave Satellite Data in the Pan-Arctic, 1988–2013.” Cryosphere Discussion. doi: 10.5194/tc-2016-126.
Warren, S. G., et al. 1999. “Snow Depth on the Arctic Sea Ice.” Journal of Climate 12: 1814–29.
Weber, M., et al. 2007. “Improved SCIAMACHY WFDOAS Total Ozone Retrieval: Steps towards Homogenising Long-Term Total Ozone Datasets from GOME, SCIAMACHY, and GOME2.” In Proceedings of the Envisat Symposium. ESA SP-636. Montreux, Switzerland: European Space Agency.
Weber, M., et al. 2012. “Stratospheric ozone.” In State of the Climate in 2011. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 93(7 suppl): S46–9.
Webster, M. A., et al. 2015. “Seasonal Evolution of Melt Ponds on Arctic Sea Ice.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 120: 5968–82.
Wegman, M., et al. 2015. “Arctic Moisture Source for Eurasian Snow Cover Variations in Autumn.” Environmental Research Letters 10: 054015.
Weller, G. 1969. “A Meridional Surface Wind Speed Profile in MacRobertson Land Antarctica.” Pure and Applied Geophysics 77: 193200.
Wendisch, M., et al. 2017. “Understanding Causes and Effects of Rapid Warming in the Arctic.” Eos 98. doi: 10.1029/2017EO064803.
Wendler, G., and Kodama, Y.. 1993. “The Kernlose Winter in Adelie Coast.” In Antarctic Meteorology and Climatology: Studies Based on Automatic Weather Stations, edited by Bromwich, D. H. and Stearns, C. R., 139–47. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union.
Wexler, H. 1959. “Seasonal and Other Temperature Changes in the Antarctic Atmosphere.” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 85: 196205.
Wu, B., Wang, J., and Walsh, J. E.. 2006. “Dipole Anomaly in the Winter Arctic Atmosphere and Its Association with Sea Ice Motion.” Journal of Climate 19: 210–25.
Wyrtki, K. 1960. “The Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Antarctic Polar Front.” Dtsch. Hydr. Z. 13(4): 153–74.
Zektser, I. S., and Dzhamalov, R. G.. 1988. Role of Ground Water in the Hydrological Cycle and in Continental Water Balance. Paris: UNESCO International Hydrological Programme IHP-III.
Zhang, J.-K., et al. 2016. “Persistent Shift of the Arctic Polar Vortex towards the Eurasian Continent in Recent Decades.” Nature Climate Change 6: 1094–9.
Zhang, K., et al. 2009. “Satellite Based Analysis of Northern ET Trends and Associated Changes in the Regional Water Balance from1983 to 2005.” Journal of Hydrology 379(1): 92110.