Standards for Blood Banks and Transfusion Services. 25th ed. 2008, Bethesda MD:American Association of Blood Banks. ed.
Technical Manual of the American Association of Blood Banks, , ed. 2008, Bethesda MD:American Association of Blood Banks: 639–63. Neonatal and pediatric transfusion practice. In
Anemia of prematurity. Current concepts in the issue of when to transfuse. Pediatr Clin North Am 1986;33:111–28., 3rd.
Blood Components. In Pediatric Transfusion: A Physician’s Handbook, , ed. 2006, Bethesda, MD:American Association of Blood Banks: 1–52.
Blood sampling in very low birth weight infants receiving different levels of intensive care. Eur J Pediatr 1988;147:399–404., ,
Minimizing donor blood exposure in the neonatal intensive care unit. Current trends and future prospects. Clin Perinatol 1995;22:657–69.,
Small volume red blood cell transfusions for neonatal patients. Transfus Med Rev 1995;9:187–99.,
Treatment and prevention of neonatal anemia. NeoReviews 2008;9 (11):e526–33.
Variations in transfusion practice in neonatal intensive care. Pediatrics 1998;101:194–200., , , et al.
Variations in blood transfusions among newborn intensive care units. SNAP II Study Group. J Pediatr 1998;133:601–7., , , et al.
The physiologic impact of anemia in the neonate. Clin Perinatol 1995;22:609–25.
Red cell transfusions in the newborn. Semin Neonatol 1999;4:5–16.,
Recommendations to increase the validity and comparability of peripheral measurements by near infrared spectroscopy in neonates. “Round table,” section of haematology, oxygen transport and microcirculation, 48th annual meeting of ESPR, Prague 2007. Neonatology 2008;94:320–2., , , et al.
Is near-infrared spectroscopy living up to its promises?Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2006;11:498–502..
Guidelines for assessing appropriateness of pediatric transfusion. Transfusion 2002;42:1398–413., , .
How I transfuse red blood cells and platelets to infants with the anemia and thrombocytopenia of prematurity. Transfusion 2008;48:209–17.
The Premature Infants in Need of Transfusion (PINT) study: a randomized, controlled trial of a restrictive (low) versus liberal (high) transfusion threshold for extremely low birth weight infants. J Pediatr 2006;149:301–7., , , et al.
Randomized trial of liberal versus restrictive guidelines for red blood cell transfusion in preterm infants. Pediatrics 2005;115:1685–91., , , et al.
Neurocognitive profiles of preterm infants randomly assigned to lower or higher hematocrit thresholds for transfusion. Child Neuropsychol 2011;17:347–67., , , , , .
Long-term outcome of brain structure in premature infants: effects of liberal vs restricted red blood cell transfusions. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine 2011;165:443–50., , , et al.
Neurodevelopmental outcome of extremely low birth weight infants randomly assigned to restrictive or liberal hemoglobin thresholds for blood transfusion. Pediatrics 2009;123:207–13., , , et al.
Association of necrotizing enterocolitis with elective packed red blood cell transfusions in stable, growing, premature neonates. Am J Perinatol 2006;23:451–8., , , et al.
Transfusion-related acute gut injury: necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight neonates after packed red blood cell transfusion. The Journal of pediatrics 2011;158:403–9., , , , , .
Increased odds of necrotizing enterocolitis after transfusion of red blood cells in premature infants. Pediatrics 2011;127:635–41., , , , , .
Association of necrotizing enterocolitis with anemia and packed red blood cell transfusions in preterm infants. J Perinatol 2011;31:176–82., , , 3rd, et al.
Do red cell transfusions increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants?The Journal of pediatrics 2010;157:972–8., , , et al.
Safety and efficacy of AS-1 red blood cell use in neonates. Transfus Apher Sci 2001;24:111–15.,
Feasibility and safety of AS-3 red blood cells for neonatal transfusions. J Pediatr 2000;136:215–19., , , et al.
Commentary on the safety of red cells preserved in extended-storage media for neonatal transfusions. Transfusion 1991;31:229–35., , .
Universal leukoreduction decreases the incidence of febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions to RBCs. Transfusion 2004;44:25–9., , , et al.
Reduction of febrile but not allergic reactions to RBCs and platelets after conversion to universal prestorage leukoreduction. Transfusion 2004;44:16–24., , , et al.
Leukocyte reduction and ultraviolet B irradiation of platelets to prevent alloimmunization and refractoriness to platelet transfusions. The Trial to Reduce Alloimmunization to Platelets Study Group. N Engl J Med 1997;337:1861–9.
Transfusion volume in infants with very low birth weight: a randomized trial of 10 versus 20 ml/kg. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2002;24:43–6., , , et al.
Techniques for warming red blood cells packaged in different containers for neonatal use. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1985;24:642–4., , .
Effects of environmental warming on blood components dispensed in syringes for neonatal transfusions. J Pediatr 1986;109:109–13., , , et al.
Blood Components. In Blood Transfusion Therapy: A Physician’s Handbook, , ed. 2005, Bethesda MD:AABB.
Massive transfusion in the neonate. Transfus Med Rev 1995;9:200–14..
Comparison of the hemostatic effects of fresh whole blood, stored whole blood, and components after open heart surgery in children. Blood 1991;77:930–6., , , et al.
A trial of fresh autologous whole blood to treat dilutional coagulopathy following cardiopulmonary bypass in infants. Paediatr Anaesth 2006;16:429–35., , , et al.
Fresh whole blood versus reconstituted blood for pump priming in heart surgery in infants. N Engl J Med 2004;351:1635–44., , , et al.
Reconstituted fresh whole blood improves clinical outcomes compared with stored component blood therapy for neonates undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass for cardiac surgery: a randomized controlled trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2008;136:1442–9., , , et al.
Changing patterns of red blood cell transfusion in very low birth weight infants. J Pediatr 1996;129:680–7., , , et al.
Transfusion therapy in neonates. Am J Dis Child 1991;145:904–11.
Reducing blood donor exposures in low birth weight infants by the use of older, unwashed packed red blood cells. J Pediatr 1995;126:280–6., , , et al.
AS-1 red cells for neonatal transfusions: a randomized trial assessing donor exposure and safety. Transfusion 1996;36:873–8., , , et al.
Comparison of two preservation solutions for erythrocyte transfusions in newborn infants. J Pediatr 1993;123:783–8., , , et al.
A method to collect, store and issue multiple aliquots of packed red blood cells for neonatal transfusions. Vox Sang 1995;68:77–81., , .
Evaluation of a filter-syringe set for preparation of packed cell aliquots for neonatal transfusion. Am J Clin Pathol 1995;104:253–7.
Reduction of donor exposures in premature infants by the use of designated adenine-saline preserved split red blood cell packs. J Perinatol 2001;21:363–7., , , et al.
Prospective, randomized trial of the safety and efficacy of a limited donor exposure transfusion program for premature neonates. J Pediatr 1994;125:92–6., , .
Single blood donor exposure programme for preterm infants: a large open study and an analysis of the risk factors to multiple donor exposure. Eur J Pediatr 1998;157:579–82., , , et al.
A novel strategy to limit blood donor exposure and blood waste in multiply transfused premature infants. Transfusion 1996;36:64–70., , , et al.
Randomized trial assessing the feasibility and safety of biologic parents as RBC donors for their preterm infants. Transfusion 2000;40:450–6., , , et al.
Directed and limited-exposure blood donations for infants and children. Transfusion 1990;30:68–72., Jr, , et al.
Biological mothers may be dangerous blood donors for their neonates. Acta Haematol 1991;85:189–91., , , et al.
Is there a role for erythropoietin in neonatal medicine?Early Hum Dev 2008;84:525–32..
Recombinant human erythropoietin stimulates erythropoiesis and reduces erythrocyte transfusions in very low birth weight preterm infants. Pediatrics 1995;95:1–8., 3rd, , et al.
The effect of epoetin beta (recombinant human erythropoietin) on the need for transfusion in very-low-birth-weight infants. European Multicentre Erythropoietin Study Group. N Engl J Med 1994;330:1173–8., , , et al.
Recombinant human erythropoietin in the treatment of the anemia of prematurity: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Pediatrics 1994;93:918–23., , , et al.
Recombinant erythropoietin and blood transfusion in selected preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2003;88:F41–5., , .
Effects of early erythropoietin therapy on the transfusion requirements of preterm infants below 1250 grams birth weight: a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics 2001;108:934–42., , , et al.
Anemia in the preterm infant: erythropoietin versus erythrocyte transfusion – it’s not that simple. Clin Perinatol 2009;36:111–23.,
Late erythropoietin for preventing red blood cell transfusion in preterm and/or low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;3:CD004868.,
Early versus late erythropoietin for preventing red blood cell transfusion in preterm and/or low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;3:CD004865.,
Early erythropoietin for preventing red blood cell transfusion in preterm and/or low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;3:CD004863.,
An approach to using recombinant erythropoietin for neuroprotection in very preterm infants. Pediatrics 2008;122:375–82., , , et al.
Management of anemia in the newborn. Early Hum Dev 2008;84:493–8.
Cord blood as a source of autologous RBCs for transfusion to preterm infants. Transfusion 2000;40:1111–17., , , et al.
Usefulness of cord-blood harvesting for autologous transfusion in surgical newborns with antenatal diagnosis of congenital anomalies. J Pediatr Surg 2001;36:851–4., , , et al.
Efficacy, recovery, and safety of RBCs from autologous placental blood: clinical experience in 52 newborns. Transfusion 2003;43:1210–16., , , et al.
Autologous red cells derived from cord blood: collection, preparation, storage and quality controls with optimal additive storage medium (Sag-mannitol). Transfus Med 2003;13:303–10., , , et al.
Collection and 28-day storage of human placental blood. Pediatr Res 1994;36:90–4., , , et al.
Infants’ blood volume in a controlled trial of placental transfusion at preterm delivery. Pediatrics 2006;117:93–8., , , et al.
Early versus delayed umbilical cord clamping in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004:CD003248., ,
A systematic review and meta-analysis of a brief delay in clamping the umbilical cord of preterm infants. Neonatology 2008;93:138–44., ,
Theophylline toxicity in a premature neonate – elimination kinetics of exchange transfusion. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1993;31:639–44., , , , .
Exchange transfusion treatment in a newborn with phenobarbital intoxication. Pediatr Emerg Care 1999;15:268–70., , , et al.
Treatment of hyperkalemia with exchange transfusion. Transfusion 1985;25:390–1., ,
Interventions for non-oliguric hyperkalaemia in preterm neonates. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007:CD005257.,
Exchange transfusion in neutropenic septicemic neonates: effect on granulocyte functions. Acta Paediatr 1993;82:939–43., , , et al.
High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in neonatal immune haemolytic jaundice. Acta Paediatr 1999;88:216–19., , , et al.
Intravenous immunoglobulins in rhesus hemolytic disease. Indian J Pediatr 2003;70:697–9., , , et al.
High-dose intravenous immune globulin therapy for hyperbilirubinemia caused by Rh hemolytic disease. J Pediatr 1992;121:93–7., , , et al.
Efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin in the management of haemolytic disease of the newborn. Ir Med J 2008; 101:46–8., , , et al.
Immunoglobulin infusion for isoimmune haemolytic jaundice in neonates. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002:CD003313.,
Intraverous immunoglobulin in neonates with rhesus hemolytic disease: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics 2011;127(4):680–6., , , et al.
Alloimmune cytopenias. In Pediatric Transfusion: A Physician’s Handbook, , ed. 2006, Bethesda, MD:American Association of Blood Banks:53–71.
Exchange transfusions. In Atlas of Procedures in Neonatology, , , eds. 2002, Philadelphia:JB Lippincott.
Cerebral blood volume changes during exchange transfusions in infants born at or near term. J Pediatr 1994;125:617–21., , , et al.
Adverse events associated with exchange transfusion in healthy and ill newborns. Pediatrics 1997;99: E7..
Adverse events associated with neonatal exchange transfusion in the 1990s. J Pediatr 2004;144:626–31., , , et al.
Evaluation of adverse events due to exchange transfusions in term and near-term newborns (abstract). Pediatr Res 2001;49:324., ,
Neonatal polycythemia and hyperviscosity. Clin Perinatol 1995;22:693–710.
Neonatal hyperviscosity: randomized study of effect of partial plasma exchange transfusion on long-term outcome. Pediatrics 1985;75:1048–53.. , , et al.
Neonatal hyperviscosity association with lower achievement and IQ scores at school age. Pediatrics 1989;83:662–7., , , et al.
Randomised controlled trial: comparison of colloid or crystalloid for partial exchange transfusion for treatment of neonatal polycythaemia. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1997;77:F115–18., , , et al.
Gastrointestinal injury in polycythemic term infants. Pediatrics 1985;76:225–31., , et al.
Management of rhesus alloimmunization in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2008;112:164–76. Jr.
Fetal transfusion for red blood cell alloimmunization in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1996;88:137–50., Jr.
Red blood cell alloimmunization in pregnancy. Semin Hematol 2005;42:169–78..
Complications of intrauterine intravascular transfusion for fetal anemia due to maternal red-cell alloimmunization. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;192:171–7., , , et al.
Intravascular transfusion of fetuses with rhesus incompatibility: prediction of fetal outcome by changes in umbilical venous pressure. Obstet Gynecol 1992;80:286–90., Jr, , et al.
The severely anemic and hydropic isoimmune fetus: changes in fetal hematocrit associated with intrauterine death. Obstet Gynecol 1992;79:390–3., , , et al.
Outcome for children treated with fetal intravascular transfusions because of severe blood group antagonism. J Pediatr 1997;131:373–80., , , et al.
Pediatric outcome in Rhesus hemolytic disease treated with and without intrauterine transfusion. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008;198:54 e1–4., , , et al.
Prenatal diagnosis and management of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. Semin Perinatol 1997;21:45–52., , , et al.
Alloimmune thrombocytopenia of the fetus and the newborn. Blood Rev 2002;16:69–72..
Intrauterine fetal transfusions in the management of fetal anemia and fetal thrombocytopenia. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2007;12:432–8.,
New insights into the mechanisms of nonimmune thrombocytopenia in neonates. Semin Perinatol 2009;33:43–51., ,
A randomized, controlled trial of platelet transfusions in thrombocytopenic premature infants. J Pediatr 1993;123:285–91., , , et al.
Platelet transfusion in the management of severe thrombocytopenia in neonatal intensive care unit patients. Transfus Med 2002;12:35–41., , , et al.
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura complicating pregnancy. Blood Rev 2002;16:43–6..
Maternal characteristics and risk of severe neonatal thrombocytopenia and intracranial hemorrhage in pregnancies complicated by autoimmune thrombocytopenia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997;177:149–55., , , et al.
Thrombocytopenia in the neonate. Blood Rev 2008;22:173–86., ,
Management and outcome of 200 cases of fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. Transfusion 2007;47:901–10., , , et al.
Hemolysis following an out-of-group platelet transfusion in an 8-month-old with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2004;26:267–9.,
Perinatal Issues in Transfusion Practice, In Technical Manual of the American Association of Blood Banks, , et al. eds. 2008, Bethesda, MD:American Association of Blood Banks:625–638..
2005. 453;author reply 453–4. Risk of Rh(D) alloimmunization after transfusion of platelets from D+ donors to D- recipients, in transfusion.
Antigen-positive platelet transfusion in neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT). Blood 2006;107:3761–3., , , et al.
Study of coagulation factor activities in apheresed thawed fresh frozen plasma at 1–6 degrees C for five days. J Clin Apher 2006;21:224–6., , , .
Blood components and fractionated plasma products: preparations, indications, and administration. In Pediatric Hematology, , , , eds. 2006, Malden, MA: Blackwell:693–706., .
Solvent/detergent-treated plasma: composition, efficacy, and safety. Curr Opin Hematol 2004;11:346–50..
Randomised trial of prophylactic early fresh-frozen plasma or gelatin or glucose in preterm babies: outcome at 2 years. Northern Neonatal Nursing Initiative Trial Group. Lancet 1996;348:229–32.
Effect of fresh frozen plasma and gammaglobulin on humoral immunity in neonatal sepsis. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1994;70:F182–7., , , et al.
Predicting and treating coagulopathies after cardiopulmonary bypass in children. Anesth Analg 1997;85:1196–202., , , et al.
Blood component therapy. Pediatr Clin North Am 2008;421–45, ix.,
Neutrophil production and function in newborn infants. Br J Haematol 2000;110:18–28..
Preterm infants with low immunoglobulin G levels have increased risk of neonatal sepsis but do not benefit from prophylactic immunoglobulin G. J Pediatr 2000;137:623–8., , , et al.
Granulocyte transfusions for neonates with confirmed or suspected sepsis and neutropaenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003:CD003956.,
Equivalent mobilization and collection of granulocytes for transfusion after administration of glycosylated G-CSF (3 microg/kg) plus dexamethasone versus glycosylated G-CSF (12 microg/kg) alone. Transfusion 2002;42:928–34., , , et al.
Meta-analysis of clinical studies of the efficacy of granulocyte transfusions in the treatment of bacterial sepsis. J Clin Apher 1996;11:1–9.,
G-CSF and GM-CSF for treating or preventing neonatal infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003:CD003066., ,
Randomized trial of granulocyte transfusions versus intravenous immune globulin therapy for neonatal neutropenia and sepsis. J Pediatr 1992;120:281–5., , , et al.
A near-fatal reaction during granulocyte transfusion of a neonate. Transfusion 1988;28:173–6., , , et al.
Sudden death following white cell transfusion in a premature infant. J Perinatol 1987;7:90–2., , , et al.
Granulocyte transfusion therapy and amphotericin B: adverse reactions?Am J Hematol 1989;31:102–8., , , , , .
Handbook of Pediatric Transfusion Medicine, , , , eds. 2004, London, UK: Elsevier Academic Press, 181–9., Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and cardiopulmonary bypass. In
Blood use during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Transfusion 1990;30:307–9., , , et al.
Decreasing transfusion exposure risk during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Transfus Med 1992;2:43–9., Jr, , et al.
Pediatric Hematology, , , , eds. 2006, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing;724–44., Hazards of transfusion. In
Comparing alloimmunization in preterm infants after transfusion of fresh unmodified versus stored leukocyte-reduced red blood cells. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1999;21:224–30., , , et al.
T activation. Br J Haematol 2001;112:259–63.,
Transfusion Reactions, , ed. 2007, Bethesda, MD: AABB Press;459–500., Complications of neonatal transfusion. In
Noninfectious adverse effects of blood transfusion in the neonate. Transfus Med Rev 1995;9:277–87., ,
Transfusions via hand-held syringes and small-gauge needles as risk factors for hyperkalemia. Transfusion 2004;44:373–81., .
Transfusion related acute lung injury: a pediatric perspective. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2005;45:248–55.,
Transfusion-related acute lung injury. In Transfusion Reactions, ed. 2007, Bethesda, MD: AABB Press;207–28.,
Transfusion-related acute lung injury resulting from designated blood transfusion between mother and child: a report of two cases. Am J Clin Pathol 2004;121:590–2., ,
Graft versus host disease in extremely low birth weight neonate. Pediatrics 1992;89:689–90., , , et al.
Graft versus host disease after blood transfusions in a premature infant. Pediatrics 1991;87:247–50., , , et al.
Posttransfusion graft-versus-host disease in infancy. J Pediatr 1990;117:159–63.,
Data-driven blood banking practices for neonatal RBC transfusions. Transfusion 2000;40:1528–40..
Posttransfusion graft-versus-host disease in Japanese newborns. Transfusion 1996;36:117–23., .
The effect of prestorage irradiation on posttransfusion red cell survival. Transfusion 1992;32:525–8., , , et al.
Whole blood versus red cells and plasma for exchange transfusion in ABO haemolytic disease. Transfus Med 2005;15:313–18., , , et al.
Exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate among premature neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatrics 2004;113:e429–34., , , et al.
Exposure of newborn infants to di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate and 2-ethylhexanoic acid following exchange transfusion with polyvinylchloride catheters. Transfusion 1993;33:598–605., , , et al.
Pediatric exposure and potential toxicity of phthalate plasticizers. Pediatrics 2003;111:1467–74..
Current risk for transfusion transmitted infections. Curr Opin Hematol 2007;14:671–6..
Progression of human immunodeficiency virus disease among infants and children infected perinatally with human immunodeficiency virus or through neonatal blood transfusion. Los Angeles County Pediatric AIDS Consortium and the Los Angeles County–University of Southern California Medical Center and the University of Southern California School of Medicine. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1994;13:1091–7., , , et al.
Unrecognized human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in a cohort of transfused neonates: a retrospective investigation. Pediatrics 1995;95:717–21., , , et al.
Transfusion-transmitted hepatitis virus infection. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 1995;9:137–54..
Long-term mortality and morbidity of transfusion-associated non-A, non-B, and type C hepatitis: a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute collaborative study. Hepatology 2001;33:455–63., , , et al.
Long-term outcome (35 years) of hepatitis C after acquisition of infection through mini transfusions of blood given at birth. Hepatology 2004;39:90–6., , , et al.
The epidemiology of transfusion-associated hepatitis C in a children’s hospital. Transfusion 2007;47:615–20., , , et al.
Clinical spectrum and histopathologic features of chronic hepatitis C infection in children. J Pediatr 2007;150:168–74, 174 e1., , , et al.
Pathology of chronic hepatitis C in children: liver biopsy findings in the Peds-C Trial. Hepatology 2008;47:836–43., , , et al.
Managing pediatric hepatitis C: current and emerging treatment options. Ther Clin Risk Manag 2009;5:651–60., ,
Disseminated cytomegalovirus after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1992;11:241–3., , .
A comparison of filtered leukocyte-reduced and cytomegalovirus (CMV) seronegative blood products for the prevention of transfusion-associated CMV infection after marrow transplant. Blood 1995;86:3598–603., , , et al.
Transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus infection after receipt of leukoreduced blood products. Blood 2003;101(10):4195–200., , , et al.
Lack of difference in cytomegalovirus transmission via the transfusion of filtered-irradiated and nonfiltered-irradiated blood to newborn infants in an endemic area. Transfusion 1999;39:201–5., ,
West Nile virus among blood donors in the United States, 2003 and 2004. N Engl J Med 2005;353:451–9., , , , , .
Birth outcomes following West Nile Virus infection of pregnant women in the United States: 2003–2004. Pediatrics 2006;117:e537–45., , , et al.
Emerging infectious diseases that threaten the blood supply. Semin Hematol 2007;44:32–41., ,
Pathogen reduction: a precautionary principle paradigm. Transfus Med Rev 2008;22:97–102..