Movement disorders are a group of neurological disorders often without an identifiable etiology or manifestations of genetic or neurodegenerative disorders. Classical examples include idiopathic Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, various forms of dystonia, chorea, myoclonus, tics, and other hypokinetic and hyperkinetic movement disorders. These and other movement disorders may also occur as presenting or prominent features of general neurological disorders such as stroke, encephalitis, multiple sclerosis, or CNS tumors. Moreover, they may also occur in the setting of a wide spectrum of systemic diseases, including metabolic and endocrine disorders, intoxications, hematological diseases, cancer, or infection. These latter situations where movement disorders are the hallmark of general neurologic or systemic conditions is when clinicians may face challenges of diagnosis and treatment. Affected patients may present to the internists and other physicians, including neurologists not skilled in movement disorders, who may be unfamiliar with the phenomenology or differential diagnosis.
We have invited an eminent group of international experts to contribute to this textbook, which we hope will serve as a reference guide to both neurologists and non-neurologists, residents, and consultant specialists who encounter patients with movement disorders in the setting of systemic or general neurological conditions. Following an introductory section summarizing the principles of the clinical approach to correctly classify movement disorder syndromes, their underlying pathophysiology, and their management, the different chapters provide comprehensive information on the clinical features, prevalence, pathophysiology, and diagnostic and management approach to specific classes of systemic or general neurologic conditions, where affected patients may present with movement disorders. We have also included a section addressing the important field of systemic complications occurring in the setting of primary movement disorder syndromes, including problems of swallowing, gastrointestinal dysfunction, orthostatic hypotension, and other types of autonomic failure, as well as movement disorder emergencies.