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  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: April 2014

Chapter 20 - Movement disorders in encephalitis

from Section IV - Movement disorders in general neurology

Summary

Introduction

Almost every infectious agent has the theoretical capacity to invade brain tissue as long as it manages to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. This might occur during viremia or bacteremia by active transmigration through the blood-brain barrier or via direct access to the CSF space in conditions of CSF leakage following, for example, neurosurgical procedures or open traumatic brain injury. While meningitis usually does not affect brain tissue – unless there is concomitant meningovasculitis which may give rise to ischemic strokes – the neurological syndromes of encephalitis are to a large part determined by potential anatomical predilection for sites of brain involvement of the different causative pathogens.

This chapter deals with encephalitides of various origin in which movement disorders have been described either as typical hallmarks or as potential or even rare manifestations of CNS inflammation. It will not deal with paraneoplastic encephalitides or involvement of the brain in autoimmune diseases (see Chapters 5 and 6). Neither will it deal with movement disorders in systemic infection, in particular, not with movement disorders in HIV infection (see Chapters 7 and 8).

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