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  • Print publication year: 2016
  • Online publication date: June 2016

Chapter 36 - Complex perineal and anal sphincter trauma

from Section 6 - Obstetric emergencies
1Andrews, V, Sultan, AH, Thakar, R, Jones, PW. Occult anal sphincter injuries – myth or reality. BJOG 2006;113:195200.
2Andrews, V, Thakar, R, Sultan, AH, Jones, PW. Are mediolateral episiotomies actually mediolateral? BJOG 2005;112:1156–8.
3Carroli, G, Mignini, L. Episiotomy for vaginal birth. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD000081. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000081.pub2.
4Andrews, V, Thakar, R, Sultan, AH. Structured hands-on training in repair of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS): an audit of clinical practice. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2009;20:193–9.
5Fernando, RJ, Sultan, AH, Kettle, C, Thakar, R. Methods of repair for obstetric anal sphincter injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;(12):CD002866.
6Mahony, R, Behan, M, Daly, L, Kirwan, C, O’Herlihy, C, O’Connell, PR. Internal anal sphincter defect influences continence outcome following obstetric anal sphincter injury. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007;196:217.e15.
7Kettle, C, Dowswell, T, Ismail, KMK. Absorbable suture materials for primary repair of episiotomy and second degree tears. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD000006. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000006.pub2.
8Koelbl, H, Igawa, T, Salvatore, S, et al. Pathophysiology of urinary incontinence, faecal incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. In: Abrams, P, Cardozo, L, Khoury, S, Wein, A, editors. Incontinence. 5th ed. [Arnhem]: ICUD-EAU; 2013. p. 261359.
9Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Management of Third and Fourth Degree Perineal Tears. Guideline No. 29. London: RCOG Press; 2015.
10Roos, A.-M., Thakar, R, Sultan, AH. Outcome of primary repair of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS): does the grade of tear matter? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2010:36(3):368374.
11Sultan, AH, Kamm, MA, Hudson, CN, Thomas, JM, Bartram, CI. Anal sphincter disruption during vaginal delivery. New Engl J Med 1993;329:1905–11.
12Sultan, AH, Monga, AK, Kumar, D, Stanton, SL. Primary repair of obstetric anal sphincter rupture using the overlap technique. BJOG 1999;106:318–23.
13Sultan, AH, Thakar, R, Fenner, D. Perineal and anal sphincter trauma. London: Springer. 2007.