Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Cited by 1
  • Print publication year: 2020
  • Online publication date: July 2020

46 - The Science of Behavior Change: The Road Ahead

from Part III - Behavior Change Interventions: Practical Guides to Behavior Change

Summary

The Handbook of Behavior Change is the first wide-ranging compendium of theory- and evidence-based research and practice on behavior change. It provides scientists, students, and practitioners with the current evidence on behavior change and expert advice on how to develop, evaluate, and implement behavior change interventions. The handbook also sets an agenda for future research on behavior change theory and practice across multiple behaviors, contexts, and populations. This chapter outlines emerging issues and future research directions arising from the handbook. The chapter stresses the importance of theory development, including the need for greater emphasis on ecological and social theories; clearer descriptions and operationalizations of behavior change theories; and increased application of interdisciplinary approaches. Future research on intervention development should conduct more comprehensive intervention fidelity assessments; adopt novel means to improve the translation, feasibility, and optimization of interventions; ensure consideration of ethical issues in behavior change research; routinely evaluate mechanisms of action in behavior change interventions; and apply complex systems approaches to behavior change. “Best-practice” guidance on behavior change should consider emerging methods and approaches to behavior change; implement trials to evaluate the long-term maintenance of behavior change; and develop core curricula on behavior change to educate the next generation of scientists and practitioners.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Abraham, C. (2012). Mapping change mechanisms onto behaviour change techniques: A systematic approach to promoting behaviour change through text. In Abraham, C. & Kools, M. (Eds.), Writing Health Communication: An Evidence Based Guide (pp. 99116). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179211. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T
Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social-Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bartholomew, L. K., & Mullen, P. D. (2011). Five roles for using theory and evidence in the design and testing of behavior change interventions. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 71, S20S33. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-7325.2011.00223.x
Bartholomew Eldredge, L. K., Markham, C. M., Ruiter, R. A. C., Fernández, M. E., Parcel, G. S., & Kok, G. (2016). Planning Health Promotion Programs: An Intervention Mapping Approach (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Bellg, A. J., Borrelli, B., Resnick, B. et al. (2004). Special NIH committee report – Enhancing treatment fidelity in health behavior change studies: Best practices and recommendations from the NIH behavior change consortium. Health Psychology, 23, 443451.
Borland, R. (2017). CEOS theory: A comprehensive approach to understanding how to maintain behaviour change. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 9, 335. https://doi.org/10.1111/aphw.12083
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32, 513531. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.32.7.513
BRP (Behavioral Research Program). (2019). Behavioral Research Program of the National Cancer Institute’s Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences. Website. https://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/brp/about.html
Bullock, J. G., Green, D. P., & Ha, S. E. (2010). Yes, but what’s the mechanism? (don’t expect an easy answer). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 550558. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018933
Burke, B. L., Arkowitz, H., & Menchola, M. (2003). The efficacy of motivational interviewing: A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 843861. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006x.71.5.843
Butler, A. C., Chapman, J. E., Forman, E. M., & Beck, A. T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 1731. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2005.07.003
Carey, R. N., Connell, L. E., Johnston, M. et al. (2019). Behavior change techniques and their mechanisms of action: A synthesis of links described in published intervention literature. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 53, 693707. https://doi.org/10.1093/abm/kay078
Cawley, J., Thow, A. M., Wen, K., & Frisvold, D. (2019). The economics of taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages: A review of the effects on prices, sales, cross-border shopping, and consumption. Annual Review of Nutrition, 39, 317338. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082018-124603
Connell, L. E., Carey, R. N., de Bruin, M. et al. (2019). Links between behavior change techniques and mechanisms of action: An expert consensus study. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 53, 708720. https://doi.org/10.1093/abm/kay082
Conner, M. T., & Norman, P. (2015). Predicting and changing health behaviour: A social cognition approach. In Conner, M. T. & Norman, P. (Eds.), Predicting and Changing Health Behaviour: Research and Practice with Social Cognition Models (3rd ed., pp. 129). Maidenhead: Open University Press.
>Cross, A., & Sheffield, D. (2019). Mental contrasting for health behaviour change: A systematic review and meta-analysis of effects and moderator variables. Health Psychology Review, 13, 209225. https://doi.org/10.1080/17437199.2019.1594332
Czajkowski, S. M., Powell, L. H., Adler, N. et al. (2015). From ideas to efficacy: The ORBIT model for developing behavioral treatments for chronic diseases. Health Psychology, 34, 971982. https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000161
Damschroder, L. J., Aron, D. C., Keith, R. E., Kirsh, S. R., Alexander, J. A., & Lowery, J. C. (2009). Fostering implementation of health services research findings into practice: A consolidated framework for advancing implementation science. Implementation Science, 4, 50. https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-4-50
Davis, R., Campbell, R., Hildon, Z., Hobbs, L., & Michie, S. (2015). Theories of behaviour and behaviour change across the social and behavioural sciences: A scoping review. Health Psychology Review, 9, 323344. https://doi.org/10.1080/17437199.2014.941722
Daw, N. D., Gershman, S. J., Seymour, B., Dayan, P., & Dolan, R. J. (2011). Model-based influences on humans’ choices and striatal prediction errors. Neuron, 69, 12041215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2011.02.027
de Bruin, M., Sheeran, P., Kok, G. et al. (2012). Self-regulatory processes mediate the intention-behavior relation for adherence and exercise behaviors. Health Psychology, 31, 695703. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027425
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior. New York: Plenum Press.
Durlak, J. A., & DuPre, E. P. (2008). Implementation matters: A review of research on the influence of implementation on program outcomes and the factors affecting implementation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41, 327. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-008-9165-0
Dzewaltowski, D. A., Noble, J. M., & Shaw, J. M. (1990). Physical activity participation: Social cognitive theory vs. the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 12, 388405.
Engel, G. (1977). The need for a new medical model: A challenge for biomedicine. Science, 196, 129136. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.847460
Fairchild, A. J., & McDaniel, H. L. (2017). Best (but oft-forgotten) practices: Mediation analysis. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 105, 12591271. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.117.152546
Freedland, K. E. (2019). The Behavioral Medicine Research Council: Its origins, mission, and methods. Health Psychology, 38, 277289. https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000731
Fried, E., Robinaugh, D., Quinn, K., & Tiokhin, L. (2019). Resource list: Formalizing theories in social sciences. https://osf.io/n9zta/
Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., Blanton, H., & Russell, D. W. (1998). Reasoned action and social reaction: Willingness and intention as independent predictors of health risk. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 11641180.
Gillison, F. B., Stathi, A., Reddy, P. et al. (2015). Processes of behavior change and weight loss in a theory-based weight loss intervention program: A test of the process model for lifestyle behavior change. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 12, 2. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-014-0160-6
Glasgow, R. E., Harden, S. M., Gaglio, B. et al. (2019). RE-AIM planning and evaluation framework: Adapting to new science and practice with a 20-year review. Frontiers in Public Health, 7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2019.00064
Glasgow, R. E., Vogt, T. M., & Boles, S. M. (1999). Evaluating the public health impact of health promotion interventions: The RE-AIM framework. American Journal of Public Health, 89, 13221327.
Hagger, M. S. (2009). Theoretical integration in health psychology: Unifying ideas and complimentary explanations. British Journal of Health Psychology, 14, 189194. https://doi.org/10.1348/135910708X397034
Hagger, M. S. (2014). Avoiding the “déjà-variable” phenomenon: Social psychology needs more guides to constructs. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 52. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00052
Hagger, M. S., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. D. (2014). An integrated behavior-change model for physical activity. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 42, 6269. https://doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000008
Hagger, M. S., Moyers, S., McAnally, K., & McKinley, L. E. (2020). Known knowns and known unknowns on behavior change interventions and mechanisms of action. Health Psychology Review, 14, 199212. https://doi.org/10.1080/17437199.2020.1719184
Hardeman, W., Michie, S., Fanshawe, T., Prevost, T., Mcloughlin, K., & Kinmonth, A. L. (2007). Fidelity of delivery of a physical activity intervention: Predictors and consequences. Psychology and Health, 23, 1124.
Hargreaves, T. (2011). Practice-ing behaviour change: Applying social practice theory to pro-environmental behaviour change. Journal of Consumer Culture, 11, 7999. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469540510390500
Harkin, B., Webb, T. L., Chang, B. P. I. et al. (2016). Does monitoring goal progress promote goal attainment? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 142, 198229. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000025
Hawe, P., Shiell, A., & Riley, T. (2009). Theorising Interventions as events in systems. American Journal of Community Psychology, 43, 267276. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-009-9229-9
Heber, E., Ebert, D. D., Lehr, D. et al. (2017). The benefit of web- and computer-based interventions for stress: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 19, e32. https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.5774
Heckhausen, H., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (1987). Thought contents and cognitive functioning in motivational and volitional states of mind. Motivation and Emotion, 11, 101120. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00992338
Hedström, P., & Ylikoski, P. (2010). Causal mechanisms in the social sciences. Annual Review of Sociology, 36, 4967. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.012809.102632
Heino, M. T. J., Noonan, C., Knittle, K., & Hankonen, N. (2019). Studying behaviour change mechanisms under complexity. Unpublished manuscript, University of Helsinki.
Hennessy, E. A., Johnson, B. T., Acabchuk, R. L., McCloskey, K., & Stewart-James, J. (2020). Self-regulation mechanisms in health behaviour change: A systematic meta-review of meta-analyses, 2006–2017. Health Psychology Review, 14, 6–42. https://doi.org/10.1080/17437199.2019.1679654
Hofmann, W., & Kotabe, H. (2012). A general model of preventive and interventive self-control. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 6, 707722. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2012.00461.x
Jetten, J., Haslam, C., & Haslam, S. A. (Eds.). (2012). The Social Cure: Identity, Health and Well-Being. New York: Psychology Press.
Johnson, B. T., Redding, C. A., DiClemente, R. J. et al. (2010). A network-individual-resource model for HIV prevention. AIDS and Behavior, 14, 204221. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-010-9803-z
Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, Fast and Slow. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
Kendall, P. C., & Hollon, S. D. (1979). Cognitive-behavioral interventions: Overview and current status. In Kendall, P. C. & Hollon, S. D. (Eds.), Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions: Theory, Research, and Procedures (pp. 19). New York: Academic Press.
Kreuter, M. W., Lukwago, S. N., Bucholtz, D. C., Clark, E. M., & Sanders-Thompson, V. (2003). Achieving cultural appropriateness in health promotion programs: Targeted and tailored approaches. Health Education and Behavior, 30, 133146. https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198102251021
Larsen, K. R., Michie, S., Hekler, E. B. et al. (2016). Behavior change interventions: The potential of ontologies for advancing science and practice. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 40, 622. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-016-9768-0
Leventhal, H., Meyer, D., & Nerenz, D. (1980). The common sense model of illness danger. In Rachman, S. (Ed.), Medical Psychology, Vol. 2 (pp. 730). New York: Pergamon Press.
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2019). The development of goal setting theory: A half century retrospective. Motivation Science, 5, 93105. https://doi.org/10.1037/mot0000127
Logan, J., & Graham, I. D. (2010). The Ottawa model of research use. In Bucknall, J. R. M. (Ed.), Models and Frameworks for Implementing Evidence-Based Practice: Evidence to Action (pp. 83108). Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.
Lyons, A. C., & Chamberlain, K. (2017). Critical health psychology. In Gough, B. (Ed.), The Palgrave Handbook of Critical Social Psychology (pp. 533555). London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Marteau, T. M. (2017). Towards environmentally sustainable human behaviour: Targeting non-conscious and conscious processes for effective and acceptable policies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 375, 20160371. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2016.0371
May, C., Finch, T., Mair, F. et al. (2007). Understanding the implementation of complex interventions in health care: The normalization process model. BMC Health Services Research, 7, 148. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-7-148
McLeroy, K. R., Bibeau, D., Steckler, A., & Glanz, K. (1988). An ecological perspective on health promotion programs. Health Education Quarterly, 15, 351377. https://doi.org/10.1177/109019818801500401
Meehl, P. E. (1990). Why summaries of research on psychological theories are often uninterpretable. Psychological Reports, 66, 195244. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1990.66.1.195
Michie, S., Aonghusa, P. M., Johnston, M. et al. (2019). The Human Behaviour Change Project. Website. www.humanbehaviourchange.org
Michie, S., Carey, R. N., Johnston, M. et al. (2017). From theory-inspired to theory-based interventions: A protocol for developing and testing a methodology for linking behaviour change techniques to theoretical mechanisms of action. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 52, 501512. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-016-9816-6
Michie, S., & Johnston, M. (2017). Optimising the value of the evidence generated in implementation science: The use of ontologies to address the challenges. Implementation Science, 12, 131. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-017-0660-2
Michie, S., Rothman, A. J., Kelly, M., & de Bruin, M. (2019). Theories and techniques of behaviour change project. https://www.ucl.ac.uk/pals/research/clinical-educational-and-health-psychology/research-groups/behaviour-change-techniques-and
Michie, S., Rumsey, N., Fussell, A. et al. (2008). Improving Health: Changing behaviour – NHS Health Trainer Handbook. London: Department of Health.
Michie, S., Thomas, J., Johnston, M. et al. (2017). The human behaviour-change project: Harnessing the power of artificial intelligence and machine learning for evidence synthesis and interpretation. Implementation Science, 12, 121. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-017-0641-5
Michie, S., van Straalen, M., & West, R. (2011). The behaviour change wheel: A new method for characterising and designing behaviour change interventions. Implementation Science, 6, 42. https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-6-42
Michie, S., West, R., Campbell, R., Brown, J., & Gainforth, H. (2014). ABC of Behaviour Change Theories. London: Silverback Publishing.
Montaño, D. E., & Kasprzyk, D. (2015). Theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behavior, and the integrated behavioral model. In Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K. & Viswanath, K. (Eds.), Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice (5th ed., pp. 95124). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Moore, G. F., Cambon, L., Michie, S. et al. (2019). Population health intervention research: The place of theories. Trials, 20, 285. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-019-3383-7
Moore, G. F., Evans, R. E., Hawkins, J. et al. (2019). From complex social interventions to interventions in complex social systems: Future directions and unresolved questions for intervention development and evaluation. Evaluation, 25, 2345. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356389018803219
Myers, H. F. (2009). Ethnicity- and socio-economic status-related stresses in context: An integrative review and conceptual model. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 32, 919. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-008-9181-4
Naar, S., Czajkowski, S. M., & Spring, B. (2018). Innovative study designs and methods for optimizing and implementing behavioral interventions to improve health. Health Psychology, 37, 10811091. https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000657
National Institutes of Health. (2019). Science of behavior change. Website. https://scienceofbehaviorchange.org/
Oettingen, G. (2012). Future thought and behaviour change. European Review of Social Psychology, 23, 163. https://doi.org/10.1080/10463283.2011.643698
Presseau, J., Byrne-Davis, L. M. T., Hotham, S. et al. (2019). Following through on health behaviour change breakthroughs: The synergy between implementation science and health psychology. Unpublished manuscript, University of Ottawa, Canada.
Prestwich, A., Sniehotta, F. F., Whittington, C., Dombrowski, S. U., Rogers, L., & Michie, S. (2014). Does theory influence the effectiveness of health behavior interventions? Meta-analysis. Health Psychology, 33, 465474. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032853
Renner, B., Hankonen, N., Ghisletta, P., & Absetz, P. (2012). Dynamic psychological and behavioral changes in the adoption and maintenance of exercise. Health Psychology, 31, 306315. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025302
Resnicow, K., Baranowski, T., Ahluwalia, J. S., & Braithwaite, R. L. (1999). Cultural sensitivity in public health: Defined and demystified. Ethnicity and Disease, 9.
Rhodes, R. E., Boudreau, F., Weman Josefsson, K., & Ivarsson, A. (2020). Mediators of physical activity behavior change interventions among adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Health Psychology Review. https://doi.org/10.1080/17437199.2019.1706614
Rhodes, R. E., McEwan, D., & Rebar, A. L. (2019). Theories of physical activity behaviour change: A history and synthesis of approaches. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 42, 100109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.11.010
Rixon, L., Baron, J., McGale, N., Lorencatto, F., Francis, J., & Davies, A. (2016). Methods used to address fidelity of receipt in health intervention research: A citation analysis and systematic review. BMC Health Services Research, 16, 663. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-016-1904-6
Rogers, P. J. (2008). Using programme theory to evaluate complicated and complex aspects of interventions. Evaluation, 14, 2948. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356389007084674
Rogers, R. W. (1975). A protection motivation theory of fear appeals and attitude change. Journal of Psychology, 91, 93114. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1975.9915803
Rosenstock, I. M. (1974). Historical origins of the health belief model. Health Education Monographs, 2, 328335.
Schwarzer, R. (2008). Modeling health behaviour change: How to predict and modify the adoption and maintenance of health behaviors. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 57, 129. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2007.00325.x
Sheeran, P., Klein, W. M. P., & Rothman, A. J. (2017). Health behavior change: Moving from observation to intervention. Annual Review of Psychology, 68, 573600 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010416-044007
Skivington, K., Matthews, L., Craig, P. et al. (2018). MRC guidance: Developing and evaluating complex interventions. Updating Medical Research Council guidance to take account of new methodological and theoretical approaches. The Lancet, 392, S2. Meeting abstract: Public Health Science 2018, Belfast, Northern Ireland, November 23, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(18)32865-4
SOBC (Science of Behavior Change Research Network). (2019). Science of Behavior Change Research Network.
Spotswood, F. (Ed.). (2016). Beyond Behaviour Change. Bristol: Bristol University Press.
Strack, F., & Deutsch, R. (2004). Reflective and impulsive determinants of social behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8, 220247. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327957pspr0803_1
Suls, J., Mogavero, J. N., Falzon, L., Pescatello, L. S., Hennessy, E. A., & Davidson, K. W. (2020). Health behaviour change in cardiovascular disease prevention and management: Meta-review of behavior change techniques to affect self-regulation. Health Psychology Review, 14, 43–65. https://doi.org/10.1080/17437199.2019.1691622
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behaviour. In Worchel, S. G. & Austin, W. (Eds.), Psychology of Intergroup Relations (2nd ed., pp. 724). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Thaler, R., & Sunstein, C. R. (2008). Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Tolin, D. F. (2010). Is cognitive–behavioral therapy more effective than other therapies?: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 710720. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.05.003
Toomey, E., Hardeman, W., Hankonen, N. et al. (2019). Focusing on fidelity: Recommendations for improving intervention fidelity within trials of health behavioral interventions. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.22329.11367
Trafimow, D. (2012). The role of auxiliary assumptions for the validity of manipulations and measures. Theory and Psychology, 22, 486498. https://doi.org/10.1177/0959354311429996
Triandis, H. C. (1977). Interpersonal Behavior. Monterey, CA: Brookes/Cole.
Trout, J. D. (2004). The philosophical legacy of Meehl (1978): Confirmation theory, theory quality, and scientific epistemology. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 11, 7376. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appsy.2004.02.013
Turner, J. C., Hogg, M. A., Oakes, P. J., Reicher, S. D., & Wetherell, M. S. (1987). Rediscovering the Social Group: A Self-Categorization Theory. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell.
Wallot, S., & Kelty-Stephen, D. G. (2018). Interaction-dominant causation in mind and brain, and its implication for questions of generalization and replication. Minds and Machines, 28, 353374. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11023-017-9455-0
Walton, H., Spector, A., Tombor, I., & Michie, S. (2017). Measures of fidelity of delivery of, and engagement with, complex, face-to-face health behaviour change interventions: A systematic review of measure quality. British Journal of Health Psychology, 22, 872903. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjhp.12260
Ward, P. (2011). A minimum price for alcohol? House of Commons Standard Note SN/HA/5021, London.
Webb, T. L., Joseph, J., Yardley, L., & Michie, S. (2010). Using the internet to promote health behavior change: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of theoretical basis, use of behavior change techniques, and mode of delivery on efficacy. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 12, e4. https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.1376
Weinstein, N. D. (1993). Testing four competing theories of health-protective behavior. Health Psychology, 12, 324333. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.12.4.324
West, R., Godinho, C. A., Bohlen, L. C. et al. (2019). Development of a formal system for representing behaviour-change theories. Nature Human Behaviour, 3, 526536. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-019-0561-2
Wilson, T. E., Hennessy, E. A., Falzon, L., Boyd, R., Kronish, I. M., & Birk, J. L. (2020). Effectiveness of interventions targeting self-regulation to improve adherence to chronic disease medications: A meta-review of meta-analyses. Health Psychology Review, 14, 66–85. https://doi.org/10.1080/17437199.2019.1706615