This chapter discusses the biology of and therapeutics for gynaecological cancers such as vulval cancer, cervical cancer and ovarian cancer. The most common type of ovarian cancer, high-grade serous cancer, is characterised by mutation of the p53 (TP53) gene. All women with newly diagnosed high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma should have an accurate family history taken, and be referred for genetic assessment and considered for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation testing if appropriate. Within clinical trials, central pathological review is needed when treatment depends on morphological sub-type or other pathological parameters. Functional imaging in multicentre trials should be implemented with strict quality control to ensure standardisation and reproducibility. Evaluation of novel surgical strategies, such as robotics, should occur through well-conducted clinical trials. In surgery for ovarian cancer, whether carried out as a primary or a delayed procedure, the aim should be to remove all visible disease.