Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
The Global Economy in the 1990s
  • Cited by 6
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The 1990s were an extraordinary, contradictory, fascinating period of economic development, one evoking numerous historical parallels. But the 1990s are far from being well understood and their meaning for the future remains open to debate. In this volume, world-class economic historians analyze the growth of the world economy, globalization and its implications for domestic and international policy, the sources and sustainability of productivity growth in the USA, the causes of sluggish growth in Europe and Japan, comparisons of the Information Technologies revolution with previous innovation waves, the bubble and burst in asset prices and their impacts on the real economy, the effects of trade and factor mobility on the global distribution of income, and the changes in the welfare state, regulation, and macro-policy making. Leading scholars place the 1990s in a fuller long-run global context, offering insights into what lies ahead for the world economy in the twenty-first century.

Reviews

‘… an excellent collection of essays by an excellent group of economists and economic historians. Focusing attention on the U.S. economy in the 1990s, with comparisons with other countries and other periods, it provides an important economic history of the twentieth century as well as an interesting starting point for the study of the twenty-first century.’

Stanley L. Engerman - Professor of Economics and History, University of Rochester

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

Contents

References
References
Abramovitz, Moses. 1956. Resource and output trends in the United States since 1870. American Economic Review 46, 5–23
Abramovitz, Moses 1986. Catching up, forging ahead, and falling behind. Journal of Economic History 36, 385–406
Abramovitz, Moses 1993. The search for the sources of growth: areas of ignorance, old and new. Journal of Economic History 53 (2), 217–43
Abramovitz, Moses, and David, Paul A.. 1973. Reinterpreting American economic growth: parables and realities. American Economic Review 63, 428–39
Abramovitz, Moses, and Paul A. David 2000. American macroeconomic growth in the era of knowledge-based progress. In Engerman, Stanley L. and Gallman, Robert E. (eds.). The Cambridge Economic History of the United States, Vol. III. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1–92
Acemoglu, Daron. 1998. Why do new technologies complement skills? Directed technical change and wage inequality. Quarterly Journal of Economics 113, 1055–89
Acemoglu, Daron 2002. Technical change, inequality and the labor market. Journal of Economic Literature 40, 7–72
Acemoglu, Daron, and Simon, Johnson. 2003. Unbundling Institutions. Working Paper no. 9934, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA
Acheson, Dean. 1969. Present at the Creation: My Years in the State Department. New York: Norton
Adams, Donald. 1970. Some evidence on English and American wage rates, 1790–1860. Journal of Economic History 30, 499–520
Adams, James Ring. 1991. The Big Fix – Inside the S&L Scandal: How an Unholy Alliance of Politics and Money Destroyed America's Banking System. New York: Wiley
Aghion, Philippe, Dewatripont, Mathias, and Rey, Patrick, 1997. Corporate governance, competition policy and industrial policy. European Economic Review 41, 797–805
Ahmad, Nadim, Lequiller, François, Marianna, Pascal, Pilat, Dirk, Schreyer, Paul and Wolf, Anita. 2003. Comparing Labor Productivity Growth in the OECD Area. The Role of Measurement. Statistics Working Paper no. 2003/5 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris
Aiginger, Karl. 2004. Copying the US or Developing a New European Model. Paper prepared for the Spring Seminar of the UN Economic Commission for Europe, United Nations, Geneva
Aitken, Brian, and Harrison, Ann E.. 1999. Do domestic firms benefit from foreign direct investment? Evidence from Venezuela. American Economic Review 89, 605–18
Alesina, Alberto, Baqir, Reza, and Easterly, William. 1999. Public goods and ethnic divisions. Quarterly Journal of Economics 114, 1243–84
Alesina, Alberto, Arnaud, Devleeschauwer, William, Easterly, Sergio, Kurlat, and Romain, Wacziarg. 2002. Fractionalization. Working Paper no. 9411, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA
Alesina, Alberto, DiTella, Rafael, and MacCulloch, Robert. 2001. Inequality and happiness: are Europeans and Americans different?Brookings Papers in Economic Activity 2, 187–277
Allard, Gayle. 2003. Jobs and Labor Market Institutions in the OECD. Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Davis
Alston, Richard M., Kearl, J. R., and Vaughan, Michael B.. 1992. Is there a consensus among economists in the 1990s?American Economic Review 82, 203–20
Amsden, Alice H. 1989. Asia's Next Giant: South Korea and Late Industrialization. New York: Oxford University Press
Angly, Edward. 1931. Oh Yeah?New York: Viking Press
Atack, Jeremy, Bateman, Fred, and Margo, Robert A.. 2004. Skill intensity and rising wage dispersion in nineteenth-century American manufacturing. Journal of Economic History 64, 172–92
Atkinson, Anthony B. 2002. Top Incomes in the United Kingdom over the Twentieth Century. Discussion Papers in Economic and Social History no. 43, University of Oxford
Atkinson, Anthony B., and Wiemer, Salverda. 2003. Top Incomes in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom over the Twentieth Century. Working Paper no. 14, Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies
Autor, David. 2004. Labor market intermediation: what it is, why it is growing, and where it is going. NBER Reporter (September), 7–10
Baily, Martin N. 2003. Comments and discussion [on paper by Robert J. Gordon]. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 2, 280–7
Bairoch, P. 1982. International industrialization levels from 1750 to 1980. Journal of European Economic History 11, 269–331
Balke, Nathan S., and Robert J. Gordon. 1986. Appendix B: Historical data. In Gordon, Robert J. (ed.). The American Business Cycle: Continuity and Change. Chicago: University of Chicago Press for the National Bureau of Economic Research, 781–850
Barro, Robert J., and Sala-i-Martin, Xavier. 1995. Economic Growth. New York: McGraw-Hill
Basu, Susanto, and Fernald, John. 1995. Are apparent productive spillovers a figment of specification error?Journal of Monetary Economics 36, 165–88
Basu, Susanto, Fernald, John, Oulton, Nicholas, and Srinivasan, Sylaja. 2003. The case of the missing productivity growth, or, does Information Technology explain why productivity accelerated in the United States but not the United Kingdom? In NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2003, 9–63
Baumol, W. J. 1967. Macroeconomics of unbalanced growth: the anatomy of urban crisis. American Economic Review 57, 415–26
Bayoumi, Tamim, and Markus, Haacker 2002. It's Not What You Make, It's How You Use IT: Measuring the Welfare Benefits of the IT Revolution Across Countries. Working Paper no. 02/117, International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC.
Bayoumi, Tamim, Douglas, Laxton, and Paolo, Pesenti. 2004. Benefits and Spillovers of Greater Competition in Europe: A Macroeconomic Assessment. Working Paper no. 10416, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA.
Becker, Gary S., Philipson, Tomas J., and Rodrigo, R. Soares. 2003. The Quantity and Quality of Life and the Evolution of World Inequality. Working Paper no. 9765, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA.
Bell, Linda A., and Freeman, Richard B.. 2001. The incentive for working hard: explaining hours worked differences in the U.S. and Germany. Labour Economics 8, 181–202
Bernanke, Ben S., and Mark, Gertler. 2000. Monetary Policy and Asset Price Volatility. Working Paper no. 7559, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA.
Bernanke, Ben S. and Gertler, Mark 2001. Should central banks respond to movements in asset prices?American Economic Review 91, 253–7
Bernanke, Ben S. and Mishkin, Frederic. 1997. Inflation targeting: a new framework for monetary policy. Journal of Economic Perspectives 11, 97–116
Berndt, Ernst R., Dulberger, Ellen R., and Rappaport, Neal J.. 2000. Price and Quality of Desktop and Mobile Personal Computers: A Quarter Century of History. Working paper, Alfred P. Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA
Bernstein, Michael. 1990. Numerable knowledge and its discontents. Reviews in American History 18, 151–64
Bernstein, Michael 1994. The contemporary American banking crisis in historical perspective. Journal of American History 80, 1382–96
Berry, Thomas Senior. 1988. Production and Population Since 1789: Revised GNP Series in Constant Dollars. Bostwick Paper no. 6. Richmond, VA: Bostwick Press
Bertolini, Leonardo, and Drazen, Allan. 1997. Capital account liberalization as a signal. American Economic Review 87, 138–54
BIS. 1998. Central Bank Survey of Foreign Exchange and Derivatives Market Activity. Basel: Bank for International Settlements
Blake, David. 2002. The United Kingdom: examining the switch from low public pensions to high-cost private pensions. In Feldstein, Martin and Siebert, Horst (eds.). Social Security Pension Reform in Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 317–48
Blanchard, Olivier. 1993. Movements in the equity premium. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 2, 75–138
Olivier, Blanchard 2004. The economic future of Europe. Journal of Economic Perspectives 18, 3–26
Olivier, Blanchard, and Giavazzi, Francesco. 2003. Macroeconomic effects of regulation and deregulation in goods and labor markets. Quarterly Journal of Economics 118, 879–909
Blanchard, Olivier, and Mark W. Watson. 1982. Bubbles, rational expectations and financial markets. In Wachtel, Paul (ed.). Crises in the Economic and Financial Structure. Lexington, MA: DC. Heath and Company, 295–315
Blau, Francine D., and Kahn, Lawrence M.. 2002. At Home and Abroad: U.S. Labor-Market Performance in International Perspective. New York: Russell Sage Foundation
Bleaney, Michael, and Nishiyama, Akira. 2002. Explaining growth: a contest between models. Journal of Economic Growth 7, 43–56
Blinder, Alan. 2002. Comments on U.S. monetary policy during the 1990s. In Frankel, Jeffrey A. and Orszag, Peter R. (eds.). American Economic Policy in the 1990s. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 44–51
Blöndäl, Sveinbjörn, and Scarpetta, Stefano. 1997. Early retirement in OECD countries: the role of social security systems. In OECD Economic Studies no. 29. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1–27
Blume, Marshall, and Irwin, Friend. 1978. The Changing Role of the Individual Investor. New York: Wiley
Blundell, Richard, and Paul Johnson. 1999. Social security and retirement in the United Kingdom. In Gruber, Jonathan and Wise, David (eds.). Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press for the National Bureau of Economic Research, 403–36
Boltho, Andrea. 2003. What's wrong with Europe?New Left Review 22, 5–26
Boltho, Andrea, and Toniolo, Gianni. 1999. The assessment: the twentieth century – achievements, failures, lessons. Oxford Review of Economic Policy 15, 1–17
Bordo, Michael, and Olivier, Jeanne. 2002. Boom-Busts in Asset Prices, Economic Instability, and Monetary Policy. Working Paper no. 8966, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA.
Bordo, Michael, Eichengreen, Barry, and Irwin, Douglas. 1999. Is globalization today really different than globalization a hundred years ago? In Brookings Trade Policy Forum 1999, 1–72
Bordo, Michael, Eichengreen, Barry, Klingebiel, Daniela, and Martinez Peria, Soledad Maria. 2001. Is the crisis problem growing more severe? Economic Policy 32, 51–82
Bosworth, Barry P., and Collins, Susan M.. 2003. The empirics of growth: an update. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 2, 113–206
Boskin, Michael J., Dulberger, Ellen R., Gordon, Robert J., Griliches, Zvi, and Jorgenson, Dale. 1996. Final Report of the Advisory Commission to Study the Consumer Price Index, S. Prt. 104–72. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office
Bourguignon, François, and Morrisson, Christian. 2002. Inequality among world citizens: 1820–1992. American Economic Review 92, 727–44
Brady, Dorothy S. 1966. Price deflators for final product estimates. In Brady, Dorothy S. (ed.). Output, Employment, and Productivity in the United States After 1800. New York: Columbia University Press, 91–116
Brauer, Jurgen, and Marlin, John T.. 1992. Converting resources from military to non-military uses. Journal of Economic Perspectives 6, 145–64
Brenner, Robert. 2002. The Boom and the Bubble. Verso Press
Brenner, Robert 2003. Towards the precipice. London Review of Books 25 (6 February), 3
Bresnahan, Timothy F., and Trajtenberg, Manuel. 1995. General purpose technologies: engines of growth?Journal of Econometrics 65, 83–108
Brinkley, Alan. 1995. The End of Reform: New Deal Liberalism in Recession and War. New York: Knopf
Broadberry, Stephen N., and Douglas, A. Irwin. 2004. Labor Productivity in the United States and the United Kingdom During the Nineteenth Century. Working Paper no. 10364, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA
Brooks, Nancy. 1997. Pac Bell hikes coin-call rate. Los Angeles Times. 18 October, D1, D3
Brown, Lester R. 2003. Plan B: Rescuing a Planet under Stress and a Civilization in Trouble. New York: Norton
Brugiavini, Agar. 1999. Social security and retirement in Italy. In Gruber, Jonathan and Wise, David (eds.). Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press for the National Bureau of Economic Research: 181–238
Brynjolfsson, Erik, and Hitt, Lorin M.. 2000. Beyond computation: Information Technology, organizational transformation and business performance. Journal of Economic Perspectives 14, 23–48
Burnside, Craig, and Dollar, David. 2000. Aid, policies, and growth. American Economic Review 90, 847–68
Bush, George H. W. 1991a. Address before a Joint Session of the Congress on the State of the Union. 29 January. Available at www.presidency.ucsb.edu/site/docs/doc_sou.php?admin=41&doc=3
Bush, George H. W. 1991b. Address Before a Joint Session of the Congress on the Cessation of the Persian Gulf Conflict. 6 March. Available at www.presidency.ucsb.edu/site/docs/pppus.php?admin=041&year=1991&id=030600
Cairncross, Frances. 2001. The Death of Distance. Boston: Harvard Business School Press
Calavita, Kitty, Pontell, Henry N., and Tillman, Robert H.. 1997. Big Money Crime: Fraud and Politics in the Savings and Loan Crisis. Berkeley: University of California Press
Campbell, John Y. 1999. Comment. In Bernanke, Ben S. and Rotemberg, Julio S. (eds.). NBER Macroeconomics Annual. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 253–62
Campbell, John Y., and John, H. Cochrane. 1999. By force of habit: a consumption-based explanation of aggregate stock market behavior. Journal of Political Economy 107, 205–51
Campbell, John Y., and Shiller, Robert J.. 1988. Stock prices, earnings, and expected dividends. Journal of Finance 43, 661–76
Campbell, John Y., and Tuomo, Vuolteenaho. 2004. Inflation Illusion and Stock Prices. Working Paper no. 10263, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA
Canterbery, Ray, and Robert Burkhardt. 1983. What do we mean by asking if economics is a science? In Eichner, Alfred (ed.). Why Economics Is Not Yet a Science. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 15–40
Card, David, and DiNardo, John E.. 2002. Skill-biased technological change and rising wage inequality: some problems and puzzles. Journal of Labor Economics 20, 733–83
Cecchetti, Stephen. 2003. What the FOMC Says and Does When the Stock Market Booms. Mimeo, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA
Cecchetti, Stephen, Genberg, Hans, Lipsky, John, and Shushil, Wadhwani. 2000. Asset Prices and Central Bank Policy. Geneva Report on the World Economy 2, Centre for Economic Policy Research, London
Center for Research on Securities Prices. 2002. CRSP Database. Center for Research on Securities Prices, University of Chicago
Chandler, Alfred D. 1977. The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press
Chen, Edwin. 1992. White House pushes deregulation. Los Angeles Times. 31 January, D4
Chen, Shaohua, and Ravallion, Martin. 2004. How Have the World's Poorest Fared since the Early 1980s? Policy Research Working Paper no. WPS3341 World Bank, Washington, DC
Chiswick, Barry, and Timothy Hatton. 2003. International migration and the integration of labor markets. In Bordo, Michael, Taylor, Alan and Williamson, Jeffrey (eds.). Globalization in Historical Perspective. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 65–120
Christofides, Charis, Christian, Mulder, and Andrew, Tiffin. 2003. The Link between Adherence to International Standards of Good Practice, Foreign Exchange Spreads and Ratings. Working Paper no. 03/74, International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC
Clarke, Stephen V. O. 1967. Central Bank Cooperation, 1924–1931. New York: Federal Reserve Bank
Cochrane, John H. 1991. Volatility tests and efficient markets: a review essay. Journal of Monetary Economics 27, 463–85
Collins, Susan M. (ed.). 1998. Imports, Exports, and the American Worker. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute
Cohen, Jessica, William Dickens, and Adam Posen. 2001. Have the new human resource management practices lowered the sustainable unemployment rate? In Alan, B. Krueger and Robert, M. Solow (eds.). The Roaring Nineties. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 219–59
Conner, Walter D. 1997. Social policy under Communism. In Kapstein, Ethan B. and Mandelbaum, Michael (eds.). 1997. Sustaining the Transition: The Social Safety Net in Postcommunist Europe. New York: Council on Foreign Relations: 10–45
Coolidge, Calvin. 1928. Sixth Annual Message Written to Congress. 4 December. Available at www.polsci.ucsb.edu/projects/presproject/idgrant/sou_pages/coolidge6su.html
Cortada, James W. 2004. The Digital Hand: How Computers Changed the Work of American Manufacturing, Transportation, and Retail Industries. New York: Oxford University Press
Coy, Peter. 1997. Let's not take feel-good economics too far. Business Week. 20 October
Crafts, Nicholas. 1999. Implications of financial crisis for East Asian trend growth. Oxford Review of Economic Policy 15, 110–31
Crafts, Nicholas 2002. The Human Development Index, 1870–1999: some revised estimates. European Review of Economic History 6, 395–405
Crafts, Nicholas 2003. Quantifying the Contribution of Technological Change to Economic Growth in Different Eras: a Review of the Evidence. Working Paper in Economic History no. 79/03, London School of Economics
Crafts, Nicholas, and Markus, Haacker. 2003. Welfare Implications of HIV/AIDS. Working Paper no. 03/118, International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC
Crafts, Nicholas, and Kaiser, Kai. 2004. Long term growth prospects in transition economies: a reappraisal. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics 15, 101–18
Darby, Michael R. 1984. The U.S. productivity slowdown: a case of statistical myopia. American Economic Review 74, 301–22
Darman, Richard. 1996. Who's in Control? Polar Politics and the Sensible Center. New York: Simon and Schuster
David, Paul A. 1975. Technical Choice, Innovation, and Economic Growth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
David, Paul A. 1977. Invention and accumulation in America's economic growth: a nineteenth-century parable. In International Organization, National Policies, and Economic Development, supplement to Journal of Monetary Economies 6, 179–228
David, Paul A. 1990. The dynamo and the computer: an historical perspective on the modern productivity paradox. American Economic Review 80, 355–61
David, Paul A. 1991. Computer and dynamo: the modern productivity paradox in a not-too-distant mirror. In Technology and Productivity: The Challenge for Economic Policy. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 315–48
David, Paul A. 2004. The Tale of Two Traverses: Innovation and Accumulation in the First Two Centuries of U.S. Economic Growth. Gallman lecture, presented at conference on “Understanding the 1990s: the economy in long-run perspective,” Duke University, Durham, NC, 26–7 March
David, Paul A., and Gavin Wright. 2003. General purpose technologies and surges in productivity: historical reflections on the future of the ICT revolution. In David, Paul A. and Thomas, Mark (eds.). The Economic Future in Historical Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 135–66
Davies, Gareth. 1996. From Opportunity to Entitlement: The Transformation and Decline of Great Society Liberalism. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas
Long, J.Bradford, Andrei Shleifer, Summers, Lawrence H., and Waldmann, Robert J.. 1990. Noise trader risk in financial markets. Journal of Political Economy 98, 703–38
Alain, Serres 2003. Structural Policies and Growth: A Non-Technical Overview. Working Paper no. 355, Economics Department, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris
Debreu, Gerard. 1991. The mathematization of economic theory. American Economic Review 81, 1–7
DeFerranti, David, Perry, Guillermo E., Ferreira, Francisco H. G., and Walton, Michael. 2004. Inequality in Latin America: Breaking With History?Washington, DC: World Bank
De Long, J. Bradford. 2003. India since independence: an analytical growth narrative. In Rodrik, Dani (ed.). In Search of Prosperity: Analytical Narratives on Economic Growth. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 184–204
DeLong, J. Bradford, and Barry Eichengreen. 2002. Between meltdown and moral hazard: the international monetary and financial policies of the Clinton administration. In Frankel, Jeffrey A. and Orszag, Peter R. (eds.). American Economic Policy in the 1990s. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 191–254
Denison, Edward F. 1962. The Sources of Economic Growth in the United States and the Alternatives before Us. New York: Committee for Economic Development
Devine, Warren D. Jr. 1983. From shafts to wires: historical perspectives on electrification. Journal of Economic History 43, 347–72
Amos, Dice, Charles. 1929. New Levels in the Stock Market. New York: McGraw-Hill
DiNardo, John E., Fortin, Nicole M., and Lemieux, Thomas. 1996. Labor market institutions and the distribution of wages, 1973–1992: a semiparametric approach. Econometrica 64, 1001–44
Disney, Richard, and Johnson, Paul (eds.). 2001. Pension Systems and Retirement Incomes across OECD Countries. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar
Dollar, David, and Kraay, Aart. 2004. Trade, growth and poverty. Economic Journal 114, F22–F49
, Donaldson R. Glen, and Kamstra, Mark. 1996. A new dividend forecasting procedure that rejects bubbles in asset prices: the case of 1929's stock crash. Review of Financial Studies 9, 333–83
Douglas, Paul H. 1930. Real Wages in the United States, 1890–1926. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Douglas, Paul H. and Florence, T. Jennison. 1930. The Movement of Money and Real Earnings in the United States, 1926–1928. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
DuBoff, Richard B. 1964. Electric Power in American Manufacturing, 1889–1958. Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, PA
Dun and Bradstreet, Inc. 2002. D&B Million Dollar Directory. Bethlehem, PA: Dun and Bradstreet, Inc
Dunning, John. 1983. Changes in the level and structure of international production: the last one hundred years. In Casson, Mark (ed.). The Growth of International Business. London: Allen and Unwin, 84–139
Easterlin, Richard. 1996. Growth Triumphant. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan
Easterly, Williamson, Ross, Levine and David, Roodman. 2003. New Data, New Doubts: A Comment on Burnside and Dollar's “Aid, Policies and Growth” (2000). Working Paper no. 9846, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA
Edelstein, Michael. 1990. What price Cold War? Military spending and private investment in the US, 1946–1979. Cambridge Journal of Economics 14, 421–37
Edison, Hali J., Michael, Klein, Ricci, W. Luca, and Sloek, Torsten. 2002. Capital Account Liberalization and Economic Performance: Survey and Synthesis. Working Paper no. 9100, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA
Eichengreen, Barry. 1992a. Golden Fetters: The Gold Standard and the Great Depression, 1919–1939. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press
Eichengreen, Barry 1992b. The origins and nature of the Great Slump revisited. Economic History Review 45, 213–39
Eichengreen, Barry 1996. Institutions and economic growth in Europe after World War II. In Crafts, Nicholas and Toniolo, Gianni (eds.). Economic Growth in Europe since 1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 38–72
Eichengreen, Barry 2000. U.S. foreign financial relations in the twentieth century. In Engerman, Stanley L. and Gallman, Robert E. (eds.). The Cambridge Economic History of the United States, Vol. III. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 463–504
Eichengreen, Barry, and David, Leblang. 2002. Capital Account Liberalization and Growth: Was Mr Mahathir Right? Working Paper no. 9427, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA
Eichengreen, Barry, and Mitchener, Kris. 2003. The Great Depression as a Credit Boom Gone Wrong. Working Paper no. 137, Bank for International Settlements, Basel
Eichengreen, Barry, and Taylor, Alan. 2003. The Monetary Consequences of a Free Trade Area of the Americas. Working Paper no. 9666, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA
Eichengreen, Barry, and Temin, Peter. 2000. The gold standard and the Great Depression. Contemporary European History 9, 183–207
Fairris, David. 1997. Shopfloor Matters. London: Routledge
Fama, Eugene F., and French, Kenneth R.. 1988. Dividend yields and expected stock returns. Journal of Financial Economics 22, 3–25
Federal Reserve Bank of St Louis. 2002. FRED Database. Federal Reserve Bank of St Louis, MO
Feinstein, Charles H., Toniolo, Gianni, and Temin, Peter. 1994. Three shocks, two recoveries: historical parallels for the end of the Cold War. Rivista di Storia Economica 11, 297–316
Feinstein, Charles H., and Katherine Watson. 1995. Private international capital flows in Europe in the inter-war period. In Feinstein, Charles H. (ed.). Banking, Currency, and Finance in Europe Between the Wars. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 94–130
Feldstein, Martin, and Horioka, Charles. 1980. Domestic savings and international capital flows. Economic Journal 90, 314–29
Field, Alexander J. 1987. Modern business enterprise as a capital saving innovation. Journal of Economic History 47, 473–85
Field, Alexander J. 1992. The magnetic telegraph, price and quantity data, and the new management of capital. Journal of Economic History 52, 401–13
Field, Alexander J. 1996. The relative productivity of American distribution, 1869–1992. Research in Economic History 16, 1–37
Field, Alexander J. 2003. The most technologically progressive decade of the century. American Economic Review 93, 1399–1413
Field, Alexander J. 2004. The Origins of US Multifactor Productivity Growth in the Golden Age. Working paper, Leavey School of Business, Santa Clara University, CA.
Fischer, Stanley, Sahay, Ratna, and Carlos, A. Vegh 2005. The Impact of World War II on US Productivity Growth. Paper presented at the Centre for Economic Policy Research/Centre de Recerea en Economia International workshop on “War and the macroeconomy,” Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, 29–30 June
Field, Alexander J. 2006a. Technical change and US economic growth during the interwar period. Journal of Economic History, 66
Field, Alexander J. 2006b. The equipment hypothesis and US economic growth. Explorations in Economic History, 44
Fischer, Stanley, Sahay, Ratna, and Carlos, A. Vegh. 1998. From Transition to Market: Evidence and Growth Prospects. Working Paper no. 98/52, International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC
Fisher, Irving. 1930. The Stock Market Crash – And After. New York: Macmillan
Fisher, Lawrence. 1966. Some new stock market indexes. Journal of Business 39 (1, part 2 supplement), 191–225
Fishlow, Albert. 1965. American Railroads and the Transformation of the Antebellum Economy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Flavin, Marjorie A. 1983. Excess volatility in the financial markets: a reassessment of the empirical evidence. Journal of Political Economy 91, 929–89
Flood, Robert P., and Hodrick, Robert J.. 1990. On testing for speculative bubbles. Journal of Economic Perspectives 4, 85–101
Fogel, Robert. 1964. Railroads and American Economic Growth: Essays in Econometric History. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press
Foss, Murray F. 1981. Long-run changes in the workweek of fixed capital. American Economic Review 71, 58–61
Foss, Murray F. 1985. Changing utilization of fixed capital: an element in long-term growth. Monthly Labor Review, 108(5), 3–8
Foster, Lucia, John, Haltiwanger, and Krizan, C. J.. 2002. The Link between Aggregate and Micro Productivity Growth: Evidence from Retail Trade. Working Paper no. 9120, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA
Frankel, Jeffrey, and Rose, Andrew. 1996. Currency crashes in emerging markets: empirical indicators. Journal of International Economics 41, 351–66
Fraser, Steven, and Gerstle, Gary (eds.). 1989. The Rise and Fall of the New Deal Order: 1930–1980. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Friedman, Milton, and Schwartz, Anna J.. 1963. A Monetary History of the United States, 1867–1960. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press for the National Bureau of Economic Research
Fritsch, Peter. 1999. Golden years: in Brazil, retirement has become a benefit nearly all can enjoy. Wall Street Journal. 9 September, 1
Fukuyama, Francis. 1992. The End of History and the Last Man. New York: Free Press
Gali, Jordi, and Perotti, Roberto. 2002. Fiscal policy and monetary integration in Europe. Economic Policy 17, 533–72
Gallup, John L., Sachs, Jeffrey D., and Mellinger, Andrew D.. 1999. Geography and economic development. International Regional Science Review 22, 179–232
Gao, Bai. 2001. Japan's Economic Dilemma: The Institutional Origins of Prosperity and Stagnation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Gates, Bill. 1999. Business @ the Speed of Thought. New York: Warner Books
Gelos, Gaston, and Shang-Jin, Wei. 2002. Transparency and International Investor Behavior. Working Paper no. 02/174, International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC
Gerstle, Gary. 1994. The protean character of American liberalism. American Historical Review 99, 1043–73
Giordano, James. 2003. Using the survivor technique to estimate returns to scale and optimum firm size. Topics in Economic Analysis & Policy 3(1), 23 (available at www.bepress.com)
Glassman, James, and Hassett, Kevin. 1999. The Dow 36,000: The New Strategy for Profiting from the Coming Rise in the Stock Market. New York: Times Business
Glennerster, Rachel, and Yongseok, Shin. 2003. Is Transparency Good for You, and Can the IMF Help? Working Paper no. 03/132, International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC
Glennon, Robert. 2002. Water Follies: Groundwater Pumping and the Fate of America's Fresh Waters. Washington, DC: Island Press
Golden, Lonnie. 1996. The expansion of temporary help employment in the U.S., 1982–1992. Applied Economics 28, 1127–41
Goldin, Claudia. 1998. America's graduation from high school: the evolution and spread of secondary schooling in the twentieth century. Journal of Economic History 58, 347–74
Goldin, Claudia 2001. The human-capital century and American leadership: virtues of the past. Journal of Economic History 61, 263–92
Goldin, Claudia, and Katz, Lawrence. 1998. The origins of technology-skill complementarity. Quarterly Journal of Economics 113, 693–732
Goldin, Claudia, and Margo, Robert A.. 1992. The great compression: the wage structure in the United States at mid-century. Quarterly Journal of Economics 107, 1–34
Goldin, Claudia, and Sokoloff, Kenneth. 1982. Women, children and industrialization in the early republic. Journal of Economic History 42, 741–774
Gordon, Robert Aaron. 1951. Cyclical experience in the interwar period: The investment boom of the “Twenties.” In Conference on Business Cycles. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research 163–214
Gordon, Robert Aaron 1961. Business Fluctuations, 2nd edn. New York: Harper and Brothers
Gordon, Robert Aaron 1974. Economic Instability and Growth: The American Record. New York: Harper and Row
Gordon, Robert J. 1969. $45 billion of U.S. private investment has been mislaid. American Economic Review 59, 221–38
Gordon, Robert J. 1982. Why stopping inflation may be costly: evidence from fourteen historical episodes. In Hall, Robert E. (ed.). Inflation: Causes and Effects. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 11–40
Gordon, Robert J. 1990. The Measurement of Durable Goods Prices. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Gordon, Robert J. 1997. The time-varying NAIRU and its implications for economic policy. Journal of Economic Perspectives 11, 11–32
Gordon, Robert J. 1998. Foundations of the Goldilocks economy: supply shocks and the time-varying NAIRU. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 2, 297–333
Gordon, Robert J. 1999. U.S. economic growth since 1870: one big wave?American Economic Review 89, 123–8
Gordon, Robert J. 2000a. Interpreting the “one big wave” in US long-term productivity growth. In Bart, Ark, Simon, Kuipers, and Kuiper, Gerard (eds.). Productivity, Technology, and Economic Growth. Boston: Kluwer, 19–65
Gordon, Robert J. 2000b. Does the new economy measure up to the great inventions of the past?Journal of Economic Perspective 14, 49–74
Gordon, Robert J. 2002. Comments. Brooking Papers on Economic Activity 2, 245–60
Gordon, Robert J. 2003a. Exploding productivity growth: context, causes, and implications. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 2, 207–96
Gordon, Robert J. 2003b. Macroeconomics, 9th edn. Boston: Addison-Wesley
Gordon, Robert J. 2003c. Five Puzzles in the Behavior of Productivity Investment, and Innovation. Unpublished Papers
Gordon, Robert J. 2004a. Two Centuries of Economic Growth: Europe Chasing the American Frontier. Discussion Paper no. 4415, Centre for Economic Policy Research, London
Gordon, Robert J. 2004b. Why Was Europe Left at the Station when America's Productivity Locomotive Departed? Discussion Paper no. 4416, Centre for Economic Policy Research, London
Gordon, Robert J., and John M. Veitch. 1986. Fixed investment in the American business cycle, 1919–83. In Gordon, Robert J. (ed.). The American Business Cycle: Continuity and Change. Chicago: University of Chicago Press for the National Bureau of Economic Research, 267–357
Gordon, Robert J., and James Wilcox. 1981. Monetarist interpretations of the great depression: evaluation and critique. In Brunner, Karl (ed.). The Great Depression Revisited. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 49–107
Gottschalk, Peter. 1997. Inequality, income growth, and mobility: The basic facts. Journal of Economic Perspectives 11, 21–44
Greenspan, Alan. 2000. Technology Innovation and its Economic Impact. 7 April. Available at www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/speeches/2000/20000407.htm
Griliches, Zvi, and Ernst R. Berndt. 1993. Price indexes for microcomputers: an exploratory study. In Foss, M. F., Manser, M. E. and Young, A. H. (eds.). Price Measurements and Their Uses. NBER Studies in Income and Wealth 5. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 63–93
Groningen Growth and Development Centre. 2005. Total Economy Database. Available at www.ggdc.net/deseries/totecon.shtml
Grubb, David. 2000. Eligibility criteria for unemployment benefits. In OECD Economic Studies no. 31. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 147–81
Gruber, Jonathan, and Wise, David (eds.). 1999. Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press for the National Bureau of Economic Research
Gust, Christopher, and Jaime, Marquez. 2002. International Comparisons of Productivity Growth: the Role of Information Technology and Regulatory Practices. International Finance Discussion Paper no. 727, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Washington, DC
Habakkuk, H. J. 1962. American and British Technology in the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Hall, Robert E., and Jones, Charles I., 1999. Why do some countries produce so much more output per worker than others?Quarterly Journal of Economics 114, 83–116
Ricardo, Hausmann, and Fernandez-Arias, Eduardo. 2000. Foreign Direct Investment: Good Cholesterol? Unpublished manuscript, Research Department, Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DC
Hayashi, Fumio, and Prescott, Edward. 2002. The 1990s in Japan: a lost decade. Review of Economic Dynamics 5, 206–35
Heaton, John, and Deborah Lucas. 1999. Stock prices and fundamentals. In Bernanke, Ben S. and Rotemberg, Julio S. (eds.). NBER Macroeconomics Annual. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 213–242
Helpman, Elhanan (ed.). 1998. General Purpose Technologies and Economic Growth. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Helpman, Elhanan, and Manuel Trajtenberg. 1998. A time to sow and a time to reap: growth based on general-purpose technologies. In Helpman, Elhanan (ed.). General-purpose Technologies and Economic Growth. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 55–83
Hickman, Bert G. 1974. What became of the building cycle? In David, Paul A. and Reder, Melvin (eds.). Nations and Households in Economic Growth: Essays in Honor of Moses Abramovitz. New York: Academic Press, 291–314
Hicks, John R. 1950. A Contribution to the Theory of the Trade Cycle. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Homer, Sidney, and Sylla, Richard. 1991. A History of Interest Rates, 3rd edn. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press
, Hobsbawm Eric J. 1994. Age of Extremes: The Short Twentieth Century 1914–1991. London: Pantheon Books
Hopenhayn, Hugo A. 1992. Entry, exit, and firm dynamics in long run equilibrium. Econometrica 60, 1127–50
ILO. Various issues. The Cost of Social Security. Geneva: International Labour Organization
ILO 2003. Key Indicators of the Labour Market, 3rd edn. Geneva: International Labour Organization
IMF. 1997. World Economic Outlook. Globalization: Opportunities and Challenges. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund
IMF Various issues. World Economic Outlook. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund
IMF 2004. International Financial Statistics. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund (available at http://libraries.mit.edu/get/ifs)
Investment Company Institute. 2003. Mutual Fund Fact Book, 43rd edn. Investment Company Institute, Washington, DC
Jacoby, Sanford M. 1983. Industrial labor mobility in historical perspective. Industrial Relations 22, 215–28
Jacoby, Sanford M. 1985. Employing Bureaucracy: Managers, Unions, and the Transformation of Work in American Industry, 1900–1945. New York: Columbia University Press
James, John A., and Skinner, Jonathan S.. 1985. The resolution of the labor-scarcity paradox. Journal of Economic History 45, 513–40
Jerome, Harry. 1930. Mechanization in Industry. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research
Johnson, Haynes. 2001. The Best of Times: America in the Clinton Years. New York: Harcourt
Jones, Charles I. 1995. Time series tests of endogenous growth models. Quarterly Journal of Economics 110, 495–525
Jorgenson, Dale, and Stiroh, Kevin. 1999. Information Technology and growth. American Economic Review 89, 109–15
Jorgenson, Dale, and Stiroh, Kevin 2000. Raising the speed limit: U.S. economic growth in the information age. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 31 (1), 125–211
Jorgenson, Dale, Mun, Ho, and Kevin, Stiroh. 2003. Lessons from the US Growth Resurgence. Paper prepared for the First International Conference on the Economic and Social Implications of Information Technology, US Department of Commerce, Washington, DC, 27–28 January
Jovanovic, Boyan, and Peter, L. Rousseau. 2001a. Vintage Organization Capital. Working Paper no. 8166, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA
Jovanovic, Boyan and Rousseau, Peter L. 2001b. Why wait? A century of life before IPO. American Economic Review 91, 336–41
Jovanovic, Boyan and Rousseau, Peter L. 2002a. Moore's law and learning-by-doing. Review of Economic Dynamics 4, 346–75
Jovanovic, Boyan and Peter L. Rousseau 2002b. Stock markets in the new economy. In Bai, Chong-En and Yuen, Chi-Wa (eds.). Technology and the New Economy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 9–48
Kahn, Alfred. 1990. Deregulation: looking backward and looking forward. Yale Journal of Regulation 7, 325–54
Kaplan, Karen, and Thomas, S. Mulligan. 1997. Telephone giants AT&T, SBC discuss 50-billion merger. Los Angeles Times. 28 May, A1, A18
Katz, Lawrence F., and David H. Autor. 1999. Changes in the wage structure and earnings inequality. In Orley, Asherfelter and David, Card (eds.). Handbook of Labor Economics Vol. IIIA. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1463–555
Katz, Lawrence F., and Krueger, Alan B.. 1999. The high-pressure US labor markets of the 1990s. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1, 1–87
Kaufmann, Daniel., Aart, Kraay, and Massimo, Mastruzzi. 2003. Governance Matters III: Governance Indicators for 1996–2002. Policy Research Working Paper no. 3815, World Bank, Washington, DC.
Keegan, John. 1989. World War II. London: Hutchinson
Keller, Robert. 1973. Factor income distribution in the United States during the 1920s: a reexamination of fact and theory. Journal of Economic History 33, 252–73
Kelley, Etna M. 1954. The Business Founding Date Directory. Scarsdale, NY: Morgan and Morgan
Kendrick, John. 1961. Productivity Trends in the United States. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Keynes, John Maynard. 1936. The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. London: Macmillan
Kindleberger, Charles P. 1986. The World in Depression, rev. edn. Berkeley: University of California Press
Kleidon, Allan W. 1986. Variance bounds tests and stock price valuation models. Journal of Political Economy 94, 953–1001
Kleinknecht, Alfred. 1987. Innovation Patterns in Crisis and Prosperity: Schumpeter's Long Cycle Reconsidered. New York: St. Martin's Press
Klenow, Peter, and Rodriquez-Clare, Andres. 1997. Economic growth: a review essay. Journal of Monetary Economics 40, 597–617
Kneller, Richard, Michael, Bleaney, and Norman, Gemmell. 1999. Fiscal policy and growth: evidence from OECD countries. Journal of Public Economic 74, 171–90
Kortum, Samuel, and Lerner, Josh. 1998. Stronger protection or technological revolution: what is behind the recent surge in patenting?Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy 48, 247–304
Kotlikoff, Laurence J., and Burns, Scott. 2004. The Coming Generational Storm. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Kramer, Mark. 1997. Social protection policies and safety nets in East–Central Europe: dilemmas of the postcommunist transformation. In Kapstein, Ethan B. and Mandelbaum, Michael (eds.). Sustaining the Transition: The Social Safety Net in Postcommunist Europe. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 46–123
Kremers, Jeroen J. M. 2002. Pension reform: issues in the Netherlands. In Feldstein, Martin and Siebert, Horst (eds.). Social Security Pension Reform in Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 291–316
Krugman, Paul. 1994. Competitiveness: a dangerous obsession. Foreign Affairs 73, 28–44
Krusell, Per, Ohanian, Lee E., Rios-Rull, José-Victor, and Violante, Giovanni L.. 2000. Capital–skill complementarity and inequality: a macroeconomic analysis. Econometrica 68, 1029–53
Kugler, Maurice. 2000. The Diffusion of Externalities from Foreign Direct Investment: Theory ahead of Evidence. Working paper, University of Southampton
Kuhn, Thomas. 1970. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Kuznets, Simon S. 1961a. Capital in the American Economy: Its Formation and Financing. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Kuznets, Simon S. 1961b. Annual Estimates, 1869–1955. Manuscript. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD
Kuznets, Simon S. 1966. Modern Economic Growth: Rate, Structure, and Spread. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press
Lamont, Owen. 1998. Earnings and expected returns. Journal of Finance 53, 563–87
Lamoreaux, Naomi, Raff, Daniel M. G., and Temin, Peter. 2003. Beyond markets and hierarchies: toward a new synthesis of American business history. American Historical Review 108, 404–33
LaVelle, Philip. 1996. City suffers costly slash in credit ratings. San Diego Union Tribune. 6 December, A1, A27
Leamer, Edward, and Michael, Storper. 2001. The Economic Geography of the Internet Age. Working Paper no. 8450, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA
Lebergott, Stanley. 1964. Manpower in Economic Growth: The United States Record since 1800. New York: McGraw-Hill
Lee, David S. 1999. Wage inequality in the United States during the 1980s: rising dispersion or falling minimum wage?Quarterly Journal of Economics 114, 977–1023
Lee, Susan. 1996. Hands Off: Why the Government is a Menace to Economic Health. New York: Simon and Schuster
Lindert, Peter H. 2004. Growing Public: Social Spending and Economic Growth since the Eighteenth Century (two volumes). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Lipsey, R. G., C. Bekar, and K. Carlaw. 1998. What requires explanation? In Helpman, E. (ed.). General Purpose Technologies and Economic Growth. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 15–54
Lopez-Cordova, Ernesto, and Mauricio, Mesquita Moreira. 2003. Regional Integration and Productivity: The Experiences of Brazil and Mexico. Discussion Paper no. 14, Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DC
Los Angeles Times. 1996a. Court blocks rule on local phone rivalry. 16 October, D1, D6
Los Angeles Times 1996b. FCC may loosen ownership rules. 8 November, D4
Los Angeles Times 1997a. FCC to auction wireless licenses. 12 March, D3
Los Angeles Times 1997b. Merger of Baby Bells clears hurdle. 25 April, D10
Los Angeles Times 1997c. Also, … 29 October, D3
Lucas, Robert E. 1990. Why doesn't capital flow from rich to poor countries?American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings 80, 92–6
Lucas, R. E. 2000. Some macroeconomics for the 21st century. Journal of Economic Perspectives 14, 159–78
Lucking-Reiley, David and Daniel, F. Spulber. 2001. Business to business electronic commerce. Journal of Economic Perspectives 14, 3–22
Maddison, Angus. 1996. Macroeconomic accounts for European countries. In Ark, Bart and Crafts, Nicholas (eds.). Quantitative Aspects of Postwar European Economic Growth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 27–83
Maddison, Angus 2001. The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Maddison, Angus 2003. The World Economy: Historical Statistics. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Madsden, Jakob B. 2001. Agricultural crises and the international transmission of the Great Depression. Journal of Economic History 61, 327–65
Mankiw, N. Gregory. 2002. U.S. monetary policy during the 1990s. In Frankel, Jeffrey A. and Orszag, Peter R. (eds.). American Economic Policy in the 1990s. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 19–43
Margo, Robert A. 1991. The microeconomics of Depression unemployment. Journal of Economic History 51, 331–41
Mathieson, Clive. 2002a. Telecoms waste $500bn on fibre cables. TimesOnline 13 February. Available at www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,5-206870,00.html
Mathieson, Clive 2002b. Investment in fibre cable fails to light up the world. TimesOnline 13 February. Available at www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,630-206695,00.html
Mayer, Martin. 1990. The Greatest-Ever Bank Robbery: The Collapse of the Savings and Loan Industry. New York: Collier
McAuley, Alastair. 1979. Economic Welfare in the Soviet Union: Poverty, Living Standards, and Inequality. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press
McChesney, Robert. 1997. Digital highway robbery. The Nation. 21 April, 22–24
McCullough, David G. 1992. Truman. New York: Simon and Schuster
McKinsey Global Institute. 2001. US Productivity Growth 1995–2000: Understanding the Contribution of Information Technology Relative to other Factors. McKinsey Global Institute, San Francisco. Available at www.mckinsey.com
McKinsey Global Institute 2003. Offshoring: Is It a Win-Win Game?McKinsey Global Institute, San Francisco
Means, Gardiner, to Richard Goodwin. 1975. Papers of Gardiner Means. Franklin D. Roosevelt Library: Hyde Park, New York. Box 68, 18 January, Folder: Correspondence – G
Medici, André. 2004. The Political Economics of Reform in Brazil's Civil Servant Pension Scheme. Technical Report on Pensions no. 002, Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DC
Mehra, Rajnish, and Prescott, Edward C.. 1985. The equity premium: a puzzle. Journal of Monetary Economics 15, 145–61
Meltzer, Allan H. 2003. A History of the Federal Reserve, Vol. I. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Mensch, Gerhard. 1979. Stalemate in Technology: Innovations Overcome the Depression. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger
Midelfart-Knarvik, Karen H., Henry, G. Overman, Stephen, J. Redding, and Anthony, J. Venables. 2000. The Location of European Industry. Economic Paper no. 142, European Union Commission, Brussels
Milgrom, Paul. 1996. Auction Theory for Privatization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Minsky, Hyman P. 1986. Stabilizing an Unstable Economy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press
Mishkin, Frederic S., and Eugene N. White. 2003. U.S. stock market crashes and their aftermath: implications for monetary policy. In Hunter, William C., Kaufman, George G., and Pomerleano, Michael (eds.). Asset Price Bubbles: The Implications for Monetary, Regulatory, and International Policies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 53–79
Moffab, Susan. 1992. Right call? 10 years later, AT&T split favors business. Los Angeles Times. 7 January, D1, D7
Moore, Gordon E. (1965). Cramming more components onto integrated circuits. Electronics 38 (19 April)
Moser, Petra, and Nicholas, Tom. 2004. Was electricity a general–purpose technology? Evidence from historical patent citations. American Economic Review 94, 388–94
Mowery, David C. 1981. The Emergence and Growth of Industrial Research in American Manufacturing, 1899–1946. Ph. D. dissertation, Stanford University, CA
Mowery, David, and Rosenberg, Nathan. 1998. Paths of Innovation: Technological Change in 20th-Century America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Mowery, David and Nathan Rosenberg 2000. Twentieth-century technological change. In Engerman, Stanley and Gallman, Robert (eds.). The Cambridge Economic History of the United States, Vol. III. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 803–926
Mulligan, Casey, Ricard, Gil, and Xavier, Sala-i-Martin. 2002. Social Security and Democracy. Working Paper no. 8958, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA
Nelson, Richard, and Wright, Gavin. 1992. The rise and fall of American technological leadership: the postwar era in historical perspective. Journal of Economic Literature 30, 1931–64
Neumayer, Eric. 2003. Beyond income: convergence in living standards, big time. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics 14, 275–396
Nickell, Stephen. 2003. A Picture of European Unemployment: Success and Failure. Discussion Paper no. 577. Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics
Nicoletti, Giuseppe, and Stefano, Scarpetta. 2003. Regulation, productivity, and growth: OECD evidence. Economic Policy 36, 9–72
Nicoletti, Giuseppe, Andrea, Bassanini, Ekkehard, Ernst, Sébastien, Jean, Paulo, Santiago, and Paul, Swaim. 2001. Product and Labour Market Interactions in OECD Countries. Working Paper no. 312, Economics Department, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris
Nordhaus, William D. 1997a. Traditional productivity estimates are asleep at the (technological) switch. Economic Journal 107, 1548–59
Nordhaus, William 1997b. Do real output and real wage measures capture reality? The history of lighting suggests not. In Bresnahan, Timothy and Gordon, Robert (eds.). The Economics of New Goods. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 29–70
Nordhaus, William D. 2000. New directions in national economic accounting. American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings 90, 259–63
Nordhaus, William D. 2002. Productivity growth and the New Economy. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 2, 211–44
North, Douglass C. 1990. Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
O'Brien, Anthony Patrick. 1989. A behavioral explanation for nominal wage rigidity during the Great Depression. Quarterly Journal of Economics 104, 719–35
Obstfeld, Maurice, and Alan M. Taylor. 2003. Globalization and capital markets. In Bordo, Michael D., Taylor, Alan M., and Williamson, Jeffrey G. (eds.). Globalization in Historical Perspective. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 138–45
Obstfeld, Maurice and Taylor, Alan M. 2004. Global Capital Markets: Integration, Crisis and Growth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
OECD. 1981. Long-Term Trends in Tax Revenues of OECD Member Countries. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
OECD 1998. Social Expenditure Database 1980–1995. CD-Rom. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
OECD 1999. Social Expenditure Database, 1980–1996. CD-Rom, Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
OECD 2000. Labour Force Statistics 1979–1999. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
OECD 2001. Knowledge, Work Organization and Economic Growth. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
OECD 2002. Revenue Statistics 1965–2001. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
OECD 2003a. The Sources of Economic Growth. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
OECD 2003b. Economic Outlook. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
OECD 2003c. Employment Outlook. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Offer, Avner. 1998. The American automobile frenzy of the 1950s. In Bruland, K. and O'Brien, P. K. (eds.). From Family Firms to Corporate Capitalism: Essays in Business and Industrial History in Honour of Peter Mathias. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 315–53
Oliner, Stephen D., and Sichel, Daniel E.. 2000. The resurgence of growth in the late 1990s: is Information Technology the story?Journal of Economic Perspectives 14, 3–22
Oliner, Stephen D. and Sichel, Daniel E. 2002. Information technology and productivity: where are we now and where are we going?Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta (3rd quarter), 15–44
Olmstead, Alan L., and Paul W. Rhode. 2000. The transformation of Northern agriculture, 1910–1990. In Engerman, Stanley L. and Gallman, Robert E. (eds.). The Cambridge Economic History of the United States, Vol. III. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 693–742
Olmstead, Alan L., and Rhode, Paul W. 2002. The Red Queen and the Hard Reds: productivity growth in American wheat, 1800–1940. Journal of Economic History 62, 929–66
O'Mahoney, Mary. 2002. Productivity in the EU, 1979–1999. London: HM Treasury
O'Mahoney, Mary, and Ark, Bart (eds.). 2003. EU Productivity and Competitiveness: An Industry Perspective – Can Europe Resume the Catching-up Process? Luxembourg City: European Commission, Directorate-General for Enterprise
O'Rourke, Kevin H., and Jeffrey, G. Willianson. 1999. Globalization and History: The Evolution of a Nineteenth-Century Atlantic Economy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Osterman, Paul. 1980. Getting Started: The Youth Labor Market. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Owen, Laura. 1995. Worker turnover in the 1920s: what the labor-supply arguments don't tell us. Journal of Economic History 55, 822–41
Paes de Barros, Ricardo, and Miguel Nathan Foguel. 2000. Focalização dos Gastos Públicos Sociais e Erradicação da Probreza. In Henriques, Ricardo (ed.). Desigualdade e Pobreza no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: IPEA, 719–39
Panagariya, Arvind. 2004. India in the 1980s and 1990s: A Triumph of Reforms. Working Paper no. 04/43, International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC
Parente, Stephen L., and Prescott, Edward C.. 2000. Barriers to Riches. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Parry, Robert. 1996. Who buys the right?The Nation. 18 November, 5–6
Parsons, Wayne. 1990. The Power of the Financial Press: Journalism and Economic Opinion in Britain and America. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press
Passell, Peter. 1990. The tax-rise issue: Bush rationale vs. economists. New York Times, 10 May
Patterson, Robert T. 1965. The Great Boom and Panic, 1921–1929. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company
Peltz, James F. 1996. Airline mergers '90s-style might stand a better chance this time. Los Angeles Times. 5 December, D1, D9
Peltz, James F. 1997. Justice Dept. reviews claims of airlines' price squeeze. Los Angeles Times, 12 February, D1, D3
Peritz, Rudolph. 1996. Competition Policy in America, 1888–1992: History, Rhetoric, Law. New York: Oxford University Press
Petzinger, Thomas Jr.. 1996. Hard Landing: The Epic Contest for Power and Profits That Plunged the Airlines Into Chaos. New York: Times Business
Piketty, Thomas. 2001. Income Inequality in France, 1901–1998. Discussion Paper no. 2876, Centre for Economic Policy Research, London
Piketty, Thomas, and Saez, Emmanuel. 2003. Income inequality in the United States, 1913–1998. Quarterly Journal of Economics 118, 1–39
Plotnick, Robert D., Eugene Smolensky, Eirik Evenhouse, and Siobhan Reilly. 2000. The twentieth-century record of poverty and inequality in the United States. In Engerman, Stanley L. and Gallman, Robert E. (eds.). The Cambridge Economic History of the United States, Vol. III. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 249–99
Prescott, Edward C. 2004. Why do Americans Work so much more than Europeans? Working Paper no. 10316, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA
Pritchett, L. 1997. Divergence big time. Journal of Economic Perspectives 11 (3), 3–17
Rangazas, Peter. 2002. The quantity and quality of schooling and US labor productivity growth, 1970–2000. Review of Economic Dynamics 5, 932–64
Redding, Stephen J., and Venables, Anthony J.. 2002. Explaining Cross-Country Export Performance: International Linkages and Economic Geography. Discussion Paper no. 549, Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics
Redding, Stephen J., and Venables, Anthony J. 2004. Economic geography and international inequality. Journal of International Economics 62, 53–82
Rees, Albert. 1960. New Measures of Wage-Earner Compensation in Manufacturing, 1914–1957. Occasional Paper no. 75, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA
Risen, James. 1993. Clinton kills controversial Quayle panel. Los Angeles Times. 23 January, A14
Risen, James, and Jehl, Douglas. 1992. Bush to call for freeze on new regulations. Los Angeles Times. 21 January, A1, A14
Ritschl, Albrecht. 2003. “Dancing on a volcano”: the economic recovery and collapse of Weimar Germany. In Balderson, Theo (ed.). The World Economy and National Economies in the Interwar Slump. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 105–42
Rocha, Roberto, and Dimitri Viltas. 2002. The Hungarian pension reform: a preliminary assessment. In Feldstein, Martin and Siebart, Horst (eds.). Social Security Pension Reform in Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 365–400
Rodrik, Dani. 1997. Has Globalization Gone Too Far?Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics
Dani, Rodrik, and Subramanian, Arvind. 2003. From “Hindu Growth” to Productivity Surge: The Mystery of the Indian Growth Transition. Mimeo, John F. Kennedy School of Growth, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
Romer, Christina. 1990. The Great Crash and the onset of the Great Depression. Quarterly Journal of Economics 105, 597–624
Romer, Paul M. 1987. Crazy explanations for the productivity slowdown. In NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1987. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 163–202
Rostow, W. W. 1960. The Stages of Economic Growth: A NonCommunist Manifesto. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Jeffrey, Sachs, and Warner, Andrew. 1995. Economic Convergence and Economic Policies. Working Paper no. 5039, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA
Sala-i-Martin, Xavier. 1996. A positive theory of social security. Journal of Economic Growth 1, 277–304
Xavier, Sala-i-Martin 2002. The World Distribution of Income (Estimated from Individual Country Distributions). Working Paper no. 8933, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA
Samuelson, Paul A. 1939. Interactions between the multiplier analysis and the principle of acceleration. Review of Economics and Statistics 21, 75–8
André, Sapir, Aghion, Philippe, Bertola, Giuseppe, Hellwig, Martin, Pisani-Ferry, Jean, Rosati, Dariusz, Vinals, José, and Wallace, Helen. 2003. An Agenda for a Growing Europe: Making the EU Economic System Deliver. Brussels: European Commission
Sato, Kazuo. 2002. From fast to last: the Japanese economy in the 1990s. Journal of Asian Economics 13 (March–April), 213–35
Saxonhouse, Gary R. and Stern, Robert M.. 2003. The bubble and the lost decade. World Economy 26 (March), 267–81
Schmookler, Jacob. 1966. Invention and Economic Growth. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Schumpeter, Joseph A. 1939. Business Cycles. New York: McGraw-Hill
Segal, Lewis M., and Sullivan, Daniel G.. 1997. The growth of temporary services work. Journal of Economic Perspectives 11, 117–36
Sharma, Devinder. 2003. WTO and Agriculture: the Great Trade Robbery. Paper presented at debate on international politics: Agricultural Stumbling Block for the WTO? Legislative Assembly, Berlin, 2 September (available at www.mindfully.org/WTO/2003/Trade-Robbery-WTO-Sharma2sep03.htm)
Sharpe, Andrew, and Gharani, Leila. 2000. The productivity renaissance in the US service sector. International Productivity Monitor 1, 6–8
Shepherd, William. 2001. Airlines. In Adams, Walter and Brock, James (eds.). The Structure of American Industry. Boston: Prentice Hall, 199–223
Shiller, Robert J. 1981. Do stock prices move too much to be justified by subsequent changes in dividends?American Economic Growth 71 (2), 421–35
Shiller, Robert J. 1991. Market Volatility. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Shiller, Robert J. 2000. Irrational Exuberance. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Jube, Shever Jr.. 1996a. Justice Dept. approves merger of PacTel, SBC Communications. Los Angeles Times. 6 November, D1, D9
Jube, Shever Jr. 1996b. New rules will let pay phone rates climb. Los Angeles Times. 9 November, A1, A19
Jube, Shever Jr. 1997a. Was telecommunications reform just another act?Los Angeles Times. 3 February, D1, D6
Jube, Shever Jr. 1997b. Deregulation of phones stirs hornet's nest. Los Angeles Times. 28 April, D1, D4
Jube, Shever Jr. 1997c. US probes alleged fixing of bids for FCC licenses. Los Angeles Times. 1 May, D1, D5
Jube, Shever Jr. 1997d. AT&T rate cut clears way for FCC reforms. Los Angeles Times. 5 May, D1, D2
Jube, Shever Jr. 1997e. New federal rules expected to result in pay phone hikes. Los Angeles Times. 7 October, D1, D22
Jube, Shever Jr. 1997f. MCI, WorldCom agree to record 37-billion merger. Los Angeles Times. 11 November, A1, A15
Simon, Curtis J. 2001. The supply price of labor during the Great Depression. Journal of Economic History 61, 877–903
Sinn, Stefan. 1992. Saving–investment correlations and capital mobility: on the evidence from annual data. Economic Journal 102, 1171–83
Sirkin, Gerald. 1975. The stock market of 1929 revisited: a note. Business History Review 49, 223–31
Solow, Robert M. 1957. Technical change and the aggregate production function. Review of Economics and Statistics 39, 312–20
Solow, Robert M. 1987. We'd better watch out. New York Times Book Review (12 July), 36
Staiger, Douglas, Stock, James H., and Watson, Mark W.. 1997. The NAIRU, unemployment, and monetary policy. Journal of Economic Perspectives 11, 33–49
Stefancic, Jean, and Delgado, Richard. 1996. No Mercy: How Conservative Think Tanks and Foundations Changed America's Social Agenda. Philadelphia: Temple University Press
Stigler, George J. 1958. The economies of scale. Journal of Law and Economics 1, 54–71
Stiglitz, Joseph E. 2003. The Roaring Nineties. New York: Norton
Stiroh, Kevin. 2001. Is IT driving the US productivity revival?International Productivity Monitor 2, 31–36
Subbarao, K., Bonnerjee, Aniruddha, Braithwaite, Jeanine, Carvalho, Soniya, Ezemenari, Kene, Graham, Carol, and Thompson, Alan. 1997. Safety Net Programs and Poverty Reduction: Lessons from Cross-Country Experience. Washington, DC: World Bank
Taylor, John B. 1995. Changes in American economic policy in the 1980s: watershed or pendulum swing?Journal of Economic Literature 33, 777–84
Temin, Peter. 1976. Did Monetary Forces Cause the Great Depression?New York: Norton
Temin, Peter 1995. The “Koreaboom” in West Germany: fact or fiction?Economic History Review 48, 737–53
Temin, Peter 1999. Globalization. Oxford Review of Economic Policy 15, 76–89
Temin, Peter 2000. The Great Depression. In Engerman, Stanley L. and Gallman, Robert E. (eds.). The Cambridge Economic History of the United States, Vol. III. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 301–28
Temin, Peter 2002. The golden age of european growth reconsidered. European Review of Economic History 6, 3–22
Tremewan, Christopher. 1998. Welfare and governance: public housing under Singapore's party-state. In Goodman, Roger, White, Gordon, and Kwon, Huck-ju (eds.). 1998. The East Asian Welfare Model: Welfare Orientalism and the State. London: Routledge, 77–105
Triplett, Jack E. and Bosworth, Barry P.. 2003. Productivity measurement issues in services industries: “Baumol's Disease” has been cured. Federal Reserve Bank of New York Economic Policy Review (September), 23–34
UN 1965. The Growth of World Industry, 1938–1961. New York: United Nations
UN 1998. World Population Prospect: The 1996 Revision. New York: United Nations, Population Division
UN 2001. World Population Prospects: The 2000 Revision, Vol. I: Comprehensive Tables. New York: United Nations, Population Division
UNCTAD. 1983. Handbook of International Trade and Development Statistics. New York: United Nations
UNCTAD 2000. World Investment Report. New York: United Nations
UNCTAD 2002. Handbook of Statistics. New York: United Nations
UNCTAD 2003. World Investment Report. New York: United Nations
UNDP. 2001. Human Development Report. New York: United Nations
UNDP 2003. Human Development Report. New York: United Nations
UNIDO. 2002. International Yearbook of Industrial Statistics. ViennaUnited Nations Industrial Development Organization
US Bureau of the Census. 1975. Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office
US Bureau of the Census. Various issues. Current Population Survey. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office
US Bureau of Economic Analysis. 2002. Survey of Current Business. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office
U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis 2004. Gross Product Originating by Industry. Available at www.bea.gov
US Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2002. Online Database. Available at www.bls.gov/data
US Bureau of Labor Statistics 2005. Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey. Available at http://data.bls.gov/servlet/SurveyOutputServlet
US Council of Economic Advisers. 1990. Economic Report of the President. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office (available at http://w3.access.gpo.gov/eop/)
US Council of Economic Advisors 1992. Economic Report of the President. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office (available at http://w3.access.gpo.gov/eop/)
US Council of Economic Advisors 2001. Economic Report of the President. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office (available at http://w3.access.gpo.gov/eop/)
US Council of Economic Advisors 2003. Economic Report of the President. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office (available at http://w3.access.gpo.gov/eop/)
US Council of Economic Advisors 2004. Economic Report of the President. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office (available at http://w3.access.gpo.gov/eop/)
US Department of Commerce. Various dates. Statistical Abstract of the United States. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office
U.S. Department of Commerce 2001. Statistical Abstract of the United States. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office
US Department of Education. 1993. 120 Years of Education: A Statistical Portrait. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office
Bart, Ark, Melka, Johanna, Mulder, Nanno, Timmer, Marcel, and Ypma, Gerard. 2003. ICT Investments and Growth Accounts for the European Union. Research Memorandum no. GD-56, Groningen Growth and Development Centre.
Anthony, Venables J. 1996. Equilibrium locations of vertically linked industries. International Economic Review 37, 341–59
Anthony, Venables J. 2001. Geography and international inequalities: the impact of new technologies. Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade 1, 135–60
Ignazio, Visco 1994. La crescita economica in Europa: ritardi e opportunità. Mimeo, Bank of Italy, Rome
Vissing-Jorgensen, Annette. 1999. Comment. In Bernanke, Ben S. and Rotemberg, Julio S. (eds.). NBER Macroeconomics Annual. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 242–53
Wackernagel, Mathis, Schulz, Niels B., Deumling, Diana, Linares, Alejandro Callejas, Jenkins, Martin, Kapos, Valerie, Monfreda, Chad, Loh, Jonathan, Myers, Norman, Norgaard, Richard, and Randers, Jorgen 2002. Tracking the ecological overshoot of the human economy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 99, 9266–71
Robert, Wade. 1990. Governing the Market. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Wall Street Journal. 2003. Behind surging productivity, the service sector delivers. 7 November
Weinberg, Daniel H. 1996. A brief look at postwar U.S. income inequality. In Current Population Reports, 60–191 (available at www.census.gov/prod/1/pop/p60-191.pdf)
Weinstein, Michael. 1980. Recovery and Redistribution under the NIRA. Amsterdam: North-Holland
West, Kenneth D. 1988. Dividend innovations and stock price volatility. Econometrica 56, 37–61
White, Eugene N. 2000. Banking and finance in the twentieth century. In Engerman, Stanley L. and Gallman, Robert E. (eds.). The Cambridge Economic History of the United States, Vol. III. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 743–802
White, Lawrence. 1991. The S&L Debacle: Public Policy Lessons for Bank and Thrift Regulation. New York: Oxford University Press
Wigmore, Barrie A. 1985. The Crash and Its Aftermath: A History of Securities Markets in the United States, 1929–1933. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press
Williams, John B. 1938. The Theory of Investment Value. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Williams, William Appleman. 1961. The Contours of American History. Chicago: World Publishing
Williamson, Jeffrey G. 1973. Late nineteenth-century American retardation: a neoclassical analysis. Journal of Economic History 33, 581–607
John, Williamson, and Mahar, Molly. 1998. A Survey of Financial Liberalization. Essay in International Finance no. 211, International Finance Section, Department of Economics, Princeton University, NJ
Winston, Clifford. 1993. Economic deregulation: days of reckoning for microeconomists. Journal of Economic Literature 31, 1263–89
Winters, L. Alan 2004. Trade liberalization and economic performance: an overview. Economic Journal 114, F4–F21
World Bank. 1995. World Development Report. Washington, DC: World Bank
World Bank 2001. Global Economic Prospects and the Developing Countries. Washington, DC: World Bank
World Bank 2002. Global Development Finance. Washington, DC: World Bank
World Bank 2004. Brazil: Sustaining Equitable Income Security for Old Age. Washington, DC: World Bank, Social Protection Unit
World Bank. Annually. World Development Report
Wright, Gavin. 1999. Can a nation learn? American technology as a network phenomenon. In Lamoreaux, Naomi, Raff, Daniel M. G., and Temin, Peter (eds.). Learning By Doing in Markets, Firms, and Countries. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 295–326
WTO. 2001. International Trade Statistics. Geneva: World Trade Organization
Shinkyu, Yang, and Brynjolfsson, Erik. 2001. Intangible Assets and Growth Accounting: Evidence from Computer Investments. Working paper, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA
Yates, P. L. 1959. Forty Years of Foreign Trade. London: Allen and Unwin
Young, A. 2003. Gold into base metals: productivity growth in the people's republic of China during the reform period. Journal of Political Economy 111, 1220–61
Zlotnik, Hania. 1998. International migration, 1965–96: an overview. Population and Development Review 24, 429–68