Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: January 2014

15 - Headache in the elderly

from Section 2 - Common high-risk presentations in the elderly

Related content

Powered by UNSILO


1. Goldstein JN, Camargo CA, Pelletier AJ, et al. Headache in United States emergency departments: demographics, work-up and frequency of pathological diagnoses. Cephalalgia. 2006;26(6):684–90.
2. Tanganelli P. Secondary headaches in the elderly. Neurol Sci. 2010;31(Suppl. 1):S73–6.
3. Prencipe M. Prevalence of headache in an elderly population: attack frequency, disability, and use of medication. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych. 2001;70(3):377–81.
4. Edlow JA, Caplan LR. Avoiding pitfalls in the diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(1):29–36.
5. Kowalski RG, Claassen J, Kreiter KT, et al. Initial misdiagnosis and outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage. JAMA. 2004;291(7):866–9.
6. Edlow JA. Diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage: are we doing better? Stroke. 2007;38(4):1129–31.
7. van Gijn J, Kerr RS, Rinkel GJ. Subarachnoid haemorrhage. Lancet. 2007;369(9558):306–18.
8. Lisotto C, Mainardi F, Maggioni F, et al. Headache in the elderly: a clinical study. J Headache Pain. 2004;5(1):36–41.
9. Zampaglione B, Pascale C, Marchisio M, et al. Hypertensive urgencies and emergencies. Prevalence and clinical presentation. Hypertension. 1996;27(1):144–7.
10. Tentschert S, Wimmer R, Greisenegger S, et al. Headache at stroke onset in 2196 patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. Stroke. 2005;36(2):e1–3.
11. Pfund Z, Szapáry L, Jászberényi O, et al. Headache in intracranial tumors. Cephalalgia. 1999;19(9):787–90; discussion, 765.
12. Hussein AS, Shafran SD. Acute bacterial meningitis in adults. A 12-year review. Medicine (Baltimore). 2000;79(6):360–8.
13. Salvarani C, Cantini F, Boiardi L, et al. Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant-cell arteritis. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(4):261–71.
14. Vannemreddy P, Nanda A, Kelley R, et al. Delayed diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms: confounding factors in clinical presentation and the influence of misdiagnosis on outcome. South Med J. 2001;94(11):1108–11.
15. Tomaszewski C. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Early awareness and intervention can save lives. Postgrad Med. 1999;105(1):39–40, 43–8, 50.
16. Siriwardena D, Arora AK, Fraser SG, et al. Misdiagnosis of acute angle closure glaucoma. Age Aging. 1996;25(6):421–3.
17. Walker RA, Wadman MC. Headache in the elderly. Clin Geriatr Med. 2007;23(2):291–305.
18. Edlow JA, Malek AM, Ogilvy CS. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: update for emergency physicians. J Emerg Med. 2008;34(3):237–51.
19. Lovelock CE, Rinkel GJ, Rothwell PM. Time trends in outcome of subarachnoid hemorrhage: Population-based study and systematic review. Neurology. 2010;74(19):1494–501.
20. Eden SV, Meurer WJ, Sánchez BN, et al. Gender and ethnic differences in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurology. 2008;71(10):731–5.
21. de Rooij NK, Linn FH, van der Plas JA, et al. Incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage: a systematic review with emphasis on region, age, gender and time trends. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007;78(12):1365–72.
22. Pobereskin H. Incidence and outcome of subarachnoid haemorrhage: a retrospective population based study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001;70(3):340–3.
23. van Gijn J, van Dongen KJ, Vermeulen M, et al. Perimesencephalic hemorrhage: a nonaneurysmal and benign form of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurology. 1985;35(4):493–7.
24. Backes D, Rinkel GJ, Kemperman H, et al. Time-dependent test characteristics of head computed tomography in patients suspected of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 2012;43(8):2115–19.
25. van der Wee N, Rinkel GJ, Hasan D, et al. Detection of subarachnoid haemorrhage on early CT: is lumbar puncture still needed after a negative scan? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1995;58(3):357–9.
26. Morgenstern LB, Luna-Gonzales H, Huber JC, et al. Worst headache and subarachnoid hemorrhage: prospective, modern computed tomography and spinal fluid analysis. Ann Emerg Med. 1998;32(3 Pt 1):297–304.
27. Edlow JA. What are the unintended consequences of changing the diagnostic paradigm for subarachnoid hemorrhage after brain computed tomography to computed tomographic angiography in place of lumbar puncture? Acad Emerg Med. 2010;17(9):991–5; discussion, 996–7.
28. Gorelick PB, Hier DB, Caplan LR, et al. Headache in acute cerebrovascular disease. Neurology. 1986;36(11):1445–50.
29. Köhrmann M, Schellinger PD. Acute stroke triage to intravenous thrombolysis and other therapies with advanced CT or MR imaging: pro MR imaging. Radiology. 2009;251(3):627–33.
30. Mullins E, Schaefer W, Sorensen G, et al. CT and conventional and diffusion-weighted MR imaging in acute stroke: study in 691 patients at presentation to the emergency department. Radiology. 2002;224(2):353–60.
31. Baechli H, Nordmann A, Bucher HC, et al. Demographics and prevalent risk factors of chronic subdural haematoma: results of a large single-center cohort study. Neurosurg Rev. 2004;27(4):263–6.
32. Forsyth PA, Posner JB. Headaches in patients with brain tumors: a study of 111 patients. Neurology. 1993;43(9):1678–83.
33. van de Beek D, de Gans J, Spanjaard L, et al. Clinical features and prognostic factors in adults with bacterial meningitis. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(18):1849–59.
34. Whitley RJ. Viral encephalitis. N Engl J Med. 1990;323(4):242–50.
35. Hasbun R, Abrahams J, Jekel J, et al. Computed tomography of the head before lumbar puncture in adults with suspected meningitis. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(24):1727–33.
36. Proulx N, Fréchette D, Toye B, et al. Delays in the administration of antibiotics are associated with mortality from adult acute bacterial meningitis. QJM. 2005;98(4):291–8.
37. Tunkel AR, Hartman BJ, Kaplan SL, et al. Practice guidelines for the management of bacterial meningitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39(9):1267–84.
38. Font C, Cid MC, Coll-Vinent B, et al. Clinical features in patients with permanent visual loss due to biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis. Br J Rheumatol. 1997;36(2):251–4.
39. Salvarani C, Gabriel SE, O’Fallon WM, et al. The incidence of giant cell arteritis in Olmsted County, Minnesota: apparent fluctuations in a cyclic pattern. Ann Intern Med. 1995;123(3):192–4.
40. Calamia KT, Hunder GG. Giant cell arteritis (temporal arteritis) presenting as fever of undetermined origin. Arthritis Rheum. 1981;24(11):1414–18.
41. Liozon E, Loustaud-Ratti V, Ly K, et al. Visual prognosis in extremely old patients with temporal (giant cell) arteritis. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003;51(5):722–3.
42. Salvarani C, Hunder GG. Giant cell arteritis with low erythrocyte sedimentation rate: frequency of occurrence in a population-based study. Arthritis Rheum. 2001;45(2):140–5.
43. Quigley HA. Glaucoma. Lancet. 2011;377(9774):1367–77.
44. Leibowitz HM. The red eye. N Engl J Med. 2000;343(5):345–51.
45. Bennetto L, Patel NK, Fuller G. Trigeminal neuralgia and its management. BMJ. 2007;334(7586):201–5.
46. Bogduk N, Govind J. Cervicogenic headache: an assessment of the evidence on clinical diagnosis, invasive tests, and treatment. Lancet Neurol. 2009;8(10):959–68.
47. Biondi DM, Saper JR. Geriatric headache. How to make the diagnosis and manage the pain. Geriatrics. 2000;55(12):40, 43–5, 48–50.
48. May A. Cluster headache: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. Lancet. 2005;366(9488):843–55.
49. Wang S-J, Liu H-C, Fuh J-L, et al. Comorbidity of headaches and depression in the elderly. Pain. 1999;82(3):239–43.
50. Meldon SW, Emerman CL, Schubert DS, et al. Depression in geriatric ED patients: prevalence and recognition. Ann Emerg Med. 1997;302:141–5.