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Index

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 June 2017

Irene Calboli
Affiliation:
Singapore Management University
Wee Loon Ng-Loy
Affiliation:
National University of Singapore
Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2017

Index

Abenomics, 518519
Act for the Protection of the Names of Designated Agricultural, Forestry and Fishery Products and Foodstuffs (GI Act) (Japan), 508509, 510514
ICH and, 518529
scope of protections, 512
Adan Kayan rice, 501506
adat communities, in Indonesia, 495496
Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection, and Quarantine (AQSIQ) system, 387390
Agreement of Trade-Related Aspects to Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)
appellations of origin in, 442445
Bangladesh and, 439440, 450
GI Act of 2013 and, compatibility with, 448454
EU violations of, 171172
GATT and, 39
geographical origins protections under, 3033
GIs and, 6, 7, 1214, 4041, 8788, 441444
definitions of, 5254, 126
in EU, 190, 195
minimum requirements for, 151
reputation-based, 2425
India and, 341
Inter-American Convention and, 216
ISDS and, 180
levels of protections in, 128129
Malaysia and, 281, 288
Singapore under, 240
Sri Lanka under, 411412, 413
sui generis systems and, 449
Taiwan and, 359361, 364365, 370371
terroir under, 6465
trademarks under, 141
conflicts between, 134135
definitions of, 453
under WTO law, 180
Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), 171172
Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA), 355356
agricultural products. See also coffee production; non-agricultural products and handicrafts; wine labeling
in India, 337, 340341
APEDA certification, 355356
MOA practice for, 393
in Southeast Asia, from plantations, 97102
AGWA Act. See Australian Grape and Wine Authority Act
AICs. See authorities for industry and commerce
AIPP. See Asian Indigenous Peoples’ Pact
Algeria, 196
Alphonso mango, 354357
alternative food networks, 118
Ambalangoda masks, 428430
American Viticultural Areas (AVAs), 64
Anti-Unfair Competition Law (China), 395
AO. See Appellation d’Origine
AOC. See Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée
APEDA. See Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority
Appellation d’Origine (AO), 4445, 62
Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée (AOC), 4445
appellations of origin
in Geneva Act, 441442
in Lisbon Agreement, 2327, 441442
in TRIPS, 442445
in Vietnam, 314, 320
AQSIQ system. See Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection, and Quarantine system
Argumedo, Alejandro, 120
Arunachal Pradesh state, biocultural diversity in, 107109
ASEAN. See Association of South-East Asian Nations
ASEAN-Australia-New Zealand Free Trade Agreement, 285286
Asia, GIs in. See also Southeast Asia; tea production
marketing of, 91
MICOs in, 8889, 9092, 113120
alternative food networks and, 118
gender equity in, 116, 117118
protections frameworks for, 211, 230233
in bilateral agreements, 192194
under EU trademark law, 198208
in international multilateral agreements, 194197
non-proprietary, 208210
scope of, 191192
purpose of, 186
registration of, 190191
TCEs in, 88
TEK in, 88
Asian Indigenous Peoples’ Pact (AIPP), 100101
association of producers and communities, 520525
Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN)
ASEAN-Australia-New Zealand Free Trade Agreement, 285286
Geneva Act and, 142143
GI protections among, 17
multilateral aspects of, 151
Australia. See also wine GIs, in Australia
AGWA Act in, 262263, 271272
enforcement procedures under, 264267
ASEAN-Australia-New Zealand Free Trade Agreement, 285286
EU and, trade agreements with, 166
GIs in, 149, 164
boundary setting for, 263
costs of, 267268
enforcement of, 266267
perceptions of, 268272
regional benefits of, 272274, 279
PDOs in, 269270
PGIs in, 269270
terroir in, 63, 164
under TPP Agreement, 156
wine making in, 260266
terroir and, 63, 164
Australian Grape and Wine Authority (AGWA) Act, 262263, 271272
enforcement procedures under, 264267
Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement, 279
authenticity, in ICH, 483, 525527
authorities for industry and commerce (AICs), 387
AVAs. See American Viticultural Areas
ayllu (holistic territorial approach to life and development), 120
Banarasi sarees, 333335, 347350
Bangladesh, GIs in
definition of, 448449
Fazli mango, 447
under GI Act of 2013, 440441, 459460
development history for, 446448
infringement actions, 451452
protections under, 449452
registration strategies under, 451
TRIPS and, compatibility of, 448454
IPRs and, 453454
Jamdani, 440441, 447
historical value of, 456457
as traditional knowledge, 455459
NakshiKantha, 447
protections for, 449452
Jamdani as traditional knowledge, 455459
rationale for, 444448
terroir and, 455
trademarks and, 452454
TRIPS and, 439440, 450
GI Act of 2013 and, compatibility of, 448454
Basmati rice, 230232
Basole, Amit, 487488
Beeralu lace, 430431
Besky, Sarah, 92
bilateral trade agreements
Asia GIs and, 192194
EU GIs and, protection frameworks for, 192194
for wine making, 192193
ISDS clauses and, 181182
bilateral trade and investment agreements (BTIAs)
with EU, 169170
under TFEU, 169
ISDS and, 178
WTO law and, 178
biocultural diversity
in India, 107109
in Arunachal Pradesh state, 107109
MICOs and, 119
in Southeast Asia, 96113. See also swidden agriculture
on agricultural lands, 100
under CBD, 103104
ecosystem services and, 102105
on forest lands, 100
livelihood security and, 102105
biocultural rights, 119
through community protocols, 119120
of indigenous farmers, 119120
collective marks and, 120
of indigenous peoples, 119120
biomass, in swidden agriculture, 98, 103
border enforcement, under GI Act 2014, 246
Bosnia, 196
Brazil, ICH in, 508
BTIAs. See bilateral trade and investment agreements
Bulgaria, 196
Burkina Faso, 196
business practice laws, in Sri Lanka, 412413, 415417
CAA Act of 2003. See Consumer Affairs Authority Act of 2003
Calboli, Irene, 38, 65, 163164, 188
Cambodia, swidden agriculture in, 99100
Canada-EU Trade Agreement (CETA), 157158, 169
carbon stocks, in swidden agriculture, 98, 102
case studies
in India, 344357
Alphonso mango, 354357
Banarasi sarees, 333335, 347350
Darjeeling Tea, 351354
Kashmir Pashminas, 350351
in Vietnam, 320327
Hạ Long fried calamari, 321324, 330
Lạng Sơn star anise, 324327
CBD. See Convention on Biodiversity
certification marks, 137138
for Cognac, 138141
defined, 252
CETA. See Canada-EU Trade Agreement
Ceylon Cinnamon, 423424
Ceylon Sapphires, 425426
Ceylon Tea, 409410, 421423
SLTB and, 422423
champagne, under sui generis regime, 122123
Chauvel, Richard, 492493
Chew, Daniel, 502
Chile, Malaysia-Chile Free Trade Agreement, 285286
China, GIs in
AICs and, 387
under Anti-Unfair Competition Law, 395
approval of, 389
collective marks, 385387
control and supervision of, 390
examination of, 389
historical development of, 380381
international protections for, 405406
for domestic right holders, 405406
for foreign right holders, 406
Lạng Sơn star anise, 326327
under Law on Protection of Consumer Rights and Interests, 395
legal considerations for, 404408
administrative appeals in, 406408
international protections, 405406
through judicial review, 406408
trademark law and, hierarchy for, 404405
under Lisbon Agreement, 405
under Madrid Agreement, 405406
under Paris Convention, 380381
producer applications for, 390
under Product Quality Law, 395
protections of, 230233, 381, 390391, 396402
through enforcement procedures, 390391
for foreign products, 391
legislative history for, 382384
under SAIC, 380381
under trademark system, 381387
registration procedures for, 389, 403404
under sui generis regimes, 387391, 392394, 402404. See also Ministry of Agricultural Practice
AQSIQ system, 387390
costs of, 403
exclusive rights, 403404
PPGIP system, 388389, 390391
trademarks in conflict with, 400402
under TM Law 1993, 382383
under TM Law 2013, 387, 397, 399, 400401
trademark system in, protections through, 381387, 402404
conflicts between, 396400
costs of, 403
enforcement of, 387
exclusive rights, 403404
legislative history for, 382384
registration for, 385387
Chromy, Josef, 277278
Civil Code of Vietnam, 320
CJEU. See Court of Justice of the European Union
Cleary, Jen, 149, 261
coffee production
in Ethiopia, 7580
as export, 80
geographic certification and, 7779
history of, 7980
in Indonesia, 491
labeling in, 7580
in PNG, 8486
infrastructure for, 84
labeling schemes for, 8485
non-traditional sources of, 85
Starbucks and, 7580
single-origin coffees and, 7780
trademark registrations and, 7580
Cognac, certification marks for, 138141
collective action
with India GIs, 345
with Vietnam GIs, 310, 331
collective goodwill, trademarks and, 137138
collective marks, 62, 120, 139
Darjeeling Tea as, 203204
defined, 252
EU GIs and, 202204
in Vietnam, 328329
collective trademarks, in Taiwan, 372373
common law, trademarks under, 137141
collective goodwill under, 137138
“first-in-time, first-in-right” approach to, 137
in United States, 138
Community Trade Mark Regulation (CTMR), 201202, 204
conflict palm oil, 113
Consortium for Common Food Names, 248249
Consumer Affairs Authority Act of 2003 (CAA Act of 2003) (Sri Lanka), 416
Consumer Protection Act 1999 (CPA 1999) (Malaysia), 287, 301
consumer protections, in Sri Lanka, 415417
contemporary reputation-based GIs, 5556
Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (CSICH) (2003), 21, 461462
property rights under, 462
purpose of, 467468
Representative List in, 468469
Convention on Biodiversity (CBD), 103104
Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (2005), 21
Coombe, Rosemary, 487488, 521
Costa Rica, 196
Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU)
EU-Singapore Free Trade Agreement ratification by, 255
Greek Yoghurt case, 42, 43, 209
IP protections and, 176177
reputation-based GIs and, 4243
trademark law cases, 198201
Cowen, Tyler, 74
CPA 1999. See Consumer Protection Act 1999
CSICH. See Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage
CTMR. See Community Trade Mark Regulation
Cuba, 196
culinary diplomacy, 477
culinary practices, definitions of, 475
cultural diversity
criteria for, 471472
culinary practices and, 474483
Kimjang, Making and Sharing Kimchi in the Republic of Korea, 478483
Mediterranean Diet, 474477
GIs and, 469474
ICH and, 469474
law’s impact on, 469474
safeguarding of, 484
UNESCO and, 470471
customary law communities, 490491
Czech Republic, 196
Czechoslovakia, 196
Darjeeling Tea, 9296, 232233, 351354
as collective mark, 203204
cultural impact of, 93
fair trade and, 9394
political marginalization and, 9596
female workers and, 9495
production techniques for, 9293
Database of Origin and Registration (DOOR), 41
PDOs in, 171
PGIs in, 171
TSGs in, 171
deceptive trademarks, 200
deforestation, in Southeast Asia, 97102
through palm oil production, 9799
Democratic Republic of the Congo, 196
denomination of origin, 441442
dereism, defined, 362
dereistic policies, in Taiwan, 362367
as IP-centred, 363
negative protections in, 365367
positive protections in, 365377
trademarks in, 363365
design registration, in India, 61
Desseauve, Thierry, 63
developing countries. See also geographical indications
farmers in
economic rents for, 74
in Ethiopia, 7580. See also coffee production
in India, 8083. See also Feni liquor
labeling practices for, 7386
in PNG, 8486. See also coffee production
under sui generis systems, 74
development. See economic development; social development
Directorate General of Intellectual Property Rights (DGIP), 500501
dispute settlement understanding (DSU), 178
DOOR. See Database of Origin and Registration
Drahos, Peter, 149
DSU. See dispute settlement understanding
Dumbara mats, 427428
Dusong, Jean-Luc, 205206, 207
Dutfield, Graham, 487
EC. See European community
ECHR. See European Convention on Human Rights
economic development
GIs for, 1522
in Indonesia, through GIs, 485488
in Taiwan, through GIs, 377379
ecosystem services, swidden agriculture and, 102105
ECtHR. See European Court of Human Rights
Eghenter, Cristina, 502
Equal Exchange, 9596
Ethiopia
coffee production in, 7580
as export, 80
geographic certification and, 7779
history of, 7980
farmers in, 7580
Starbucks in, 7580
trademark registrations in, 7580
EU. See European Union
EU-Canada Comprehensive Trade Agreement, 14
European Commission
on GI protections claims, 6566
on PDOs, 68
on PGIs, 68
European community (EC)
GATT and, 39
reputation-based GIs recognized by, 5154
European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), GIs under, 175
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), GIs protections and, 175176
European Union (EU). See also geographical indications, in EU
Australia and, trade agreements with, 166
BTIAs and, 169170
GATT and, violations of, 171172
IP in
under BTIAs, 169170
ISDS and, 169170
under TFEU, 169
under NAFTA, 170
New Zealand and, trade agreements with, 166
PDOs in, 168, 189
in DOOR, 171
PGIs in, 168, 189
in DOOR, 171
reputation-based GIs in, as multilateral compromise, 5154
under TPP, 170
trademark regulations in, 133
TRIPS and
GIs and, 190, 195
violations of, 171172
TSGs in, 168, 189
in DOOR, 171
under TTIP, 169, 212
European Union-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (EUSFTA), 286
EU-Singapore Free Trade Agreement, 166167, 169, 247249
CJEU ratification of, 255
establishment of, 235
purpose of, 235
EU-South Korea Free Trade Agreement, 169, 192, 193194
EU-Vietnam Free Trade Agreement, 169, 305
“evocation” imitation and, 191
Examination Guidelines of 2007 (Taiwan), 371375
Fair and Equitable Treatment (FET), 181
Fair Trade Act (Taiwan), 360361
fair trade label, 72
for Darjeeling Tea, 9394
political marginalization in production of, 9596
Fair Trade Labelling Organizations International (FLO), 95
Fair Trade USA, 9596, 117118
fallow periods, in swidden agriculture, 103, 104
farmers. See also coffee production
in developing countries
economic rents in, 74
in Ethiopia, 7580. See also coffee production
in India, 8083. See also Feni liquor
labeling practices for, 7386
in PNG, 8486. See also coffee production
under sui generis systems, 74
indigenous, in Southeast Asia, 101102
subsistence, women as, 109
Fazli mango, 447
female genital mutilation, 467
Feni liquor, 8083
GI application for, 8183
production of, 81
types of, 81, 82
FET. See Fair and Equitable Treatment
“first-in-time, first-in-right” approach, 137
FLO. See Fair Trade Labelling Organizations International
foodstuffs, in India, 337
forest lands, in Southeast Asia, 100
FPIC principles. See Free, Prior and Informed Consent principles
France
GIs in, 1012
INAO regulation of, 219
wine labeling laws, 1011
Lisbon Agreement and, 196
terroir and, 6263, 122123
wine making in, 6263
Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) principles, 108109
of indigenous peoples, 119120
free market economies, terroir in, 136
free trade agreements (FTAs). See also mega-regional trade agreements; Trans-Pacific Partnership
bilateral, 152
expansion of, 151
GIs and, 45, 1415, 1718
status of play, 14
Guatemala and, 178179
international, 14
ISDS and, 185
Malaysia in, 285286
multilateral, 151
Peru and, 178179
policy approaches to, incompatibilities between, 158165
local law as factor in, 160
terroir and, 159
with US, 222
under WTO law, 178179
From Modern Production to Imagined Primitive: The Social World of Coffee from Papua New Guinea (West), 84
FTAs. See free trade agreements
Gabon, 196
Gangjee, Dev, 24, 137, 508, 526
gastrodiplomacy, 477
GATT. See General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
gender equity, in MICOs, 116, 117118. See also women
gendered labour. See also women
in Southeast Asia, 109113
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
EU violations of, 171172
TRIPS and, 39
General Inter-American Convention for Trademark and Commercial Protection (Inter-American Convention), 212224
geographical terms in, 216, 219
GI protections under, 229230
in Latin America, 221222
long-term influence of, 221224
objective of, 220221
purpose of, 214215
as self-executing treaty, 223
signatory countries, 214
standard-setting by, 218219
TRIPS and, 216
unfair competition protections in, 216217, 218
US Trademark Act and, 213, 220
generic names. See names
genericide
defined, 131
Geneva Act prohibitions against, 132, 135
IP and, 131132
Lisbon Agreement and, 131132
sui generis systems and, 132
Geneva Act of the Lisbon Agreement for the Protection of Appellations of Origin and their International Registration (Geneva Act), 45, 2627. See also trademarks
appellations of origin in, 441442
ASEAN countries and, 142143
development of, 122126
future of, 141143
genericide prohibition in, 132, 135
GIs under
definitions of, 4041
in EU, 197
levels of protections under, 128129
maintenance fees under, 129
OAPI and, 141
registration-related issues, 129131
reputation-based GIs under, 4041
sui generis systems under, 142
terminological issues, 126127
terroir and, 6465, 123
TPP and, 143
WIPO and, 122
geographical collective trademarks, 375376
Geographical Indication (Registration and Protection) Act 2013 (GI Act 2013) (Bangladesh), 440441, 459460
development history for, 446448
infringement actions, 451452
protections under, 449452
registration strategies under, 451
TRIPS and, compatibility with, 448454
Geographical Indication of Goods (Registration & Protection) Act of 1999 (GI Act) (India), 344345, 346
Geographical Indication of Goods (Registration & Protection) Rules of 2002 (GI Rules) (India), 344
geographical indications (GIs). See also Geneva Act of the Lisbon Agreement for the Protection of Appellations of Origin and their International Registration; Lisbon Agreement; reputation-based GIs
ASEAN and, 17
in Australia, 149, 164
as badge of accountability, 1819
benefits of, 1522
under common law, 135143
in free market economies, 135137
trademarks and, 137141
consumer information through, 1921
culinary cultural practices and, 462463
cultural diversity and, 469474
defined, 2526, 3637
delocalized model of production and, 23
denomination of origin, 441442
diverse stakeholders and, 8990
under ECHR, 175
for economic development, 1522
for Feni liquor, application for, 8183
under French laws, 1012
wine labeling laws, 1011
FTAs and, 45, 1415, 1718
status of play, 14
generic names and, 13
global debates on, 34, 815
expansion of, 910, 34
geographical origins protections, 1112
global reputations of, 159
green, 118119
indication of source, 441442
IP regimes and, 37
ISDS and, 180184
limitations of, 9091
Lisbon Agreement and, 6, 2324
localized reputations of, 159
as marketing tool, 2829
in Asia, 91
PDOs, 2526, 37
PGIs, 2526, 37, 62
as policy tool, 86
poorly designed, 89
prices influenced by, 124
problems of, 1522
production focus of, 124125
promises of, 1522
as property, 175178
purpose of, 123124
registries for, 5, 18
in Asia, 190191
in EU, 38
terroir and, 2425
rural development and, 259
scope of, 62
for social development, 1522
sui generis systems and, 5, 910
terroir and, 6265
in France, 6263
third-party use of, 29
traditional knowledge compared to, 165
TRIPS and, 6, 7, 1214, 2425, 4041, 8788, 441444
definitions of GIs under, 5254, 126
minimum requirements for GIs, 151
under UNESCO framework, 21
Western interests and, 9
WIPO and, 37
WTO and, 4, 3637
EU violations of, 168, 171172
member requirements for, 12
protections for GIs, 12
geographical indications (GIs), in EU, 165167
Asia and, protection frameworks for, 211
in bilateral agreements, 192194
under EU trademark law, 198208
in international multilateral agreements, 194197
non-proprietary, 208210
scope of, 191192
cultural factors in, 187189
economic factors in, 187189
increased costs of GI products, 188
under EU trademark law, 198208
collective marks, 202204
geographical term use, 198201
protection as trademark, 198201
registration of, 198201
scope of protections, 201202
“evocation” and, 191
under Geneva Act, 197
incompatibilities in, 167
legal factors in, 187189
under Lisbon Agreement, 196197
under Madrid Agreement, 195196
under Paris Convention, 194
PDOs, 168, 189
PGIs, 168, 189
product specifications for, 171175, 185
as property, 175178
protection frameworks for, 189197, 226, 227228
in bilateral agreements, 192194
comparisons to US, 224228
in international multilateral agreements, 194197
non-proprietary, 208210
scope of, 191192
registered names and, protections of, 210
registries for, 38
under Regulation 1151/2012, 189191
under Regulation 2081/92, 189191
TRIPS and, 190, 195
TSGs, 168, 189
WTO and, 168, 171172, 190
geographical indications (GIs), protections of, 6570. See also protected geographical indications
in Asia, 211, 230233
in bilateral agreements, 192194
under EU trademark law, 198208
in international multilateral agreements, 194197
non-proprietary, 208210
scope of, 191192
in Bangladesh, 449452
for Jamdani, as traditional knowledge, 455459
rationale for, 444448
in China, 230233, 381, 390391, 396402
through enforcement procedures, 390391
for foreign products, 391
international, 405406
legislative history for, 382384
under SAIC, 380381
under trademark system, 381387
EC claims on, 6566
in ECtHR cases, 175176
in EU
alternate approaches to, 228230
compared to US, 224228
generic terms and, 226
legal approaches to, 227228
GI prices correlated to, 66
under Inter-American Convention, 229230
in Japan
non-proprietary, 209
scope of, 509
in Kenya, 67
through legal means, 6769
PDOs and, 68
as policy tool, 86
public beliefs in, 6970
in Singapore, 237240, 247254
after GI Act (1999), 238240
before GI Act (1999), 237238
through registration systems, 247249
relationships between owners and rights holders, 249254
in Sri Lanka, 412421
through business practice laws, 412413, 415417
through consumer protections, 415417
through sui generis regimes, 414415, 419420, 434435
through trademark law, 413414, 417419
in US
alternate approaches to, 228230
compared to EU, 224228
history of, 212214
legal approaches to, 227228
under trademark law, 227228
weakness of, 420421
Geographical Indications Act (GI Act) (1999) (Singapore), 235, 237240
Geographical Indications Act (GI Act) (2014) (Singapore), 235236, 240246
border enforcement measures, 246
enhanced protections through, 245246
existing holders under, 250251
GIs under
cancellations of, 245
definitions of, 242
PGI owners under, 250254
registry establishment under, 241245
trademarks under, 242
owners of, 251253
users of signs, 253254
Geographical Indications Act 2000 (GIA Act 2000) (Malaysia), 281283, 287296
amendment of, 287
institution of proceedings under, 293296
PGIs under, 289
registration system under, 289291
rights and exceptions under, 291293
geographical origins
marketing of, 7073
appeal of, 7072
in developed countries, 7172
in developing countries, 7172
labeling and, 7273
protections for, 1112, 2834
interpretations of, 3031
under Lisbon Agreement, 1112
under Madrid Agreement for the Repression of False and Deceptive Indications of Source on Goods (Madrid Agreement), 11
under Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, 11
under TRIPS, 3033
geographical terms
under EU trademark law, 198201
in Inter-American Convention, 216, 219
in Madrid Agreement, 219
Georgia, 196
Germany
Ethiopian coffee imported into, 80
non-proprietary protections of GIs, 210
reputation-based GIs in, 4748
terroir paradigm in, 4748
GI Act. See Act for the Protection of the Names of Designated Agricultural, Forestry and Fishery Products and Foodstuffs; Geographical Indication of Goods Act of 1999
GI Act (1999). See Geographical Indications Act
GI Act (2014). See Geographical Indications Act
GI Act 2013. See Geographical Indication (Registration and Protection) Act 2013
GI Rules. See Geographical Indication of Goods Rules of 2002
GIA Act 2000. See Geographical Indications Act 2000
GIs. See geographical indications
gluten-free labels, 72
Government Regulation No. 51/2007 (Indonesia), 498499
Greek Yoghurt case, 42, 43, 209
green GIs, 118119
Guatemala, FTAs and, 178179
Hạ Long fried calamari, 321324, 330
Haiti, 196
handicrafts. See non-agricultural products and handicrafts
historic reputation-based GIs, 5556, 5859, 60
holistic territorial approach to life and development. See ayllu
Howard, Sir Albert, 63
Hughes, Justin, 22
Huizenga, Daniel, 521
human rights, in ICH, 467
Hungary, 196
ICH. See intangible cultural heritage
ICSID. See International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes
INAO. See Institut National de l’Origine et de la Qualité
India, GIs in
for agricultural products, 337, 340341
APEDA certification, 355356
Banarasi sarees, 333335, 347350
Basmati rice, 230232
biocultural diversity in, 107109
in Arunachal Pradesh state, 107109
case studies for, 344357
Alphonso mango, 354357
Banarasi sarees, 333335, 347350
Darjeeling Tea, 351354
Kashmir Pashminas, 350351
collective action problems, 345
Darjeeling Tea, 9296, 232233, 351354
as collective mark, 203204
cultural impact of, 93
fair trade and, 9394, 9596
female workers and, 9495
production techniques for, 9293
design registration applications in, 61
farmers in, 8083
for foodstuffs, 337
under GI Act, 344345, 346
under GI Rules, 344
information asymmetry regarding, 336337
Lạng Sơn star anise in, 326327
liquor production in, 8486
for Feni, 8083
patent applications in, 61
PDOs, 341342
PGIs, 338, 341342
quality for, relevance of, 336339
under Regulation 510/2006, 340
under Regulation 1151/2012, 189191, 340
regulations of, 339343
EU influences on, 339342
for geographical names, 342343
under sui generis systems, 339342
trademark-style protections in, 342343
US influences on, 342343
reputation-based GIs in, 5960
SMOI and, 349350
Sri Lankan policy influenced by, 432433
sui generis systems in, 339342, 445
Tea Act in, 352, 353
Tea Board and, 352354
trademark registration applications in, 61
traditional knowledge libraries for, 432
under TRIPS, 341
vanity GIs, 335
women’s TEK in, 107109
indication of source, 441442
indigenous farmers
biocultural rights of, 119120
collective marks and, 120
FPIC of, 119120
in Southeast Asia, 101102
swidden agriculture and, 101102
Indonesia, GIs in
Adan Kayan rice, 501506
adat communities and, 495496
for coffee production, 491
cultural heritage and, 485488
customary law communities and, 490491
decentralization policies for, 488496, 506507
economic development and, 485488
Government Regulation No. 51/2007 in, 498499
IPR and, 492495
DGIP and, 500501
Jepara furniture, 501506
legal framework for, 496501
palm oil production and
monocropping and, 112
RSPO certification, 112
smallholder schemes, 111
women’s role in, 109113
under Plant Varieties Protection Act, 503504
under Protection of Intellectual Property Rights of Indigenous Papuans, 493
Trade Marks Act of 2001 in, 496, 498499
Institut National de l’Origine et de la Qualité (INAO), 37
establishment of, 219
intangible cultural heritage (ICH)
authenticity in, 483
in Brazil, 508
CSICH and, 21, 461462, 464469
property rights under, 462
purpose of, 467468
Representative List in, 468469
culinary practices and, 462463, 474483
Kimjang, Making and Sharing Kimchi in the Republic of Korea, 478483
Mediterranean Diet, 474477
cultural diversity and, 469474
culture and, definitions of, 467
definition of, 466
domains of, 465
human rights context for, 467
Indonesia and, 485488
intergenerational nature of, 465
in Japan, 510514
association of producers and communities and, 520525
authenticity of production process and, 525527
GI Act and, 518529
openness of product specification and, 527529
law’s impact on, 469474
for traditional culture, 465466
UNESCO and, 461462
intellectual property (IP)
in CJEU cases, 176177
disincentivizing of, 161162
in EU
under BTIAs, 169170
ISDS and, 169170
under TFEU, 169
GIs and, 37
global trade rules for, 150, 160162
incentivizing of, 161162
ISDS and, 169170, 182183
in Malaysia, GIs as distinct from, 281282
national treatment principle for, 453
property-style rules for, 162163
in Taiwan
under dereistic policies, 363
laws for, 359360
under WTO rules, 162163
Intellectual Property Act of 2003 (IP Act of 2003) (Sri Lanka), 415416, 418, 419420, 426, 428
Intellectual Property Law (IP Law) (Vietnam), 313314
intellectual property rights (IPR) systems
in Bangladesh, 453454
in Indonesia, 492495
DGIP and, 500501
MICOs and, 120
in Taiwan, 359360
Inter-American Convention. See General Inter-American Convention for Trademark and Commercial Protection
International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), 182
investor–state dispute settlement (ISDS)
in bilateral trade agreements, 181182
FET and, 181
GIs and, 180184
BTIAs and, 178
FTAs under, 178179
TRIPS and, 180
ICSID and, 182
IP and, 169170, 182183
NAFTA and, 181183
plain packaging and, 178
UNCITRAL and, 180181, 182
WTO and, 178180, 185
BTIAs and, 178
FTAs under, 178179
TRIPS and, 180
IP. See intellectual property
IP Act of 2003. See Intellectual Property Act of 2003
IP Law. See Intellectual Property Law
IPR systems. See intellectual property rights systems
Iran, 196
ISDS. See investor–state dispute settlement
Israel, 196
Italy
geographical origins protections in, 32
Lisbon Agreement and, 196
invalidation of, 197198
non-proprietary protections of GIs, 209
PDOs in, 174175
reputation-based GIs in, 60
Ives, Sarah, 521
Jamdani, 440441, 447
historical value of, 456457
as traditional knowledge, 455459
Japan, GIs in
Abenomics and, 518519
application process for, 514518
amendments to, 516517
cancellations in, 517518
quality control in, 518
refusal of, 515516
registration as part of, 514515
GI Act in, 508509, 510514
ICH and, 518529
scope of protections of, 512
ICH and, 510514
association of producers and communities and, 520525
authenticity of production process and, 525527
GI Act and, 518529
openness of product specification and, 527529
under Law for the Protection of Cultural Property, 521
monopoly rights and, 522
protections for
non-proprietary, 209
scope of, 509
TCE and, 510
TPP and, 512
traditional knowledge and, 510
Jepara furniture, 501506
Kashmir Pashminas, 350351
Kenya, GI protections in, 67
Keys, Ancel, 475
Kimjang, Making and Sharing Kimchi in the Republic of Korea, 478483
Codex standard for, 481482
knowledge, traditional, 165
in India, libraries for, 432
Jamdani as, 455459
in Japan, 510
Kobe beef, 208209
Kolia, Marina, 5051
Komesar, Neil, 521
labels, labeling and
in coffee production, 7580
in PNG, 8485
farmers and, in developing countries, 7386
geographical origin marketing and, 7273
types of, 72
for wine, in France, 1011
Ladas, Stephen, 213, 215, 220. See also General Inter-American Convention for Trademark and Commercial Protection
landholders, women as, 109
Lạng Sơn star anise
in China, 326327
in India, 326327
as Vietnam GI, 324327
Lanham Act (US), 140, 342343
Latin America, Inter-American Convention in, 221222
Latvia, reputation-based GIs in, 58
Law for the Protection of Cultural Property (Japan), 521
Law of Passing Off (Malaysia), 296299
Law on Protection of Consumer Rights and Interests (China), 395
Layton, Ron, 78
Lenzerini, Federico, 526
Li, Tania, 109110
Limburg, Germany, 183
Limburg Grotto Cheese, 183184
liquor production
for Cognac, 138141
Feni, 8083
GI application for, 8183
production of, 81
types of, 81, 82
in India, 8083
Lisbon Agreement (1958). See also Geneva Act of the Lisbon Agreement for the Protection of Appellations of Origin and their International Registration; trademarks
appellations of origin in, 2327, 441442
future of, 141143
generic terms under, 133135
genericide, 131132
geographical origins protections under, 1112
GIs and, 6
in China, 405
in EU, 196197
Geneva Act definitions of, 4041
invalidation of, 197198
level of protections under, 127129
maintenance fees under, 130131
national parties to, 125
original member states of, 196
registration-related issues, 129131
reputation-based GIs under, 2324, 45
Geneva Act, 4041
scope of protections under, 196197
Sri Lanka under, 410411
terminological issues, 126127
terroir under, 6465
travaux in, 127
usurpation in, 127
Vietnam GIs under, 313
livelihood security, 102105
Loong, Lee Hsien, 255256
Macedonia, 196
Madrid Agreement for the Repression of False and Deceptive Indications of Source on Goods (Madrid Agreement), 11, 195
China and, 405406
geographical terms in, 219
Sri Lanka under, 410411
maintenance fees, for trademarks
under Geneva Act, 129, 130131
under Lisbon Agreement, 130131
under PCT, 130
Malaysia, GIs in
applications for, 282283
ASEAN-Australia-New Zealand Free Trade Agreement and, 285286
CPA 1999 in, 287, 301
for cultural heritage, 285
establishment of, 281284
EUSFTA and, 286
in FTAs, 285286
GIA 2000 in, 281283, 287296
amendment of, 287
institution of proceedings under, 293296
PGIs under, 289
registration system under, 289291
rights and exceptions under, 291293
IP as distinct from, 281282
Law of Passing Off in, 296299
legal protections of, 286303
scope of, 301303
Malaysia-Chile Free Trade Agreement and, 285286
MEUFTA, 286
sui generis systems and, 445
TDA 2011 in, 300301
TMA 1976 in, 287, 299300
Trade Marks (Amendment) Act 2000 in, 299300
as trade tool, 284286
TRIPS and, 281, 288
Malaysia-Chile Free Trade Agreement, 285286
Malaysia-European Union Free Trade Agreement (MEUFTA), 286
Malmström, Cecilia, 152
Marie-Vivien, Delphine, 3839
marketing
of Asian GIs, 91
in Vietnam, 330
of geographical origins, 7073
appeal of, 7072
in developed countries, 7172
in developing countries, 7172
labeling and, 7273
GIs as tool in, 2829
marks. See also certification marks; geographical indications; names; trademarks
collective, 62, 120, 139
under Lanham Act, 140
marks indicating conditions of origin (MICOs)
Argumedo on, 120
in Asia, 8889, 9092, 113120
alternative food networks and, 118
gender equity in, 116, 117118
biocultural diversity and, 119
biocultural rights and, 119
through community protocols, 119120
of indigenous peoples, 119120
collective marks, 62, 120
IPR systems and, 120
WIPO and, 91
Mediterranean Diet, 474477
mutations in, 477
mega-regional trade agreements, 153158. See also Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement
CETA, 157158
RCEP, 151, 156157
negotiating members of, 156157
MEUFTA. See Malaysia-European Union Free Trade Agreement
Mexico, 196
MICOs. See marks indicating conditions of origin
Ministry of Agricultural (MOA) practice, 392394
for agricultural products, 393
approval in, 392393
control and supervision in, 393
examination in, 392393
protection terms in, 393
enforcement and, 394
for foreign GIs, 394
registration procedures, 392
Moldova, 196
monocropping
palm oil production and, 112
in swidden agriculture, 106
women and, 106
monopoly rights, 522
Montenegro, 196
Moratuwa furniture, 430431
multilateral trade agreements, Asia GIs and, 194197
NAFTA. See North American Free Trade Agreement
NakshiKantha, 447
names, generic
GIs and, 13
under Lisbon Agreement, 133135
national identity, terroir and, 122123
National Office of Intellectual Property (NOIP), 311312
national treatment principle, 453
Naylor, Lindsay, 117
New Zealand
ASEAN-Australia-New Zealand Free Trade Agreement, 285286
EU and, trade agreements with, 166
exports from, 166
Nicaragua, 196
NOIP. See National Office of Intellectual Property
non-agricultural products and handicrafts, reputation-based GIs for, 4344
non-GMO labels, 72
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
EU under, 170
ISDS and, 181183
North Korea, 193194
Lisbon Agreement and, 196
OAPI. See Organisation Africaine de la Propriété Intellectuelle
OLPs. See Origin Labelled Products
organic labels, 72
Organisation Africaine de la Propriété Intellectuelle (OAPI), 141
Origin Labelled Products (OLPs), 310
Oxfam, 76, 77, 80
palm oil production
conflict palm oil, 113
deforestation through, 9799
Fair Trade USA and, 117118
in Indonesia
monocropping and, 112
RSPO certification, 112
smallholder schemes, 111
women’s role in, 109113
industry reform for, 113115
through certification regimes, 114115
by corporations, 113114
regulatory standards for, 115116
through sustainability, 115
Snack Food 20 and, 113
Papua New Guinea (PNG)
coffee production in, 8486
infrastructure for, 84
labeling schemes for, 8485
non-traditional sources of, 85
farmers in, 8486
Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, 11
China GIs under, 380381
EU GIs under, 194
patents under, 131132
Sri Lanka under, 410411
trademarks under, 131132
unfair competition and, 218
Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), 130
patents
applications for, in India, 61
under Paris Convention, 131132
PCT. See Patent Cooperation Treaty
PDOs. See protected designation of origins
Peru
FTAs and, 178179
Lisbon Agreement and, 196
PRS in, 178179
PGIs. See protected geographical indications
the Philippines, swidden agriculture in, 100101
Phu Quoc products, 22
Plant Varieties Protection Act (Indonesia), 503504
plantation agriculture, in Southeast Asia, 97102
female landholders and, 109
gendered labour and, 109113
for palm oil production, 109113
subsistence farming and, 109
PNG. See Papua New Guinea
Portugal, 196
PPGIP system. See Provisions on the Protection of Geographical Indication Products system
price range system (PRS), 178179
prices, GIs as influence on, 124
Product Quality Law (China), 395
property rights, under CSICH, 462
protected designation of origins (PDOs), 2526, 37, 62
in Australia, 269270
in EU, 168, 189
GI protections and, 68
in India, 341342
in Italy, 174175
TPP and, 153154
protected geographical indications (PGIs), 2526, 37, 62
in Australia, 269270
in EU, 168, 189
European Commission on, 68
under GI Act 2014, 250254
under GIA Act 2000, 289
in India, 338, 341342
reputation-based GIs and, 4447
in Taiwan, 362
TPP and, 153154
in Vietnam, 315
Protection of Intellectual Property Rights of Indigenous Papuans (Indonesia), 493
Provisions on the Protection of Geographical Indication Products (PPGIP) system, 388389, 390391
PRS. See price range system
qualitative methodology, 311312
quality control
for Japan GIs, 518
for wine GIs, 277278
Raja, Indranee, 249
Rangnekar, Dwijen, 69, 74, 8081. See also Feni liquor
Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), 151, 156157
negotiating members of, 156157
registered names, 210
registration protection principle, 366
registries and registrations, of GIs
in China, 385387
MOA practice for, 392
DOOR, 41
PDOs in, 171
PGIs in, 171
TSGs in, 171
under EU trademark law, 198201
under GI Act 2013, 451
under GI Act 2014, 241245
under GIA Act 2000, 289291
for GIs, 5, 18
in Asia, 190191
in EU, 38
terroir and, 2425
in Japan, 514515
in Singapore, 247249
in Sri Lanka, 410, 435
in Taiwan, 370371
TRIPS and, 370371
in Vietnam, 312320
criteria requirements for, 312314
product types and, 314315
public policies for, 318320
as state-driven top-down process, 316318, 329
Regulation 510/2006 (India), 340
Regulation 1151/2012 (India), 189191, 340
Regulation 2081/92 (European Union), 189191
reputation-based GIs, 2328, 4054
attributability of, 5459
in India, 5960
in Italy, 60
in Latvia, 58
relevance of, 5455
in Spain, 5758
in CJEU cases, 4243
Greek Yoghurt case, 42, 43, 209
as compromise, 4454
as multilateral template, within EU, 5154
for PGIs, 4447
contemporary aspects of, 5556
defined, 4041
DOOR and, 41
EC recognition of, 5154
historic aspects of, 5556, 5859, 60
under Lisbon Agreement, 2324, 45
Geneva Act, 4041
for non-agricultural products and handicrafts, 4344
product history and, 5556, 57
production techniques in, 56
terroir paradigm and, 2425, 4751
in Germany, 4748
under TFEU, 48
trademarks and, 137
under TRIPS, 2425
under unfair competition laws, 4547
WTO legislation and, 40
Rogers, Edward, 213, 220. See also General Inter-American Convention for Trademark and Commercial Protection
Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), 112
Ruhunu Curd, 426427
rules of origin, WTO criteria for, 150
rural development, GIs and, 259
Ryan, Paul, 152
SAIC. See State Administration for Industry and Commerce
Saudi Arabia, Ethiopian coffee imported into, 80
Sen, Debarati, 94
Serbia, 196
shade-grown labels, 72
shifting cultivation. See swidden agriculture
Silk Mark Organization of India (SMOI), 349350
Singapore. See also Geographical Indications Act
EU-Singapore Free Trade Agreement, 166167, 169
CJEU ratification of, 255
establishment of, 235
purpose of, 235
under GI Act (1999), 235, 237240
GI protections in, 237240, 247254
after GI Act (1999), 238240
before GI Act (1999), 237238
through registration systems, 247249
relationships between owners and rights holders, 249254
Trade Marks Act 1938 in, 237
Trade Marks Act 1998 in, 237238
Trade Marks (Amendment) Act 2004 in, 254
under TRIPS, 240
US-Singapore Free-Trade Agreement, 166167, 254
Singh, Ranjay K., 107
single-origin coffees
from Ethiopia, 7779
Starbucks and, 7780
Slovakia, 196
SLTB. See Sri Lanka Tea Board
smallholder schemes, 111
SMOI. See Silk Mark Organization of India
Snack Food 20, 113
social development
GIs for, 1522
in Vietnam, through GIs, 308309, 320327
social movements, swidden agriculture and, 100101
The Soil and Health (Howard), 63
soil fertility, swidden agriculture and, 103
South Korea
EU-South Korea Free Trade Agreement, 169, 192, 193194
Kimjang, Making and Sharing Kimchi in the Republic of Korea, 478483
Codex standard for, 481482
under TPP Agreement, 156
Southeast Asia. See also Bangladesh; China; India; South Korea; Sri Lanka; Taiwan
biocultural diversity in, 96113. See also swidden agriculture
on agricultural lands, 100
under CBD, 103104
ecosystem services and, 102105
on forest lands, 100
livelihood security and, 102105
deforestation in, 97102
through palm oil production, 9799
indigenous farmers in, 101102
plantation agriculture in, 97102
female landholders and, 109
gendered labour and, 109113
for palm oil production, 109113
subsistence farming and, 109
Spain, reputation-based GIs in, 5758
species richness, swidden agriculture and, 103
Sri Lanka, GIs in
Ambalangoda masks, 428430
Beeralu lace, 430431
CAA Act of 2003 in, 416
Ceylon Cinnamon, 423424
Ceylon Sapphires, 425426
Ceylon Tea, 409410, 421423
SLTB and, 422423
definitions of, 410412
Dumbara mats, 427428
Indian influences on, 432433
IP Act of 2003 in, 415416, 418, 419420, 426, 428
under Lisbon Agreement, 410411
under Madrid Agreement, 410411
Moratuwa furniture, 430431
under Paris Convention, 410411
protections for, 412421
through business practice laws, 412413, 415417
through consumer protections, 415417
through sui generis regimes, 414415, 419420, 434435
through trademark law, 413414, 417419
weakness of, 420421
registration-based system for, 410, 435
Ruhunu Curd, 426427
sui generis regimes in, 414415, 419420, 434435, 445
under TRIPS, 411412, 413
Sri Lanka Tea Board (SLTB), 422423
stakeholders, diverse, 8990
Starbucks, 7580
single-origin coffees and, 7780
State Administration for Industry and Commerce (SAIC), 380381
status of play, 14
subsistence farming, women and, 109
sui generis systems. See also Ministry of Agricultural practice
in Asian countries, 445
champagne under, 122123
in China, 387391, 392394, 402404. See also Ministry of Agricultural practice
AQSIQ system, 387390
costs of, 403
exclusive rights, 403404
PPGIP system, 388389, 390391
trademarks in conflict with, 400402
farmers under, in developing countries, 74
genericide and, 132
under Geneva Act, 142
GIs and, 5, 910
in India, 339342, 445
in Sri Lanka, 414415, 419420, 434435
in Taiwan, 378
TPP and, 142
TRIPS and, 449
in Vietnam, 308, 312
sustainable, as label, 72
swidden agriculture, 97102
biomass in, 98, 103
carbon stocks in, 98, 102
under CBD, 103104
criminalization of, 99100
ecosystem services and, 102105
fallow periods in, 103, 104
in global social movements, 100101
indigenous farmers and, 101102
livelihood security and, 102105
political and strategic advantages of, 100
soil fertility and, 103
species richness and, 103
women’s TEK in, 105109
Sykes, Friend, 63
Taiwan, GIs in
dereistic policies for, 362367
as IP-centred, 363
negative protections in, 365367
positive protections in, 365377
trademarks in, 363365
economic development through, 377379
under Examination Guidelines of 2007, 371375
under Fair Trade Act, 360361
IP and
under dereistic policies, 363
laws for, 359360
IPRs and, 359360
PGIs, 362
registration of, 370371
TRIPS and, 370371
registration protection principle and, 366
sui generis systems, 378
under TMA 2003, 360361, 366, 367, 368370, 373374
under TMA 2012, 368, 375377
under Tobacco and Alcohol Administration Act, 360361
trademarks and
collective, 372373
under dereistic policies, 363365
geographical collective, 375376
TRIPS and, 359361, 364365, 370371
for wine and spirits, 362
in WTO, 359, 360361
Taiwan Intellectual Property Office (TIPO), 360361, 364365, 372, 373374
TBT. See Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade
TCEs. See traditional cultural expressions
TDA 2011. See Trade Descriptions Act 2011
Tea Act (India), 352, 353
Tea Board, in India, 352354
tea production, Darjeeling Tea, 9296
cultural impact of, 93
fair trade and, 9394, 9596
female workers and, 9495
production techniques for, 9293
TEK. See traditional environmental knowledge
terroir. See also geographical origins
in Bangladesh, 455
cultural context for, 63
defined, 36, 63
in France, 6263, 122123
in free market economies, 136
FTA policy and, 159
GATT and, 39
Geneva Act and, 6465, 123
under Lisbon Agreement, 6465
microclimactic elements of, 63
national identity and, 122123
reputation-based GIs and, 2425, 4751
in Germany, 4748
under TFEU, 48
soil composition and, 63
TPP Agreement and, 123
under TRIPS, 6465
wine making and, 6265
in Australia, 63, 164
in France, 6263
in United States, 64
TFEU. See Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union
Thailand, sui generis systems and, 445
TIPO. See Taiwan Intellectual Property Office
TM Law 1993. See Trade Mark Law of 1993
TM Law 2001. See Trade Mark Law of 2001
TM Law 2013. See Trade Mark Law of 2013
TMA 1976. See Trade Marks Act 1976
TMA 2003. See Trade Mark Act 2003
TMA 2012. See Trade Mark Act 2012
Tobacco and Alcohol Administration Act (Taiwan), 360361
Togo, 196
TPP Agreement. See Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement
Trade Descriptions Act 2011 (TDA 2011) (Malaysia), 300301
Trade Mark Act 2003 (TMA 2003) (Taiwan), 360361, 366, 367, 368370, 373374
Trade Mark Act 2012 (TMA 2012) (Taiwan), 368, 375377
Trade Mark Law of 1993 (TM Law 1993) (China), 382383
Trade Mark Law of 2001 (TM Law 2001) (China), 383
Trade Mark Law of 2013 (TM Law 2013) (China), 387, 397, 399, 400401
trade marks. See trademarks
Trade Marks Act 1938 (Singapore), 237
Trade Marks Act 1976 (TMA 1976) (Malaysia), 287, 299300
Trade Marks Act 1998 (Singapore), 237238
Trade Marks (Amendment) Act 2000 (Malaysia), 299300
Trade Marks (Amendment) Act 2004 (Singapore), 254
Trade Marks Act of 2001 (Indonesia), 496, 498499
Trademark Act (US), 213, 220
trademark law
in China, 404405
in Sri Lanka, 413414, 417419
trademarks. See also General Inter-American Convention for Trademark and Commercial Protection
in Bangladesh, 452454
certification marks and, 137138
for Cognac, 138141
in China, 381387, 402404
conflicts between GIs and, 396400
costs of, 403
enforcement of, 387
as exclusive rights, 403404
legislative history for, 382384
registration for, 385387
in CJEU cases, 198201
collective
geographical, 375376
in Taiwan, 372373
under common law, 137141
collective goodwill under, 137138
“first-in-time, first-in-right” approach to, 137
in United States, 138
conflicts over
EU Council regulations for, 133
under Geneva Act, 135
under Lisbon Agreement, 133135
under TRIPS, 134135
CTMR and, 204
deceptive, 200
EU GIs under, 198208
collective marks, 202204
geographical term use, 198201
protection as trademark for, 198201
registrability of, 198201
scope of protections for, 201202
under GI Act 2014, 242
owners of trademarks, 251253
under Lanham Act, 140, 342343
maintenance fees for
under Geneva Act, 129, 130131
under Lisbon Agreement, 130131
under PCT, 130
under Paris Convention, 131132
registrations for
in Ethiopia, 7580
in India, 61
Starbucks and, 7580
reputation-based GIs and, 137
in Taiwan
collective, 372373
under dereistic policies, 363365
geographical collective, 375376
under TRIPS, 134135, 141
definitions of, 453
in Vietnam, 328329
traditional cultural expressions (TCEs)
in Asia, 88
in Japan, 510
traditional environmental knowledge (TEK)
in Asia,