Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: March 2015

12 - Difficulties remembering the past and envisioning the future in people with trauma histories or complicated grief

from Part III - Overgeneral autobiographical memories and their mechanisms

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Barrett, L. F., Tugade, M. M., & Engle, R. W. (2004). Individual differences in working memory capacity and dual-process theories of mind. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 553573.
Berntsen, D., & Rubin, D. C. (2006). The Centrality of Event Scale: a measure of integrating a trauma into one’s identity and its relation to posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 219231.
Boelen, P. A., Huntjens, R. J. C., van Deursen, D. S., & van den Hout, M. A. (2010). Autobiographical memory specificity and symptoms of complicated grief, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder following loss. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 41, 331337.
Borch-Jacobsen, M. (2009). Making Minds and Madness: From Hysteria to Depression. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Borsboom, D., Cramer, A. O. J., Schmittmann, V. D., Epskamp, S., & Waldorp, L. J. (2011). The small world of psychopathology. PLoS ONE, 6(11), e27407, 111.
Brentano, F. (1984). On the origin of our knowledge of right and wrong. In Calhoun, C. & Solomon, R. C. (eds.), What is an Emotion? (pp. 205214). New York: Oxford University Press. (Originally published in 1889.)
Breslau, N., Chase, G. A., & Anthony, J. C. (2002). The uniqueness of the DSM definition of post-traumatic stress disorder: implications for research. Psychological Medicine, 32, 573576.
Brittlebank, A. D., Scott, J., Williams, J. M. G., & Ferrier, I. N. (1993). Autobiographical memory in depression: state or trait marker? British Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 118121.
Brown, A. D., Root, J. C., Romano, T. A., Chang, L. J., Bryant, R. A., & Hirst, W. (2013). Overgeneralized autobiographical memory and future thinking in combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 44, 129134.
Brown, D., Scheflin, A. W., & Hammond, D. C. (1998). Memory, Trauma Treatment, and the Law. New York: Norton.
Bryant, R. A. (2012). Grief as a psychiatric disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 201, 910.
Bryant, R. A., Sutherland, K., & Guthrie, R. M. (2007). Impaired specific autobiographical memory as a risk factor for posttraumatic stress after trauma. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 837841.
Cassiday, K. L., McNally, R. J., & Zeitlin, S. B. (1992). Cognitive processing of trauma cues in rape victims with post-traumatic stress disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 16, 283295.
Clancy, S. A. (2005). Abducted: How People Come to Believe They Were Kidnapped by Aliens. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Clancy, S. A., & McNally, R. J. (2005/2006). Who needs repression? Normal memory processes can explain “forgetting” of childhood sexual abuse. Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice, 4, 6673.
Clancy, S. A., McNally, R. J., Schacter, D. L., Lenzenweger, M. F., & Pitman, R. K. (2002). Memory distortion in people reporting abduction by aliens. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 455461.
Cramer, A. O. J., Waldorp, L. J., van der Maas, H. L. J., & Borsboom, D. (2010). Comorbidity: a network perspective. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33, 137193.
Debeer, E., Raes, F., Williams, J. M. G., & Hermans, D. (2011). Context-dependent activation of reduced autobiographical memory specificity as an avoidant coping style. Emotion, 11, 15001506.
Engelhard, I. M., van den Hout, M. A., & McNally, R. J. (2008). Memory consistency for traumatic events in Dutch soldiers deployed to Iraq. Memory, 16, 39.
Engle, R. W. (2002). Working memory capacity as executive attention. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 1923.
Evans, J., Williams, J. M. G., O’Loughlin, S., & Howells, K. (1992). Autobiographical memory and problem-solving strategies of parasuicide patients. Psychological Medicine, 22, 399405.
Golden, A. M., Dalgleish, T., & Mackintosh, B. (2007). Levels of specificity of autobiographical memories and of biographical memories of the deceased in bereaved individuals with and without complicated grief. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 786795.
Hackmann, A., Ehlers, A., Speckens, A., & Clark, D. M. (2004). Characteristics and content of intrusive memories in PTSD and their changes with treatment. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17, 231240.
Harvey, A. G., Bryant, R. A., & Dang, S. T (1998). Autobiographical memory in acute stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 500506.
Huntjens, R. J. C., Verschuere, B., & McNally, R. J. (2012). Inter-identity autobiographical amnesia in patients with dissociative identity disorder. PLoS ONE, 7(7), e40580.
Kaspi, S. P., McNally, R. J., & Amir, N. (1995). Cognitive processing of emotional information in post-traumatic stress disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 19, 433444.
Keane, T. M., Kolb, L. C., Kaloupek, D. G., Orr, S. P., Blanchard, E. B., Thomas, R. G., Hsieh, F. Y., & Lavori, P. W. (1998). Utility of psychophysiological measurement in the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder: results from a Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 914923.
Kleim, B., & Ehlers, A. (2008). Reduced autobiographical memory specificity predicts depression and posttraumatic stress disorder after recent trauma. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 231242.
Kuyken, W., & Brewin, C. R. (1995). Autobiographical memory functioning in depression and reports of early abuse. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 585591.
Loewenstein, R. J. (1991). An office mental status examination for complex chronic dissociative symptoms and multiple personality disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14, 567604.
Loftus, E. F., & Loftus, G. R. (1980). On the permanence of stored information in the human brain. American Psychologist, 35, 409420.
Maccallum, F., & Bryant, R. A. (2010a). Impaired autobiographical memory in complicated grief. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48, 328334.
Maccallum, F., & Bryant, R. A. (2010b). Social problem solving in complicated grief. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 49, 577590.
Maccallum, F., & Bryant, R. A. (2011). Imagining the future in complicated grief. Depression and Anxiety, 28, 658665.
McNally, R. J. (2003). Remembering Trauma. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
McNally, R. J. (2006). Cognitive abnormalities in post-traumatic stress disorder. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 271277.
McNally, R. J. (2007). Dispelling confusion about traumatic dissociative amnesia. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 82, 10831087.
McNally, R. J. (2009). Can we fix PTSD in DSM-V? Depression and Anxiety, 26, 597600.
McNally, R. J. (2012a). Explaining “memories” of space alien abduction and past lives: an experimental psychopathology approach. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 3, 216.
McNally, R. J. (2012b). The ontology of posttraumatic stress disorder: natural kind, social construction, or causal system? Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 19, 220228.
McNally, R. J. (2012c). Searching for repressed memory. In Belli, R. F. (ed.), True and False Recovered Memories: Toward a Reconciliation of the Debate (pp. 121147). Vol. 58: Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. New York: Springer.
McNally, R. J., & Clancy, S. A. (2005). Sleep paralysis, sexual abuse and space alien abduction. Transcultural Psychiatry, 42, 113122.
McNally, R. J., Luedke, D. L., Besyner, J. K., Peterson, R. A., Bohm, K., & Lips, O. J. (1987). Sensitivity to stress-relevant stimuli in posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 1, 105116.
McNally, R. J., Kaspi, S. P., Riemann, B. C., & Zeitlin, S.B. (1990). Selective processing of threat cues in posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 398402.
McNally, R. J., English, G. E., & Lipke, H. J. (1993). Assessment of intrusive cognition in PTSD: use of the modified Stroop paradigm. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 6, 3341.
McNally, R. J., Litz, B. T., Prassas, A., Shin, L. M., & Weathers, F. W. (1994). Emotion priming of autobiographical memory in post-traumatic stress disorder. Cognition and Emotion, 8, 351367.
McNally, R. J., Lasko, N. B., Macklin, M. L., & Pitman, R. K. (1995). Autobiographical memory disturbance in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 619630.
McNally, R. J., Amir, N., & Lipke, H. J. (1996). Subliminal processing of threat cues in posttraumatic stress disorder? Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 10, 115128.
McNally, R. J., Lasko, N. B., Clancy, S. A., Macklin, M. L., Pitman, R. K., & Orr, S. P. (2004). Psychophysiological responding during script-driven imagery in people reporting abduction by space aliens. Psychological Science, 15, 493497.
McNally, R. J., Clancy, S. A., Barrett, H. M., Parker, H. A., Ristuccia, C. S., & Perlman, C. A. (2006). Autobiographical memory specificity in adults reporting repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse. Cognition and Emotion, 20, 527535.
Metzger, L. J., Orr, S. P., Lasko, N. B., McNally, R. J., & Pitman, R. K. (1997). Seeking the source of emotional Stroop interference effects in PTSD: a study of P3s to traumatic words. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 32, 4351.
Meyersburg, C. A., & McNally, R. J. (2011). Reduced death distress and increased meaning in life among individuals reporting past life memory. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 12181221.
Meyersburg, C. A., Bogdan, R., Gallo, D. A., & McNally, R. J. (2009). False memory propensity in people reporting recovered memories of past lives. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 399404.
Moore, S. A., & Zoellner, L. A. (2007). Overgeneral autobiographical memory and traumatic events: an evaluative review. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 419437.
Moradi, A. R., Abdi, A., Fathi-Ashtiani, A., Dalgleish, T., & Jobson, L. (2012). Overgeneral autobiographical memory recollection in Iranian combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50, 435441.
Nathan, D. (2011). Sybil Exposed: The Extraordinary Story behind the Famous Multiple Personality Case. New York: Free Press.
Orr, S. P., McNally, R. J., Rosen, G. M., & Shalev, A. Y. (2004). Psychophysiological reactivity: implications for conceptualizing PTSD. In Rosen, G. M. (ed.), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Issues and Controversies (pp. 101126). Chichester, UK: Wiley.
Prigerson, H. G., Horowitz, M. J., Jacobs, S. C., Parkes, C. M., Aslan, M., Goodkin, K., Raphael, B., Marwit, S. J., Wortman, C., Neimeyer, R. A., Bonanno, G., Block, S. D., Kissane, D., Boelen, P., Maercker, A., Litz, B. T., Johnson, J. G., First, M. B., & Maciejewski, P. K. (2009). Prolonged grief disorder: psychometric validation of criteria proposed for DSM-V and ICD-11. PLoS Medicine, 6, e1000121.
Raes, F., Hermans, D., Williams, J. M., & Eelen, P. (2007). A sentence completion procedure as an alternative to the Autobiographical Memory Test for assessing overgeneral memory in non-clinical populations. Memory, 15, 495507.
Rieber, R. W. (2006). The Bifurcation of the Self: The History and Theory of Dissociation and Its Disorders. New York: Springer.
Robinaugh, D. J., & McNally, R. J. (2011). Trauma centrality and PTSD symptom severity in adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24, 483486.
Robinaugh, D. J., & McNally, R. J. (2013). Remembering the past and envisioning the future in bereaved adults with and without complicated grief. Clinical Psychological Science, 1, 290300.
Robinaugh, D. J., Lubin, R., Babic, L., & McNally, R. J. (2013). Are habitual overgeneral recollection and prospection maladaptive? Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 44, 227230.
Rubin, D. C., Berntsen, D., & Bohni, M. K. (2008). A memory-based model of posttraumatic stress disorder: evaluating basic assumptions underlying the PTSD diagnosis. Psychological Review, 115, 9851011.
Schacter, D. L. (1999). The seven sins of memory: insights from psychology and cognitive neuroscience. American Psychologist, 54, 182203.
Schacter, D. L. (2012). Adaptive constructive processes and the future of memory. American Psychologist, 67, 603613.
Schreiber, F. (1973). Sybil. New York: Warner Books.
Schwarz, E. D., Kowalski, J. M., & McNally, R. J. (1993). Malignant memories: posttraumatic changes in memory in adults after a school shooting. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 6, 95103.
Shear, M. K., Simon, N., Wall, M., Zisook, S., Neimeyer, R., Duan, N., Reynolds, C., Lebowitz, B., Sung, S., Ghesquiere, A., Gorscak, B., Clayton, P., Ito, M., Nakajima, S., Konishi, T., Melhem, N., Meert, K., Schiff, M., O’Connor, M.-F., First, M., Sareen, J., Bolton, J., Skritskayra, N., Mancini, A. D., & Keshaviah, A. (2011). Complicated grief and related bereavement issues for DSM-5. Depression and Anxiety, 28, 103117.
Sutherland, K., & Bryant, R. A. (2005). Self-defining memories in post-traumatic stress disorder. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 591598.
Sutherland, K., & Bryant, R. A. (2008). Social problem solving and autobiographical memory in posttraumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 154161.
Trandel, D. V., & McNally, R. J. (1987). Perception of threat cues in posttraumatic stress disorder: semantic processing without awareness? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 25, 469476.
Wenzel, A., Jackson, L. C., & Holt, C. S. (2002). Social phobia and the recall of autobiographical memories. Depression and Anxiety, 15, 186189.
Wenzel, A., Werner, M. M., & Cochran, C. K., & Holt, C. S. (2004). A differential pattern of autobiographical memory retrieval in social phobia and nonanxious individuals. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 32, 113.
Wessel, I., Meeren, M., Peeters, F., Arntz, A., & Merckelbach, H. (2001). Correlates of autobiographical memory specificity: the role of depression, anxiety and childhood trauma. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 409421.
Wilhelm, S., McNally, R. J., Baer, L., & Florin, I. (1997). Autobiographical memory in obsessive-compulsive disorder. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 2131.
Williams, J. M. G., & Broadbent, K. (1986). Autobiographical memory in suicide attempters. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95, 144149.
Williams, J. M. G., & Dritschel, B. H. (1988). Emotional disturbance and the specificity of autobiographical memory. Cognition and Emotion, 2, 221234.
Williams, J. M. G., Mathews, A., & MacLeod, C. (1996a). The emotional Stroop task and psychopathology. Psychological Bulletin, 120, 324.
Williams, J. M. G., Ellis, N. C., Tyers, C., Healy, H., Rose, G., & MacLeod, A. K. (1996b). The specificity of autobiographical memory and imageability of the future. Memory and Cognition, 24, 116125.
Williams, J. M. G., Barnhofer, T., Crane, C., Hermans, D., Raes, F., Watkins, E., & Dalgleish, T. (2007). Autobiographical memory specificity and emotional disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 122148.
Young, A. (1995). The Harmony of Illusions: Inventing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Young, W. C., Sachs, R. G., Braun, B. G., & Watkins, R. T. (1991). Patients reporting ritual abuse in childhood: a clinical syndrome. Report of 37 cases. Child Abuse and Neglect, 15, 181189.