Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2016
  • Online publication date: August 2016

Chapter 1 - Introduction and perspective

from Part I - General principles
1.Hodgins, E. Episode: Report On the Accident Inside My Skull. New York, NY: Atheneum, 1964, pp 714.
2.Carroll, L. Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. New York, NY: Dutton, 1929, pp 9394.
3.Osler, W. Aequanimitas. In Aequanimitas With Other Addresses to Medical Students, Nurses and Practitioners Of Medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Blakiston, 1932, pp 89.
4.Go, AS, Mozaffrian, D, Roger, VL et al. Executive summary: Heart disease and stroke statistics – 2014 update: A report from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2014;129(3):399410.
5.Rosamond, W, Flegal, K, Friday, G et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics – 2007 update: A report from the American heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Committee. Circulation 2007;115(5):e69e171.
6.Fields, WS, Lemak, NA. A History Of Stroke: Its Recognition and Treatment. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1989.
7.Gilman, S. Russell N DeJong. 1907–1990. Ann Neurol 1991;29:108109.
8.Friedlander, WJ. About three old men: An inquiry into how cerebral atherosclerosis has altered world politics. Stroke 1972;3:467473.
9.Bruenn, HG. Clinical notes on the illness and death of president Franklin D. Roosevelt. Ann Intern Med 1970;72:579591.
10.McHenry, LC Jr. Garrison’s History Of Neurology. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1969.
11.Linenthal, AJ. First a Dream: The History of Boston’s Jewish hospitals, 1896 to 1928. Boston, MA: Beth Israel Hospital, 1990, pp 276294.
12.Blumgart, HL, Schlesinger, MJ, Davis, D. Studies on the relation of the clinical manifestations of angina pectoris, coronary thrombosis, and myocardial infarction to the pathological findings. Am Heart J 1940;19:19.
13.Blumgart, HL, Schlesinger, MJ, Zoll, PM. Angina pectoris, coronary failure, and acute myocardial infarction. JAMA 1941;116:9197.
14.Blumgart, HL. Caring for the patient. N Engl J Med 1964;270:449456.
15.Nuland, S. Doctors, Bibliography Of Medicine. Birmingham, AL: Libraries of Gryphon Editions, 1988.
16.Adams, F. The Genuine Works of Hippocrates: Translated from the Greek. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1939.
17.Clark, E. Apoplexy in the Hippocratic writings. Bull Hist Med 1963;37:301314.
18.Vesalius, A. De Humani Corporis Fabrica. Basileae, Italy: J Oporini, 1543.
19.Wepfer, JJ. Observationes Anatomicae, Ex Cadaveribus Eorum, Quos Sustulit Apoplexia, Cum Exercitatione De Ejus Loco Affecto. Schaffhausen, Germany: Joh. Caspari Suteri, l658.
20.Gurdjian, ES. History of occlusive cerebrovascular disease: I. From Wepfer to Moniz. Arch Neurol 1979;36:340343.
21.Willis, T. The London Practice Of Physick. London: Thomas Basset at the George in Fleet Street and William Crooke at the Green-Dragon without Temple-Bar, 1685.
22.Willis, T. Cerebri Anatome: Cui Accessit Nervorum Descriptio Et Usus. London: J Flesher, 1664.
23.Willis, T. Instructions and prescripts for curing the apoplexy. In The London Practice of Physic (Portage, S, ed.), 1679.
24.Zimmer, C. Soul Made Flesh: The Discovery Of the Brain and How It Changed the World. New York, NY: William Heinemann (Random House), 2004.
25.Caplan, LR. Posterior circulation ischemia: Then, now, and tomorrow. The Thomas Willis lecture – 2000. Stroke 2000;31:20112023.
26.Morgagni, GB. The Seats and Causes Of Disease Investigated By Anatomy. Translated by Alexander, B. London: Millar and Cadell, 1769. Birmingham: Classics of Medicine Library, 1983.
27.Cheyne, J. Cases of Apoplexy and Lethargy With Observations Upon the Comatose Diseases. London: J Moyes Printer, 1812.
28.Abercrombie, J. Pathological and Practical Researches On Diseases Of the Brain and Spinal Cord. Edinburgh: Waugh and Innes, 1828.
29.Hooper, R. The Morbid Anatomy Of the Human Brain Illustrated By Coloured Engravings Of the Most Frequent and Important Organic Diseases To Which That Viscus Is Subject. London: Rees, Orme, Brown & Green, 1831.
30.Cruveilher, J. Anatomie Pathologique Du Corps Humain: Descriptions Avec Figures Lithographiées Et Caloriées Des Diverses Alterations Morbides Dont Le Corps Humain Est Susceptible. Paris: J B Bailliere, 1835–1842.
31.Carswell, R. Pathological Anatomy: Illustrations Of the Elementary Forms Of Disease. London: Longman, 1838.
32.Bright, R. Reports Of Medical Cases, Selected With a View Of Illustrating the Symptoms and Cures Of Diseases By a Reference To Morbid Anatomy. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown & Green, 1831.
33.Fisher, CM. The history of cerebral embolism and hemorrhagic infarction. In The Heart and Stroke (Furlan, A, ed.), Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1987, pp 316.
34.Virchow, R. Ueber die akut entzundung der arterien. Virchows Arch Path Anat 1847;1:272378.
35.Duret, H. Sur la distribution des arteres nouricieres du bulbe rachidien Arch Physiol Norm Pathol 1873;2:97113.
36.Duret, H. Recherches anatomiques sur la circulation de l’encephale. Arch Physiol Norm Pathol 1874;3:6091,316353.
37.Stopford, JS. The anatomy of the pons and medulla oblongata. J Anat Physiol 1928;50:225280.
38.Foix, C, Hillemand, P. Irrigation de la protuberance. C R Soc Biol (Paris) 1925;92:3536.
39.Foix, C, Hillemand, P. les Arteres de l’axe encephalique jusqu’au diencephale inclusivement. Rev Neurol (Paris) 1925;41:705739.
40.Foix, C, Levy, M. les Ramollissements sylviens. Rev Neurol (Paris) 1927;43:151.
41.Caplan, LR. Charles Foix – the first modern stroke neurologist. Stroke 1990;21:348356.
42.Osler, W. The Principles and Practice Of Medicine (5th ed). New York, NY: D Appleton, 1903.
43.Gowers, WR. A Manual Of Disease Of the Nervous System. London: J & A Churchill, 1893.
44.Wilson, SAK, Bruce, AN. Neurology (2nd ed). London: Butterworth–Heinmann, 1955.
45.Foix, C, Masson, A. Le Syndrome de l’artere cerebrale posterieure. Presse Med 1923;31:361365.
46.Foix, C, Hillemand, P. Les syndromes de l’artere cerebrale anterieure. Encephale 1925;20:209232.
47.Estol, CJ. Dr C Miller Fisher and the history of carotid artery disease. Stroke 1996;27:559566.
48.Fisher, CM. Occlusion of the internal carotid artery. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1951;65:346377.
49.Fisher, CM. Occlusion of the carotid arteries. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1954;72:187204.
50.Fisher, CM, Ojemann, RG. A clinico-pathologic study of carotid endarterectomy plaques. Rev Neurol 1986;142:573589.
51.Fisher, CM. Observations of the fundus oculi in transient monocular blindness. Neurology 1959;9:333347.
52.Fisher, CM. Facial pulses in internal carotid artery occlusion. Neurology 1970;20:476478.
53.Fisher, CM. The pathology and pathogenesis of intracerebral hemorrhage. In Pathogenesis and Treatment Of Cerebrovascular Disease (Fields, WS, ed.), Springfield, IL: CharlesThomas Publishers, 1961, pp 295317.
54.Fisher, CM. Clinical syndromes in cerebral hemorrhage. In Pathogenesis And Treatment Of Cerebrovascular Disease (Fields, WS, ed.), Springfield, IL: CharlesThomas Publishers, 1961, pp 318342.
55.Fisher, CM. Pathological observations in hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1971;30:536550.
56.Fisher, CM, Picard, EH, Polak, A, Dalal, P, Ojemann, R. Acute hypertensive cerebellar hemorrhage: Diagnosis and surgical treatment. J Nerv Ment Dis 1965;140:3857.
57.Fisher, CM, Lacunes: Small deep cerebral infarcts. Neurology 1965;15 774784.
58.Fisher, CM. The arterial lesions underlying lacunes. Acta Neuropath (Berlin) 1969;12:115.
59.Fisher, CM. Pure motor hemiparesis of vascular origin. Arch Neurol 1965;13:3044.
60.Fisher, CM, Karnes, W, Kubik, CS. Lateral medullary infarction. The pattern of vascular occlusion. J Neuropath Exp Neurol 1961;20:323379.
61.Fisher, CM. A new vascular syndrome – “the subclavian steal”. N Engl J Med 1961;265:912.
62.Fisher, CM, Caplan, LR. Basilar artery branch occlusion: a cause of pontine infarction. Neurology 1971;21:900905.
63.Fisher, CM. The posterior cerebral artery syndrome. Can J Neurol Sci 1986;13:232239.
64.Fisher, CM. Ocular bobbing. Arch Neurol 1964;11:543546.
65.Fisher, CM. Some neuro-opthalmological observations. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1967;30:383392.
66.Fisher, CM. The “herald hemiparesis” of basilar artery occlusion. Arch Neurol 1988;45:13011303.
67.Kubik, CS, Adams, RD. Occlusion of the basilar artery: A clinical and pathological study. Brain 1946;69:73121.
68.Moniz, E. l’Encephalographie artèrielle, son importance dans la localization des tumeurs cérébrales. Rev Neurol (Paris) 1927;2:7290.
69.Moniz, E. l’Angiographie Cérébrale. Paris: Masson, 1931.
70.Gurdjian, ES, Gurdjian, ES. History of occlusive cerebrovascular disease: II. After Moniz with special reference to surgical treatment. Arch Neurol 1979;36:427432.
71.Seldinger, SI. Catheter replacement of the needle in percutaneous arteriography. Acta Radiol 1953;39:368376.
72.Edelman, RC, Mattle, HP, O’Reilly, GV, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of flow dynamics in the circle of Willis. Stroke 1990;21:5665.
73.Knauth, M, von Kummer, R, Jansen, O, et al. Potential of CT angiography in acute ischemic stroke. Am J Neuroradiol 1997;18:10011010.
74.Franklin, DL, Schlegel, WA, Rushner, RF. Blood flow measured by Doppler frequency shift of back-scattered ultrasound. Science 1961;134:564565.
75.Aaslid, R, Markwalder, TM, Nornes, H. Non-invasive transcranial Doppler ultrasound recording of flow velocity in basal cerebral arteries. J Neurosurg 1982;57:769774.
76.Caplan, LR, Brass, LM, DeWitt, LD, et al. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound: Present status. Neurology 1990;40:696700.
77.Aring, CD, Meritt, HH. Differential diagnosis between cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral thrombosis. Arch Intern Med 1935;56:435456.
78.Dalsgaard-Nielsen, T. Survey of 1000 cases of apoplexia cerebri. Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand 1955;30:169185.
79.Whisnant, JP, Fitzgibbons, JP, Kurland, LT, et al. Natural history of stroke in Rochester, Minnesota, 1945 through 1954. Stroke 1971;2:1122.
80.Matsumoto, N, Whisnant, JP, Kurland, LT, et al. Natural history of stroke in Rochester, Minnesota, 1955 through 1969: An extension of a previous study 1945 through 1954. Stroke 1973;4:2029.
81.Mohr, JP, Caplan, LR, Melski, JW, et al. The Harvard Cooperative Stroke Registry: A prospective registry. Neurology 1978;28:754762.
82.Kunitz, S, Gross, CR, Heyman, A, et al. The Pilot Stroke Data Bank: Definition, design, and data. Stroke 1984;15:740746.
83.Caplan, LR, Hier, DB, D’Cruz, I. Cerebral embolism in the Michael Reese Stroke Registry. Stroke 1983;14:530536.
84.Chambers, BR, Donnan, GA, Bladin, PF. Patterns of stroke: An analysis of the first 700 consecutive admissions to the Austin Hospital Stroke Unit. Aust N Z J Med 1983;13:5764.
85.Foulkes, MA, Wolf, PA, Price, TR, et al. The Stroke Data Bank: Design, methods, and baseline characteristics. Stroke 1988;19:547554.
86.Bogousslavsky, J, Mille, GV, Regli, F. The Lausanne Stroke Registry: An analysis of 1,000 consecutive patients with first stroke. Stroke 1988;19:10831092.
87.Moulin, T, Tatu, L, Crepin-Leblond, T, Chavot, D, Berges, S, Rumbach, T. The Besancon Stroke Registry: An acute stroke registry of 2,500 consecutive patients. Eur Neurol 1997;38(1):1020.
88.Heuschmann, PU, Kolominsky-Rabas, PL, Misselwitz, B, et al.; German Stroke Registers Study Group. Predictors of in-hospital mortality and attributable risks of death after ischemic stroke: The German Stroke Registers Study Group. Arch Intern Med 2004;164:17611768.
89.Vemmos, KN, Takis, CE, Georgilis, K, Zakopoulos, NA, Lekakis, JP, Papamichael, CM, Zis, VP, Stamatelopoulos, S. The Athens stroke registry: Results of a five-year hospital-based study. Cerebrovasc Dis 2000;10:133141.
90.Gross, CR, Kase, CS, Mohr, JP, et al. Stroke in south Alabama: Incidence and diagnostic features-a population based study. Stroke 1984;15:249255.
91.Wolf, PA, Kannel, WB, Dauber, TR. Prospective investigations: The Framingham study and the epidemiology of stroke. Adv Neurol 1978;19:107120.
92.Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project. Incidence of stroke in Oxfordshire: First year’s experience of a community stroke registry. BMJ 1983;287:713717.
93.Alter, M, Sobel, E, McCoy, RC, et al. Stroke in the Lehigh Valley: Incidence based on a community-wide hospital registry. Neuroepidemiology 1985;4:115.
94.Yatsu, FM, Becker, C, McLeroy, K, et al. Community hospital-based stroke programs: North Carolina, Oregon, and New York: I. Goals, objectives, and data collection procedures. Stroke 1986;17:276284.
95.Mohr, JP. Stroke data banks [editorial]. Stroke 1986;17:171172.
96.Caplan, LR. Stroke data banks, then and now. In Basis For a Classification Of Cerebrovascular Disease (Courbier, R, ed.). Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1985, pp 152162.
97.Caplan, LR. Caplan’s short rendition of stroke during the 20th century: Part 2. A short history. Int J Stroke 2006;1:228234.
98.Indredavik, B, Bakke, F, Solberg, R et al. Benefit of a stroke unit: a randomized controlled trial. Stroke 1991;22:10261031.
99.Indredavik, B, Slordahl, SA, Bakke, F, Rokseth, R, Haheim, LL. Stroke unit treatment. Long term effects. Stroke 1997;28:18611866.
100.Diez-Tejedor, E, Fuentes, B. Acute care in stroke: Do stroke units make the difference? Cerebrovasc Dis 2001;11(Suppl 1):3139.
101.Birbeck, GL, Zingmond, DS, Cui, X, Vickrey, BG. Multispecialty stroke services in California hospitals are associated with reduced mortality. Neurology 2006;66:15271532.
102.Stroke Unit Trialists’ Collaboration. Collaborative systematic review of the randomized trials of organised in-patient (stroke unit) care after stroke. BMJ 1997;314:11511159.
103.Stroke Unit Trialists’ Collaboration. How do stroke units improve patient outcomes? A collaborative systematic review of the randomized trials. Stroke 1997;28:21392144.
104.Hacke, W, Kaste, M, Fieschi, C et al. Intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute hemispheric stroke. The European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS). JAMA 1995; 274:10171025.
105.Hacke, W, Kaste, M, Fieschi, C et al. for the Second European-Australasian Acute Stroke Study Investigators. Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of thrombolytic therapy with intravenous alteplase in acute ischaemic stroke (ECASS-ll). Lancet 1998;352:12451251.
106.McLean, J. The thromboplastic action of cephalin. Am J Physiol 1916;41:250257.
107.Howell, WH, Holt, E. Two new factors in blood coagulation – heparin and pro-antithrombin. Am J Physiol 1918;47:328341.
108.Link, KP. The discovery of dicumarol and its sequels. Circulation 1959;19:97107.
109.Baker, RN, Broward, JA, Fang, HC, et al. Anticoagulant therapy in cerebral infarction. Report on cooperative study. Neurology 1962;12:823835.
110.The Boston Area Anticoagulation Trial for Atrial Fibrillation Investigators. The effect of low-dose warfarin on the risk of stroke in patients with nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 1990;323:15051511.
111.Petersen, P, Godtfredsen, J, Boysen, G et al. Placebo-controlled, randomized trial of warfarin and aspirin for prevention of thromboembolic complications in chronic atrial fibrillation: The Copenhagen AFASAK study. Lancet 1989;1:175179.
112.The Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Investigators. The stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation study: Final results. Circulation 1991;84:527539.
113.EAFT (European Atrial Fibrillation Trial) Study Group. Secondary prevention in non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation after transient ischaemic attack or minor stroke. Lancet 1993;342:12551262.
114.Craven, LL. Experiences with aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) in the nonspecific prophylaxis of coronary thrombosis. Mississippi Valley Med J 1953;75:3844.
115.Craven, LL. Prevention of coronary and cerebral thrombosis. Mississippi Valley Med J 1956;78:213215.
116.Mundall, J, Quintero, P, von Kaulla, K, et al. Transient monocular blindness and increased platelet aggregability treated with aspirin – a case report. Neurology 1971;21:402.
117.Harrison, MJG, Marshall, J, Meadows, JC, et al. Effect of aspirin in amaurosis fugax. Lancet 1971;2:743744.
118.Fields, WS, LeMak, NA, Frankowski, RF, Hardy, RJ. Controlled trial of aspirin in cerebral ischemia. Stroke 1977;8:301316.
119.The Canadian Cooperative Study Group. A randomized trial of aspirin and sulfinpyrazone in threatened stroke. N Engl J Med 1978;299:5359.
120.Mohr, JP, Thompson, JLP, Lazar, RM et al. for the Warfarin-Aspirin Recurrent Stroke Study Group. A comparison of warfarin and aspirin for the prevention of recurrent ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 2001;345:14441451.
121.Chimowitz, MI, Lynn, MJ, Howlett-Smith, H, et al. Comparison of warfarin and aspirin for symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis. N Engl J Med 2005;352:13051316.
122.Connolly, SJ, Ezekowitz, MD, Yusuf, S, et al. RELY Steering Committee and Investigators. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2009;361:11391151.
123.Granger, CB, Alexander, JH, McMurray, JJ, et al. ARISTOTLE Committees and Investigators. Apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2011;365:981992.
124.Patel, MR, Mahaffey, KW, Garg, J, et al. ROCKET-AF Investigators. Rivaroxaban versus warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2011;365:883891.
125.Giugliano, RP, Ruff, CT, Braunwald, E, et al. ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 Investigators. Edoxaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2013;369:20932104.
126.Eastcott, HHG, Pickering, GW, Rob, CG. Reconstruction of internal carotid artery in a patient with intermittent attacks of hemiplegia. Lancet 1954;2:994996.
127.DeBakey, ME. Successful carotid endarterectomy for cerebrovascular insufficiency. Nineteen years follow-up. JAMA 1975;233:10831085.
128.Carrea, R, Molins, M, Murphy, G. Surgical treatment of spontaneous thrombosis of the internal carotid artery in the neck. Carotid–carotideal anastamosis. Acta Neurol Latinoamer 1955;1:7178.
129.Cooley, DA, Al-Naaman, YD, Carton, CA. Surgical treatment of arteriosclerotic occlusions of common carotid artery. J Neurosurg 1956;2:12651267.
130.Cate, WR Jr, Scott, HW. Cerebral ischemia of central origin. Relief by subclavian–vertebral artery thrombendarterectomy. Surgery 1959;45:1931.
131.Thompson, JE. The evolution of surgery for the treatment and prevention of stroke: The Willis lecture. Stroke 1996;27:14271434.
132.Fields, WS, North, RR, Hass, WK et al. Joint Study of Extracranial Arterial Occlusion as a Cause of Stroke: Organization of study and survey of patient population. JAMA 1968;203:955960.
133.Hass, WK, Fields, WS, North, R et al. Joint Study of Extracranial Arterial Occlusion. II. Arteriography, techniques, sites, and complications. JAMA 1968;203:961968.
134.Fields, WS (ed). Pathogenesis and Treatment Of Cerebrovascular Disease. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1961.
135.Fields, WS, Sahs, AL (eds). Intracranial Aneurysms and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1965.
136.Maroon, JC, Donaghy, RMP. Experimental cerebral revascularization with autogenous grafts. J Neurosurg 1973;38:172179.
137.Hunter, KM, Donaghy, RMP. Arterial micrografts. An experimental study. Can J Surg 1973;16:2327.
138.Yasargil, MG, Krayenbuhl, HA, Jacobson, JH. Microneurosurgical arterial reconstruction. Surgery 1970;67:221233.
139.Yasargil, MG (ed). Microsurgery Applied To Neurosurgery. Stuttgart: George Thieme Verlag, 1969.
140.EC/IC Bypass Study Group. Failure of extracranial–intracranial arterial bypass to reduce the risk of ischemic stroke: results of an international randomized trial. N Engl J Med 1985;313:191200.
141.Powers, WJ, Clarke, WR, Grubb, RL et al. for the COSS Investigators. Extracranial–intracranial bypass surgery for stroke prevention in hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. The Carotid Occlusion Surgery Randomized Trial. JAMA 2011;306(18):19831992.
142.Caplan, LR. Bypassing trouble. Arch Neurol 2012;69(4):518520.
143.North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET) Collaborators. Beneficial effects of carotid endarterectomy in symptomatic patients with high-grade carotid stenosis. N Engl J Med 1991;325:445453.
144.Barnett, HJM, Taylor, DW, Eliasziw, et al. For the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial Collaborators. Benefit of carotid endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic moderate or severe stenosis. N Engl J Med 1998;339:14151425.
145.European Carotid Surgery Trialists’ Collaborative Group. MRC European Carotid Surgery trial: Interim results of symptomatic patients with severe (70–99%) or with mild (0–29%) carotid stenosis. Lancet 1991;1:12351243.
146.European Carotid Surgery Trialists’ Collaborative Group. Randomized trial of endarterectomy for recently symptomatic carotid stenosis: Final results of the MRC European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST). Lancet 1998;351:13791387.
147.Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study Group. Carotid endarterectomy for patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. JAMA 1995;273:14211428.
148.Halliday, AW, Thomas, DJ, Mansfield, AO. The asymptomatic carotid surgery trial (ACST). Int Angiol 1995;14:1820.
149.Halliday, A, Mansfield, A, Marro, J. Prevention of disabling and fatal strokes by successful carotid endarterectomy in patients without recent neurological symptoms: Randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2004;363:14911502.
150.Brott, TG, Hobson, RW II, Howard, G, et al.; CREST Investigators. Stenting vs. endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis. N Engl J Med 2010;363(1):1123.
151.Caplan, LR, Brott, TG. Of horse races, trials, meta-analyses, and carotid artery stenosis. Arch Neurol 2011;68(2):157159.
152.Meinert, CL. Clinical Trials: Design, Conduct, and Analysis. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1986.
153.Sackett, DL. Evidence-based medicine: What it is and what it isn’t. BMJ 1996;312:7172.
154.Sackett, DL, Rosenberg, W. On the need for evidence-based medicine. Evidence-based Medicine 1995;1:56.
155.Caplan, LR. Editorial. Evidence based medicine: concerns of a clinical neurologist. J Neurology Neurosurg Psychiatry 2001;71:569576.
156.Caplan, LR. Evidence and the effective clinical neurologist. The 2009 H Houston Merritt Lecture. Arch Neurol 2011;68(10):12521256.
157.Sloan, MA. Thrombolysis and stroke: Past and future. Arch Neurol 1987;44:748768.
158.Sussman, BJ, Fitch, TSP. Thrombolysis with fibrinolysin in cerebral arterial occlusion. JAMA 1958;167:17051709.
159.Herndon, RM, Meyer, JS, Johnson, JF et al. Treatment of cardiovascular thrombosis with fibrinolysisn. Am J Cardiol 1960;30:540545.
160.Clark, RL, Clifton, EE. The treatment of cerebrovascular thrombosis and embolism with fibrinolytic agents. Am J Cardiol 1960;30:546551.
161.Meyer, JS, Gilroy, J, Barnhart, ME et al. Anticoagulants plus streptokinase therapy in progressive stroke. JAMA 1963;189:373.
162.Meyer, JS, Gilroy, J Barnhart, ME et al. Therapeutic thrombolysis in cerebral thromboembolism. Randomized evaluation of intravenous streptokinase. In Cerebral Vascular Diseases. (Millikan, CH, Siekert, R, Whisnant, JP, eds), New York, NY: Grune & Sratton, 1964, pp 200213.
163.Zeumer, H, Hacke, W, Ringelstein, EB. Intra-arterial thrombolysis in vertebrobasilar thromboembolic disease. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1983;4:401404.
164.Zeumer, H, Hundgen, R, Ferbert, A et al. Local intra-arterial fibrinolyic therapy in inaccessible internal carotid occlusion. Neuroradiology 1984;76:315317.
165.Hacke, W, Zeumer, H, Ferbert, A, Bruckmann, H, del Zoppo, G. Intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy improves outcome in patients with acute vertebrobasilar occlusive disease. Stroke 1988;19:12161222.
166.del Zoppo, GJ, Poeck, K, Pessin, MS et al. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in acute thrombotic and embolic stroke. Ann Neurol 1992;32:7886.
167.Wolpert, SM, Bruckmann, H, Greenlee, R et al. Neuroradiologic evaluation of patients with acute stroke treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. The rt-PA Acute Stroke Study Group. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1993;14:313.
168.Pessin, MS, del Zoppo, GJ, Furlan, AJ. Thrombolytic treatment in acute stroke: Review and update of selected topics. In Cerebrovascular Diseases, 19th Princeton Conference, 1994. Boston, MA: Butterworth–Heinemann, 1995, pp 409418.
169.Hacke, W, del Zoppo, GJ, Hirschberg, M (eds). Thrombolytic Therapy In Acute Ischemic Stroke. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1991.
170.The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA Study Group. Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 1995;333:15811587.
171.Adams, HP, Brott, TG, Furlan, AJ et al. Use of thrombolytic drugs. A supplement to the guidelines for the management of patients with acute ischemic stroke. A statement for Health Care Professionals from a special writing group of the Stroke Council American Heart Association. Stroke 1996;27:17111718.
172.Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Practice advisory: Thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke – summary statement, Neurology 1996;47:835839.
173.Hacke, W, Kaste, M, Bluhmki, E et al. for the ECASS Investigators. Thrombolysis with alteplase 3 to 4.5 hours after acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 2008;359:13171329.
174.Lindsberg, P, Soinne, L, Tatlisumak, T et al. Long-term outcome after intravenous thrombolysis of basilar artery occlusion. JAMA 2004;292:18621866.
175.Lindsberg, PJ, Mattle, HP. Therapy of basilar artery occlusion: A systematic analysis comparing intra-arterial and intravenous thrombolysis. Stroke 2006;37:922928.
176.del Zoppo, GJ, Higashida, RT, Furlan, AJ et al. PROACT: A phase II randomized trial of recombinant pro-urokinase by direct arterial delivery in acute middle cerebral artery stroke. Stroke 1998;29:411.
177.Furlan, AJ, Higashida, RT, Wechsler, L et al. Intra-arterial prourokinase for acute ischemic stroke. The PROACT II Study: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1999;282:20032011.
178.Serbenenko, FA. Balloon catheterization and occlusion of major cerebral vessels. J Neurosurg 1974;41:125145.
179.Introcaso, JH, Uske, A. Endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. In Cerebrovascular Disease (Batjer, HH, Caplan, LR, Friberg, L et al., eds), Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven, 1996, pp 915927.
180.Guglielmi, G, Vinuela, F, Sepetka, I et al. Electrothrombosis of saccular aneurysms. Neurosurgery via endovascular approach. I. Electrochemical basis, technique, and experimental results. J Neurosurg 1991;75:17.
181.Fiorella, , Albuquerque, FC, Woo, H et al. Neuroform stent assisted aneurysm treatment: evolving treatment strategies, complications and results of long term follow-up. J Neurointerv Surg 2010;2:1622.
182.Geyik, S, Yavuz, N, Yurttutan, N, Saatci, I, Cekirge, HS. Stent-assisted coiling in endovascular treatment of 500 consecutive cerebral aneurysms with long-term follow-up. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2013;34:16.
183.D’Urso, PI, Lanzino, G, Cloft, HJ, Kallmes, DF. Flow diversion for intracranial aneurysms: A review. Stroke 2011;42:23632368.
184.Chalouhi, N, Tjoumakaris, S, Starke, R et al. Comparison of flow diversion and coiling in large unruptured intracranial saccular aneurysms. Stroke 2013;44:21502154.
185.Latchaw, RE, Madison, MT, Larsen, DW, Silva, P. Intracranial arteriovenous malformations: Endovascular strategies and methods. In Cerebrovascular Disease (Batjer, HH, Caplan, LR, Friberg, L et al., eds), Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven, 1996, pp 707725.
186.Luessenhop, AJ, Spence, WT. Artificial embolization of cerebral arteries. Report of use in a case of arteriovenous malformation. JAMA 1960;172:11531155.
187.Gruentzig, A. Transluminal dilatation of coronary artery stenosis. Lancet 1978;1:263.
188.Gruentzig, AR, Senning, A, Siegenthaler, WE. Nonoperative dilatation of coronary artery stenosis: percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty N Engl J Med 1979;301:6168.
189.Meyers, PM, Schumacher, HC, Higashida, RT, Leary, MC, Caplan, LR. Use of stents to treat extracranial cerebrovascular disease. Annu Rev Med 2006;57:437454.
190.Kerber, CW, Cromwell, LD, Loehden, OL. Catheter dilatation of proximal carotid stenosis during distal bifurcation endarterectomy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1980;1:348349.
191.Bockenheimer, SA, Mathias, K. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in arteriosclerotic internal carotid artery stenosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1983;4:791792.
192.Theron, J, Raymond, J, Casasco, A, Courtheoux, F. Percutaneous angioplasty of atherosclerotic and postsurgical stenosis of carotid arteries. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1987;8:495500.
193.Kachel, R. Results of balloon angioplasty in the carotid arteries. J Endovasc Surg 1996;3:2230.
194.Meyers, PM, Schumacher, C, Tanji, K, Higashida, RT, Caplan, LR. Use of stents to treat intracranial cerebrovascular disease. Ann Rev Med 2007;58:107122.
195.Caplan, LR, Manning, W (eds). Brain Embolism. New York, NY: Informa Healthcare, 2006.
196.Caplan, LR, Hollander, J. The Effective Clinical Neurologist (3rd ed). Shelton, CT: People’s Medical Publishing House, 2011.
197.Hutton, C, Caplan, LR. Striking Back At Stroke: A Doctor–Patient Journal. Washington, DC: Dana Press, 2003.
198.Caplan, LR. Stroke. St. Paul, MN: AAN Press, 2005.
199.Caplan, LR. Navigating the Complexities of Stroke. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2013.